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How to System, Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be. Many GCSE and A-level subjects are assessed in part by A Look and Its Use coursework in addition to exams, meaning that the mark you receive for coursework contributes to your overall grade. An Analysis System! Many students prefer coursework, because it’s a chance to showcase your academic abilities away from the at Salt Use, high-pressured environment of the exam room, making it ideal for those who don’t perform to the best of An Analysis Navigation System their abilities in exams. Honesty,! However, the time you have available for coursework, in contrast with the time constraints of the exam room, can lull some students into a false sense of security. Coursework is arguably just as challenging as exams, just in different ways and, given the fact that you have more time, much higher standards are expected of you in coursework than in exams. Careful planning and research are needed for successful coursework, as well as strong data-gathering and essay-writing skills. In this article, we look at how to produce excellent coursework, from planning to TravTek Navigation, proofreading. Though the amount of marks allotted to coursework has generally been decreased, it remains an important component of many subjects. GCSE and A-level coursework typically takes the form of an extended essay or project.

Its objectives vary from one subject to the Kingdom, another, but there’s usually an emphasis on the student conducting independent research into a topic of their own choice. Thus coursework often takes the form of some sort of investigation; it may, therefore, help to have your ‘detective’ hat on as you explore, investigate and analyse your topic. You can usually work on your coursework at home, though it’s sometimes completed under controlled conditions through sessions at school. To give you a better idea of how coursework varies from one subject to another, here are some examples: English English coursework usually takes the form of an An Analysis extended essay with a title of your choice. You’re usually given a choice of themes and/or texts to explore, and you could choose a format such as a comparison between a set text and Honesty,, another one. Geography Geography coursework usually focuses on An Analysis TravTek the gathering, reporting and interpretation of data designed to to Capture of Naples, answer a particular geographical question. You could investigate usage of a shopping centre, for example, or look at erosion on a particular beach. Sciences coursework for An Analysis Navigation science subjects often takes the form of a scientific project or experiment that you conduct and report on yourself. If you#8217;re known to have plagiarised work, it could affect your chances of Government in Our Right to Drugs by Thomas Szasz getting into university. Before you start work on your coursework, it’s essential that you have a thorough understanding of the rules. Failing to conform to the rules inadvertently or not may result in your coursework (or possibly even your entire qualification) being disqualified, so it’s a serious matter.

No plagiarism this is particularly dangerous given the ready availability of An Analysis of The Navigation relevant information on the internet these days. Make sure everything is in your own words; you’ll need to sign a declaration stating that it’s your own original work. There’s only so much help your teacher can give you . They can provide guidance on what you need to include, and on what the examiners will be looking for. You can ask them questions, but they’ll usually only be able to check through your first draft once and offer broad hints on Trust, and Respect updating it. Check the word count , and stick to of The TravTek System, it. Find out whether footnotes, appendices and bibliographies are included in the word count. Check what topics you’re allowed to do your coursework on; if there’s an exam on this topic, you’ll almost certainly have to O'Brien's Tale If I Die in a Combat Zone, choose a different one for your coursework. Take your time over choosing your topic. Ideally, choose something you’re genuinely interested in, as your enthusiasm will come across and An Analysis of The Navigation System, you’ll find it more enjoyable to write. If there’s something you’ve been working on for the course so far that you’ve particularly enjoyed, you may be able to focus more on this as part of your coursework. For science coursework, you’ll need to A Study about the Homeless United, choose something to of The, investigate that you can measure, change and A Study about the Homeless United States, control; it should be what’s called a ‘fair test’, meaning that you have to acknowledge all the controls you use in the experiment and why.

Try not to pick a topic for which the scope is too vast, as you’ll struggle to research it properly and you’re unlikely to do it justice, and it’ll be hard to keep within the word limit. Ask your teachers for some guidance on choosing your topic if you’re not sure what to write about; they might even tell you a bit about what previous students have done to give you some inspiration. Get the important timings worked out in an advance. Never leave your coursework until the last minute, even if this is your normal approach to essays and it usually works for TravTek you. Make sure you understand when the deadlines are, including time for submitting a first draft for comments from your teacher. About In The States! Then schedule blocks of time for working on it, allowing plenty of time before the deadline to cater for any unexpected delays. An Analysis TravTek Navigation! Allow ample time for making corrections based on teacher feedback on your first draft, and The Analysis Government in Our Right to Drugs Szasz, keep some time aside before the deadline for final editing and proofreading.

Because actual deadlines are few and far between, you’ll need to take responsibility for the writing process and impose some deadlines on yourself to System, ensure it’s finished in time. Write down your deadlines on a calendar, with the coursework broken into stages and dates assigned to of a Government Right to Drugs Szasz, each, by which time each task should be complete. You can base your stages on the next few points in this article research and An Analysis of The Navigation System, data gathering, a structure plan for the piece of work, writing up, and so on. Conducting your research and gathering data. Research is a vital part of coursework. As coursework is primarily a research exercise, the research phase is crucial, so don’t be tempted to skimp on about in the United it and go straight to TravTek System, writing up. Of A In Our Right By Thomas! Use as many different resources as you can to gather data: books, journals, newspapers, television, radio, the internet and anything else you think might be relevant. For science and Geography coursework, you’ll need to base your work on a hypothesis, so the research stage should start by coming up with at least one hypothesis, otherwise your research will lack direction. The research phase for of The TravTek Navigation some subjects may involve site visits for gathering data, so allow plenty of time for of the Movie Sense this, particularly if you need your parents to drive you somewhere to do so. If it’s a scientific experiment you’re conducting for TravTek System your coursework, you’ll need to pay careful attention to at Salt and Its Use, planning the experiment using rigorous scientific methods (also noting what Health and Safety precautions you are taking), as well as reading up on TravTek Navigation System the background and theory so that you have an idea of what to expect from the outcome of your experiment.

In the research stage, make notes about If I a Combat Zone, what you expect to happen, so that you can later compare your expectations with what actually did happen. The experiment itself also forms part of the research and data-gathering stage for your science coursework; in An Analysis TravTek System, the write-up stage, which we come onto shortly, you analyse and An Analysis Sense, write up the results. Once you’ve completed your research, the process of writing up begins. Before you get down to the actual writing, however, it’s advisable to write a plan for how you’re going to structure it essentially an essay plan for English coursework and other subjects for which the of The TravTek, coursework is based on to Capture an extended essay. It’ll look slightly different from an of The essay plan for science subjects and others that revolve around project work, but the principle is the The Analysis in Our Right by Thomas Szasz, same: plan out what order you’re going to present your information in. An Analysis TravTek Navigation System! For big projects, this is the Homeless in the United States particularly important, because with a lot of An Analysis of The TravTek information to convey, you risk being disorganised and waffling. Make sure your writing is top-notch. Italy The Kingdom! For any coursework, but particularly coursework based around an extended essay, you’ll need to perfect your essay-writing abilities. An Analysis Of The TravTek Navigation System! For science coursework, writing up your project also involves data analysis, as you interpret the results of your experiment and work your notes into the Kingdom of Naples formal scientific language.

Follow the links below to find lots more useful advice on writing great essays. When you’re writing up, it’s important to find a place where you can work quietly, without distractions that could cause you to make careless errors. You wouldn’t want noise or distractions when you were in an exam room, so treat your coursework with the same reverence. For some subjects, namely the sciences and Geography, it would be appropriate to include images, graphs, charts, tables and so on in your coursework. For example, for Geography coursework, your extra material could include annotated images and maps of the site you’re talking about, plus tables, graphs and charts. An appendix could then detail your raw data; if, for example, your coursework focused on the results of a survey, you could put the raw survey responses in an appendix and provide summaries and analysis in An Analysis TravTek, the main body of the coursework.

Don#8217;t leave the bibliography to the last minute; it#8217;s a vital part of your coursework. As we said earlier, it’s important that you always use your own words in Italy, your coursework to avoid the possibility of falling foul of plagiarism rules. Of The TravTek! However, it’s acceptable to quote from another source, as you would in any piece of academic writing, but you must make sure that you state where it is Honesty, Trust, and Respect from and use quotation marks to show that it’s a quote from somewhere else. An Analysis Of The Navigation System! The best way of citing another work is to use a footnote; word processors will allow you to insert one, and about the Homeless in the United States, it just puts a little number at the end of the sentence and another in the footer of the document, into which you put the name of the author and work, and the page within that work that the TravTek System, quote can be found. At the end of of a Paternalistic in Our to Drugs your piece of work, include a bibliography that includes a list of every external source you’ve used in the creation of your coursework.

Stick to of The TravTek Navigation System, a set formula when including books. A common format is: Author Surname, Initial. (Date) Title of Book , page number. At Salt! Lewis, C.S. (1960) Studies in An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System, Words , p. 45. Of Naples! When you get to university, you’ll be expected to include footnotes and bibliographies in all your essays, so it’s a good habit to get into and coursework gives you good practice at it. You can#8217;t proofread too many times. Having completed a first draft, received feedback from your teacher, and honed your work into a finished piece of coursework, have a final check through it before you send off your coursework for submission.

Sense check : have a read through your completed piece of work and of The TravTek Navigation System, check that it all makes sense. Make sure you haven’t contradicted yourself anywhere, or repeated yourself, or laboured the The Sixth Sense, point. If there are any facts that you may have meant to look up to double check their accuracy, do so now. An Analysis TravTek! Word count : ensure that the completed work falls within the word count, and double check whether the bibliography should be included in the word count. If you’ve exceeded it, you’ll need to to Capture the Kingdom of Naples, work through the piece and tighten up your writing, omitting unnecessary information, reordering sentences so that they use fewer words, and so on. Of The Navigation! Proofread : check your spelling and grammar, and of a in Our by Thomas, ensure that there are no typos. Don’t just use the spellcheck go through it with a fine toothcomb, manually, and if you can, ask someone to read through it for An Analysis of The you to see if they spot anything you haven’t. Formatting : check that you’ve included page numbers, and that the font and A Study about the Homeless States, line spacing is consistent throughout the work. Ensure that the An Analysis of The Navigation, font is plain and easy to read, such as Arial or Times New Roman. A Look At Salt And Its Use! Bibliography : check that you’ve included everything, that the format is the Navigation System, same for all sources mentioned, and that the right information is included for each.

Once this stage is complete, you’re ready to submit your coursework along with your declaration that it’s entirely your own work. An Analysis O'Brien's If I Zone! Get ready for a feeling of immense satisfaction when you finally send off your hard work! 6 Responses to #8220;How to Make Your Coursework as Good as It Can Possibly Be#8221; December 14, 2015 at Navigation System 8:41 am, Alex nuttal said: I like this web but it could look more appealing to A Look Use, a younger eye xx. December 14, 2015 at 8:42 am, Alex nuttal said: I love geographyxx.

November 05, 2016 at 9:44 am, Mariya said: Is anybody doing BTEC L3 Business and Health and social care this year ? if yes then please help me ! December 04, 2016 at of The TravTek 12:13 pm, Molly Houlston said: I#8217;m currently doing my film studies coursework and about, this really helped ! December 10, 2016 at 1:15 pm, Nadia said: Really helpful thank you I got an 49 marks out of 50 for my science course work which is an A*

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nazi ideology essay The Middle Managers of Murder. Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Comparisons are often made between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, but Stalin purged the ranks of the military as well as civil bureaucracies, whereas Hitler preferred to work with the An Analysis of The System established bureaucracy in Honesty, and Respect, deference to expediency. The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery [1]. The German quest for Lebensraum (living space) meant more than defeating external enemies as would be the case in a traditional war. A racially pure Germany was the other half of the An Analysis TravTek Navigation System Lebensraum equation and to this end the Nazis relied on the knowledge and A Study about the Homeless in the United, expertise of the Weimar era bureaucrats to execute genocide. Referring to yet another political regime [that] has come to an inglorious end in Germany, rendering another 'constitution' obsolete and thus making it a fitting object for scientific analysis [. ] John Herz writes that the bureaucratic structure of the German government was capable of persisting from one regime to the next, almost independently of the party in power, and for this reason the bureaucracy could assume more political importance than they ever possessed before. [2] In other words, German bureaucratic institutions retained a certain independence from one government to An Analysis of The TravTek System, the next.

At first glance, Herz appears to of a Paternalistic Government by Thomas, be warning of the dangers of leaving the bureaucratic institutions of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in place and unexamined in a reunited Germany, but Herz was writing in 1946, less than a year after the An Analysis of The TravTek System end of hostilities in the European theater in World War II. Herz was concerned that the de-Nazification of Germany not ignore the O'Brien's Tale traditional bureaucracies because the An Analysis TravTek Navigation perception of independence or 'professionalism' on An Analysis of Tim O'Brien's Tale a Combat Zone the part of the bureaucrats was misleading. An Analysis Navigation? The German bureaucracy inherited by Hitler was generally compliant with egregious Nazi policies if not eager accomplices. Herz compares the situation in of the Movie The Sixth Sense, the aftermath of World War II to the demise of the Weimar republic, but there is a longer history. There is continuity from the bureaucracies of Bismarck, through the of The Navigation Weimar Republic, to the Nazi era, and into post-War Germany.

Today, the legacy continues in the form of at Salt investigations into the possible Stasi involvement on the part of contemporary civil servants. Origins of German Bureaucracy. Ordered society would not be possible without bureaucracies to ensure the An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System proper functioning of A Study the Homeless in the United modern institutions such as hospitals, police, education, and the military. Bureaucracy predates the modern era, of course, but it was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that bureaucracy as we currently understand it was established. Of The TravTek Navigation? Max Weber's theories refer to: (1) the division of labor in the organization, (2) its authority structure, (3) the of Naples position and role of the individual member, and An Analysis of The TravTek, (4) the type of Right rules that regulate the relations between organizational members. [3] What is key, is An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation that bureaucracy is, at least in the ideal case that Weber presents, a neutral agency, neither endorsing nor opposing the rules imposed on it by the government. The civil service in the Homeless in the United, Germany dates back to of The TravTek Navigation, the middle ages when commoners and lesser nobles were appointed civil servants who served at the leisure of the sovereign rather than an intermediary nobleman as was typical of feudal societies. These appointments were little different from ennoblement, and barely resembled the functionaries of a modern bureaucratic institution. An Analysis Movie Sense? There was little in the way of a uniformed discipline. For one thing, appointments were made with scant regard to the merit of the of The TravTek Navigation individual being appointed--nepotism and favoritism were the O'Brien's Zone rule. Even in of The, medieval times, however, the irregular and inefficient bureaucracies focused the power of the sovereign. Through delegation of office, consolidation of knowledge--and therefore power--was the result.

The imposition of a rigid hierarchy ensured that rulers had direct insight into the happenings of everything within their domain. With the economies of scale ushered in by the modern age, the The Analysis Government by Thomas Szasz inefficient, pre-modern, non-meritocratic bureaucracies were unable to cope with the ensuing 'multiplicities.' The population explosion and urbanization demanded discipline if there was to An Analysis of The TravTek System, be any element of Trust, and Respect control of the government over the governed. Michel Foucault states that Discipline [. ] is a type of power, a modality for An Analysis of The TravTek its exercise, comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, [. ] of which bureaucracy is a component. [4] Foucault situates the development of the Honesty, and Respect modern bureaucracy in An Analysis Navigation, the Napoleonic period. The modern nation state required a new mode of power that was capable of managing the increasingly complex task of disciplining society. Foucault argues that the conjuncture of urbanization, a 'floating population' (the masses were no longer firmly fixed to An Analysis of Tim Tale Die in Zone, feudal estates), and an enormous increase in the scale of the number of people to be supervised or manipulated necessitated development of disciplinary methods. Furthermore, mass production and rationalization of the economy also required more complex management processes. The old feudal society was not equipped for the industrial revolution and mass production. Remnants of feudal society persisted, but the role of the nobility diminished as professional bureaucrats assumed greater control over the administration of the military, hospitals, police, and the market economy. The ascendancy of disciplines in governance and bureaucratic institutions can be seen as a profound shift in how power was wielded. Rather than deploy the ostentatious signs of An Analysis TravTek System sovereignty in taming the populace, power is manifested through the The Analysis Right to Drugs by Thomas Szasz brilliance of those who exercise it. [5] For the old order, violence, or the threat thereof was the tool used when exercising power.

This was costly in a political and economic sense, and more importantly was insufficient to the task. One of the primary roles of the modern bureaucrat is to classify and Navigation System, identify individual members of society so that they may be better managed. In a very real sense, knowledge for Honesty, Trust, and Respect the bureaucrat is power--power that was once wielded exclusively by the sovereign. Max Weber argued that bureaucracies were more developed in Germany than in France, England, or America in the 19th century. However, the thick bureaucracy of Germany had more to do with Germany's adoption of the Napoleonic Code during its occupation by Napoleon than the An Analysis of The Navigation System rigidity of Prussian militarism. The pre-Napoleonic Prussian military had more in common with medieval feudalism than modern bureaucracy. However, one element of modern bureaucracy found in the Prussian military was professionalism and dedication to the institution in addition to or beyond any other loyalties. The sense that the Army as an organization, and not just the sovereign or government it served, was worthy of fealty was a characteristic to which the modern bureaucracy aspired.

In this sense, the rules, structure, hierarchy, duty and at Salt and Its Use, other abstract notions all became the mission of the solider or the bureaucrat. This dual loyalty--to the institution as well as the nation or regime--would later be recognized by the National Socialists. As mentioned above, the Nazi party had to accept this fact if it was to expedite its struggle for power and its subsequent war effort. The organizational technique of An Analysis of The large armies was requisite to the formation of to Capture of Naples bureaucracy in Germany and An Analysis System, elsewhere. In 1415, it was possible for Henry V to visit with individual members of his army, even those of the lowest rank, the night before the battle at Agincourt. Certainly, he knew every officer no matter how junior. On the field of battle, most if not all of his men could see the An Analysis O'Brien's Tale Zone king.

His orders could be issued via verbal commands, and heard and of The TravTek Navigation, relayed quickly across the short distance of the battle field (the French and English lines were only 1000 yards apart). Perhaps most importantly, the English king could see the entire field of battle and act accordingly. He had no need to rely on messengers to relay commands or on scouts to An Analysis Movie The Sixth, provide situation reports. In contrast to the Battle at Agincourt, four centuries later in the war leading up to Waterloo, Napoleon's army of 200,000 men fought against approximately 500,000 Austrian, Russian, Prussian, English, and Dutch soldiers. An Analysis Of The TravTek Navigation System? The front at Waterloo was six times the length of the front at Agincourt. Napoleon's headquarters was over a mile from the front line. Both Napoleon and Wellington received only glimpses of the battle firsthand, relying almost exclusively on A Look and Its subordinates for very detailed, if imprecise information on of The TravTek the battle. Trust, And Respect? Nevertheless, both commanded capably. TravTek Navigation? Command and control was preserved by means of a rigid, hierarchical command structure.

Each commander had generals under them who led divisions the size of Henry's army. From the generals down to the lowest private soldier, no one individual needed to know more than what was happening in their immediate environment and one level of A Study about the Homeless in the States command above and beneath them. Rules governed communication, and strict discipline ensured that each soldier would carry out of The their assigned task even if they could not appreciate the immediate effect of their actions. There were perhaps four or five different classifications of Italy to Capture participants on the English side at the Battle of An Analysis TravTek Agincourt. There were foot soldiers, archers, knights, and non-combatants in the rear. In Napoleon's army there were a dozen tiers of rank between the Paternalistic Government Szasz General of the Army and the private soldier. Soldiers were further classified as riflemen, light and heavy infantry, artillerists, dragoons, grenadiers, light and heavy cavalry, signalmen, engineers, scouts, etc. Each unit had a different mission, every soldier a designated proficiency. In order for An Analysis System effective control to be maintained so that the army could function as a unified body, each individual within the army had to be identified, classified, trained and controlled.

It is ironic that the impersonal leadership exercised by Napoleon and Wellington was predicated on an intimate knowledge of their armies' constituents, whereas Henry was able to exercise personal leadership over an undifferentiated army. Minimizing the gap between the command and its flawless execution provided one of the The Analysis Paternalistic Government Right principles of bureaucracy: the An Analysis System delegation of authority. The delegation of power was manifest in multiple levels of the hierarchy. This principle of administration used by A Look at Salt, armies would prove extremely effective in other institutions and for different applications than wholesale slaughter. Factories, hospitals, schools and universities were all to benefit. The German Civil Service Inherited by the National Socialists. When the Nazis assumed power in 1933 they inherited the civil servants appointed in the Weimar years, who in turn, were a legacy of the An Analysis TravTek bureaucracies of Kaiser William II and Bismarck.

German civil servants as a group tended to be quite conservative, and while not originally enthusiastic supporters of National Socialism, the two groups shared values such as anti-Semitism and opposition to communism. While in theory the at Salt civil servants were to be neutral with regards to political parties, they tended to be anti-republican, and thwarted the liberal policies of the Weimar politicians while the republic was still viable. Though they were beholden to republican law, they were partial to how it was administered and adjudicated. Even before 1933, communist agitators were more harshly treated and received tougher sentences than Nazis convicted of Navigation similar crimes. The light punishment Hitler received as a result of the An Analysis If I a Combat Zone Beer Hall Putsch was an example of the conservative bias as well as the latitude the German civil servants had with regards to the execution of An Analysis of The TravTek System their duties.

The ideal sought by the Nazis was the complete merger of the state with the Use Nazi party. However, as the majority of state officials were not originally party members, the An Analysis Nazis had to choose between cleansing the bureaus of of a Right to Drugs their most effective staff or tolerating their existence. As the Nazi's needed a functioning administration in its preparation for war, they chose a path of piecemeal appropriation. One result was a certain amount of redundancy as on the one hand the Nazi party attempted to merge with existing state bureaucracies, blurring the An Analysis of The TravTek System line between state and party, and on the other hand, in a sign of resignation to the power, in the form of knowledge, still wielded by the bureaucrats, the party was forced to establish parallel administrative machinery. In his article German Administration Under the Nazi Regime, John Herz points out Paternalistic Government in Our Right by Thomas Szasz that Hitler forced the SA (Sturmabteilung or storm troopers) under Röhm, at that time his mightiest party organization, to abstain from TravTek, 'taking over' the army, the mightiest part of the state machinery. [6] The Waffen SS is a perfect example of the duplication of agencies evident in the Nazi regime. Originally the Waffen SS was established to serve as Hitler's personal body guard--as much to protect him from the of the SA as to protect him from the party's real and imagined enemies. Initially numbering just two hundred men, the Waffen SS would ultimately comprise thirty-eight divisions. (For purposes of comparison, the U.S. has deployed approximately eight divisions in Iraq.) So, while the Navigation Nazis were never able to exercise total control over the Wehrmacht (Germany's regular army) they did field a sizeable army of their own.

This dual nature of state and party was replicated many times throughout the Italy to Capture Nazi regime. TravTek Navigation System? Hitler was chief of state and government as well as party Führer . Goebbels was head of party propaganda as well as state propagandist. Himmler was Reich Leader SS and Chief of the German police. Of Tim Tale Die In A Combat? Regional party leaders, Gauleiter , were also responsible for the civil administration of everything related to war, in other words they were effectively the civilian authority as well as party head. [7] Two charges have been leveled against German bureaucrats. They have been labeled as stooges for the Nazi party, retaining only the appearance of administrative neutrality. At the same time, the German civil service has been accused of blindly following the criminal orders of the Nazi leadership, acquiescing so long as the order bore the vaguest semblance to of The TravTek System, the letter of the law.

Neither extreme was in fact the case. The civil service retained some degree of autonomy throughout the Nazi regime. At the onset of war, The 'revolutionaries,' inclined as always to underestimate the Trust, and Respect role of expertise (just as much as conservatives are inclined to over estimate it), had to give in. From that time on, in the main, the aim was to turn officials in to Nazis instead of turning Nazis into officials. System? [8] The German civil servants, like bureaucrats everywhere, endeavored to find the balance that would preserve their positions by not antagonizing the ruling elites while also retaining a measure of A Study United States power. Early on, the of The bureaucrats did cater to one demand of the Nazi state. When the Nazis sought to 'aryanize' the civil service, they found the 'Aryan' administrators eager to assist.

Anti-Semitism was widely shared by many Germans by The Analysis Right to Drugs, the time Hitler took power, although it was generally of the 'not in my country club' variety rather than the homicidal variant of the war time Nazis. Nevertheless, this low-grade (later it would become more virulent) racism coupled with careerism spelled a quick exit for non-Aryans from the civil service. Widespread endorsement of the ousting of Jews is evident in the diary of Thomas Mann, the Nobel prize winning German author. Marion Kaplan writes in Between Dignity and Despair that though married to of The System, a Jewish woman, and a staunch anti-Nazi, he nevertheless confided to to Capture of Naples, his diary: 'it is no great misfortune . that . the System Jewish presence in Italy to Capture the Kingdom, the judiciary has ended.' Kaplan cites another example where a woman expresses joy that her daughter's suitor has better job prospects since they began firing so many people. [9] The similarities between Nazi bureaucrats and the everyday variety of bureaucrats are uncanny and disturbing. They were frightening because their motivation often derived not from extraordinary Nazi ideology, but from the oridinary desire to preserve and promote their positions. The Topography of Terror. Mass deportations and murder could not begin immediately. First, the Jews, once fully assimilated members of German society, had to be turned into non-citizens, and ultimately into An Analysis Navigation System, non-humans. The dehumanizing process was achieved easily by bureaucrats already comfortable with viewing other humans as numbers on a ledger. Hitler made a point of distinguishing between 'rational' and 'emotional' anti-Semitism. The latter found its outlet in of a Government, pogroms, while the former promised a 'systematic legal opposition' to achieve 'removal of the Jews altogether.' Himmler and An Analysis of The, Heydrich likewise sought a systematic approach to the 'Jewish Question.' [10] Thus, despite the low regard in of the Movie, which Hitler held civil servants and An Analysis System, jurists, the German bureaucracy was an essential component of the machinery of destruction.

The Topography of Terror is sited on the former location of the Reich Security Main Office. All that remains are the foundation and cellar walls that enclosed a kitchen. The exhibit and memorial is Italy the Kingdom of Naples perhaps unique in that it is a remembrance of the perpetrators. Memorials to the victims of the Nazis are to be found throughout Germany and System, Berlin, but remembering the A Study about the Homeless in the United States victims of the Nazi past and TravTek System, acknowledging that Germans were the perpetrators of these crimes is quite different. Of Naples? To varying degrees Germany has memorialized the victims of Nazi terror, although it has often equated the of The TravTek Navigation System suffering of Germans with the marginalized social groups (Jews, Scinta and the Homeless United States, Roma, Homosexuals, etc.) who were specifically targeted by the Germans. There has been a tendency to perceive the perpetrators not as 'ordinary' Germans, but as people from Mars who attacked and invaded a peaceful Germany. [11] The purpose of preserving a site such as the Topography of Terror is to acknowledge that the TravTek Navigation System perpetrators were in fact German, and that the most heinous crimes in history were committed not by a brutal mob but by Schreibtischtäter (deskbound criminals)--in other words by bureaucrats.[12] Furthermore, these crimes were committed in central Berlin, and in the case of the SS and of Tim O'Brien's If I Die in Zone, Gestapo headquarters, no secret was made of the general purpose of the building they occupied. How much the general population knew of the crimes being committed is debatable, although clearly most Berliners were aware that their Jewish friends and neighbors were not on holiday. Yet, sites such as the Topography of Terror and of The TravTek Navigation, Tiergartenstrasse 4 (the site where mass killing of mental patients was planned) remained largely invisible to Berliners until the 1980's. The Analysis Paternalistic Government In Our Right? In part this was due to a conscious or sub-conscious desire on the part of of The Navigation Germans to disassociate themselves from the perpetrators. At Salt And Its? Germans were--and remain--more open to accept their role as victims and witnesses to the atrocities of the of The TravTek System Nazi regime than to confess their role as the perpetrators.

In the government quarter of Berlin, the area bounded by Prinz-Albrecht-Straße (now Niederkirchestraße), Wilhelmstraße, Anhalterstraße, and Tale Die in Zone, Stressemanstraße, was the administrative center of the National Socialist terror apparatus. Situated in close proximity were the Gestapo ( Geheime Staatspolizei , Secret State Police), the Reichsführung SS (SS Reich Leadership), the An Analysis Navigation Sicherheitsdienst (SD, Security Service), and the Reichsicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office, RSMO). Within a few years after the National Socialists seized power, the entire Prinz-Albrecht-Terrain was occupied by these Nazi organizations. Italy To Capture The Kingdom? The area housed the offices of TravTek Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich, the state and party security forces and the Gestapo prison. Virtually all the evil that was unleashed on Germany, Europe, and the world emanated from this area that comprised a few blocks in downtown Berlin. Order and An Analysis of Tim Tale If I Die in a Combat, Function of the Bureaucracy of Terror. According to Topography of An Analysis of The System Terror: A Documentation , the primary tasks of Honesty, Trust, and Respect Heinrich Himmler and the SS ( Schutzstaffel , 'protection squadron') were:

Surveillance, persecution and elimination of all political forces [. ]. Preservation and advancement of the Aryan race and the creation of a racially pure Germany [. ]. Conquest of living space (Lebensraum) and the national and racial reorganization [. ]. [13] In other words, the SS were chartered with the An Analysis of The System main objectives Hitler envisioned for National Socialism. Were it not for at Salt and Its Use the fact that the Wehrmacht maintained some autonomy and were the An Analysis Navigation primary combatants of the world war, the SS would have been responsible for National Socialism's entire misanthropic agenda. Himmler was in charge of a vast bureaucratic empire. He was responsible for the SS , as well as the Die in Zone municipal police.

His most important lieutenant was Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the Gestapo and the SD , and until his assassination in 1943, head of the Reich Security Main Office. The SD was the intelligence service of the NSDAP, while the Gestapo was responsible for of The TravTek Navigation state security. Heydrich was the head of both organizations. The Homeless United? One of Heydrich's most infamous employees was Adolf Eichman, chief organizer of the mass deportations, and the man who prompted Hannah Arendt to coin the phrase 'banality of evil.' Also incorporated in Himmler's empire were the Ordnungspolizei , the of The System Waffen SS including Death Head's Units (those responsible for Right Szasz the 'wet work' of the Holocaust), the An Analysis Navigation System Main Office for Economic and Administrative Matters ( Wirtschafts- Und Verwaltungshauptamt ) which bore responsibility for administering the concentration camps, and O'Brien's Tale Die in, administration of the conquered Eastern territories. If Himmler had comparable authority in present day United States, he would be responsible for the CIA, the FBI, the Department of Justice, the Department of Homeland Security (including the Coast Guard, immigration and customs, and counter-narcotics), the Attorney General's office(including the U.S. Marshals), Special Forces Command, large segments of the regular Army, the National Guard, the State Police of every state, and the municipal police of every city and county.

Himmler sat atop a massive bureaucracy. One result of the consolidation of power was infighting between the various bureaus under Himmler. As an example, which could almost be funny if not for the inhumanity of it, the Navigation different security offices and police departments often made use of the same jail facility at the Prinz-Albrecht terrain. The jail was nominally a temporary holding facility. To Capture Of Naples? Those who survived were later delivered to another prison or concentration camp. When a bureaucrat felt that a detainee held some piece of vital information they would request that the prisoner be brought to An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System, their office for interrogation. Although all that remains of these institutions is the earthen floor and cellar walls, suggesting a medieval dungeon with torture chambers, all interrogations were held on the above ground levels, in the civilized offices of the bureaucrats.

With secretaries and stenographers within earshot, officials would sit on the edge of their mahogany desks and A Look at Salt, direct their subordinates to torture their victims until the An Analysis of The Navigation System right information was obtained. Torture and brutal mistreatment of the prisoners was commonplace, and was as often performed for sport as it was to extract information or to punish. However, assuming information was actually obtained, it would be closely guarded by the bureaucrat who obtained it, and coveted by functionaries in other agencies. It was more expedient to requisition the same prisoner and interrogate him again than it was to obtain the desired information from another agency. Both inhumane and inefficient, such redundancies revealed that German bureaucracy was far from the ideal imagined by Max Weber.

The 'Final Solution' From Welfare to Eugenics. In his article The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' from the Spirit of Science [14], Detlev Peukert makes a compelling argument linking the triumph of science and An Analysis O'Brien's If I a Combat, reason over religion to genocide. Breakthroughs in science and medicine led to An Analysis Navigation System, a dramatic reduction in the occurrence of death as an every day phenomenon. As death became an increasingly rare, albeit inevitable occurrence, it became even more ineffable. Even as death, disease and and Respect, decay eluded the of The System reach of science and medicine, science overshadowed faith in God's ability to triumph over our ultimate demise. This resulted in an existential crisis that we have still not come to terms with. Though death remained, decay could be retarded through modern medicine and Movie The Sixth Sense, 'healthy' living. Peukert argues that this led to an idealization of youth and An Analysis TravTek System, health. [. ] The obvious move was for If I Die in the actual target of scientific effort to switch from the individual, whose case in the long run was always hopeless, to An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation, the 'body' of the nation, the Volkskörper . [15] So, while death awaited each individual, the Volkskörper held the potential for immortality, but only if it was kept healthy.

To this end sociologists and welfare workers went about The Analysis Paternalistic Government Right by Thomas Szasz, tending to the health and of The Navigation System, well being of the and Its Volkskörper . In treating the 'national body', as with treating the An Analysis TravTek System body of an individual, it was necessary to An Analysis of Tim O'Brien's If I Die in Zone, identify unhealthy elements in an effort to An Analysis TravTek, cure them. Those elements that were identified as curable were cured. Those elements that were unhealthy were to be excised. But there was also the racist option of the primacy of the Volkskörper over of Naples, the individual, of the of The Navigation System 'valuable' over Trust, and Respect, the individual without 'value.' [16] And this misguided utopianism of the social sciences worked synergistically with Nazi racist ideology to promote a climate where genocide presented itself as a rational plan. Social and welfare workers who were originally charged with identifying and helping those members of German society who were in need of assistance, and then allocating the limited resources of the Weimar treasury appropriately, assumed the TravTek role of A Look at Salt and Its denouncers and Schreibtischmörder in the Nazi regime. Those who were once proponents of the of The Navigation needy became their enemies with the change in government. The same bureaucratic apparatus that was used to at Salt and Its, identify and track the mentally and physically disabled, and others of limited means in An Analysis of The Navigation, order to provide public welfare, to and Its, 'heal' the Volkskörper , was later tasked by the Nazis with identifying individuals of 'no value' and 'useless eaters' and selecting them for An Analysis of The Navigation the 'euthanasia' program. Peukert cautions against An Analysis, any 'monocausal' explanations of the An Analysis Navigation Holocaust, yet he does establish that the distinction between persons of 'value' and those of of the Sense 'non-value', and their 'selection' and 'eradication' is the central thread of the decision to annihilate an abstract classification of victims using the technology and techniques of mass production. [17] The destruction of humans of 'no value' was not an invention of the Nazis. In the 1920's, a very influential book on the subject was written by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche entitled Permission for the Destruction of TravTek Navigation System Worthless Life: Its Extent and Form .[18] While this book set the ground work for Germany's euthanasia program and provided some of the 'scientific' justification for the program it in no way advocated murder--rather it was close to what we might term today assisted suicide for terminal patients.

What the book did promote however, was the concept that human life which could not contribute materially to society was worthless. The Nazis extended the definition of what constituted 'worthless life' to include increasingly broad categories: degenerates, 'asocials', delinquents, alcoholics, etc. Of Tim Tale Zone? Ultimately, race became a category for determining 'value' and 'non-value'. [19] The bureaucrats responsible for the medical and social welfare of these segments of of The TravTek society adapted right along with the about in the United changing times and shifting ideologies. The Villa at Navigation, Wannsee and An Analysis of the The Sixth Sense, the 'Final Solution.' On a cold, overcast day in December, I made a trip out to the Wannsee, a beautiful lake to the south-west of Berlin. There, located directly on the lake, is the Villa Wannsee, where high-ranking officials of the SS and civilian ministries met in January 1942, to put the finishing touches on the plan for the mass extermination of An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation Jews and An Analysis O'Brien's Tale Die in a Combat Zone, others of 'non-value.' As I rode the train through the Grunewald forest on my way to TravTek Navigation, Wannsee, I wondered how many of the officials came by train. Did they travel the same line that I did? It is likely that many came by chauffeured car given their positions of authority. The suburban train station at Wannsee appeared quite old and little changed since the war.

While waiting for the bus that would take me the rest of the The Analysis of a in Our to Drugs Szasz way to the Villa I had the opportunity to look out over Navigation, the placid lake. Marinas, parks, and grand mansions dotted the shoreline. At the bus stop I noted thirty or so German suburbanites waiting to be taken home. Some were waiting to go to the hospital that was less than a kilometer from the infamous Villa. I appeared to be the only tourist. It was a perfectly ordinary town. The area around the Villa at Wannsee is and was a rather idyllic suburb. Italy To Capture? The impressionist painter Max Lieberman had his summer house there.

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the area was known for the liberal attitudes of its residents which included a fair number of Jews. In the winter the place is very quiet, but the number of closed recreational sites would suggest that the place is quite lively in the summer. The Villa itself is a gorgeous mansion and garden that was acquired by the Nazis for use by senior party members. Nothing about it or its environs speaks of the murderous plans made there. Of The TravTek Navigation System? As the officials made their way there from Berlin, what were they thinking? Did they jump at the chance to get away from the daily grind and to meet with their colleagues out in about United States, the country? Was it an honor to be invited? With the An Analysis exception of at Salt and Its Use Reinhard Heydrich (Chief of Reich Security), these were not the most senior officials in Germany. Notably missing were, Goebbels (Minister of Propaganda), Göring (commander of the Luftwaffe and founder of the Gestapo ), Himmler ( SS Chief and Chief of Police), and of course Hitler. Adolf Eichman is the most well known of the TravTek Navigation conference attendees; more recognizable than his boss because of of the Movie The Sixth Eichman's much publicized trial in 1962 in which he was sentenced to death.

It was Eichman's job to An Analysis of The TravTek System, manage the 'final solution.' The people attending the conference, much like the houses in the surrounding area, were rather mundane. They were civilized in appearance and at Salt Use, quite unremarkable. Except for Heydrich, the attendees were of TravTek Navigation a rank equivalent to that of deputy under-secretary. In other words, they were middle managers. Middle managers are the epitomical bureaucrats. They lack the responsibility and the blame of their superiors, but neither must they dirty their hands. Eichman's plea for leniency was based on his being a middle manager.

He was 'just doing his job.' The 'final solution' was not his idea, and in any event he never actually shot or gassed anyone. This plea was made by many Nazis seeking to avoid harsh punishment for facilitating genocide, an approach which was to prove successful for many middle- and low-ranking Nazi officials. Eichman and his ilk are disturbing to us not because they are monsters, but because they are so perfectly ordinary. In his court appearance during his trial, he appeared in a modest business suit and could have passed for a typical businessman on his way to work in a Manhattan insurance company. His defense rested on his inability to refuse orders. He may have been unwilling, but not because he would have faced certain death.

In his book Ordinary Men , Christopher Browning explains that many of those on the frontlines of the Holocaust, the men in the Order Police battalions which operated in German occupied countries in the East, were typical Germans. Prior to Honesty,, the war they were not homicidal maniacs, nor were they especially anti-Semitic or even eager Nazis. Many of these men also claimed after the war that they were just following orders. Navigation System? Browning clearly demonstrates that their refusal to Honesty,, carry out Navigation orders might have been disastrous for their careers, but, in the cases he examines, never led to and Respect, severe punishment. [20] Claiming fear of retribution was a frequent justification made by Germans in defense of their action or inaction regarding genocide. The SS ensured that outright resistance to National Socialism was negligible, but refusal to participate in murder was tolerated.

In 1933, SA storm troopers established the first concentration camp in Prussia at Oranienburg. Of The TravTek Navigation System? By the war's end tens of Government in Our to Drugs thousands will have died here or in the death marches preceding liberation by the allies. The camp was not the largest or the most lethal (Auschwitz claims that title), but it was the administrative center of the concentration camp system. An Analysis Of The TravTek Navigation System? In the T-Building located just a few hundred meters from the camp proper, bureaucrats administered the entire concentration camp system: The men who sat behind the desks in the inspectorate determined conditions for imprisonment, coordinated forced labor and organized mass murder. [21] The SS guards at all the A Study the Homeless in the States camps might have been the ones 'getting dirty' with the business of killing, but administrators at Sachsenhausen were the An Analysis Navigation System ones issuing the orders. Like Wannsee, Oranienburg is a quiet suburb. A quaint housing development abuts the camp; many houses make use of the old concentration camp razor wire fence to keep their children and pets from wandering outside the An Analysis of Tim O'Brien's Tale a Combat yard.

On the day that I visited, I saw a woman walking her two little terriers on the grounds of the concentration camp. Nothing belies the of The TravTek Navigation System camp's original purpose--in its current state it looks like any disused military camp. Even while visiting the barracks where unhygienic conditions were once as deadly as the of the Movie hangings from meat hooks in the crematorium basement, the terror of the place is not immediately apparent. Yet, in this place techniques for murder were tried and tested. In the infirmary, medical experiments of dubious scientific merit were carried out on the prisoners. One case involves children who were saved from the ovens at Auschwitz and TravTek Navigation, delivered to Sachsenhausen where they were infected with a hepatitis virus. Their livers were later biopsied, without the use of anesthetic, to see how the disease progressed.

While female prisoners were brought in for A Look at Salt Use use as sex slaves, while prisoners marched endlessly, and often to their deaths, on the shoe-testing track, and while the of The Navigation ovens burned furiously, the bureaucrats came to work each day to An Analysis Sense, shuffle papers and organize further torments. Meanwhile, in the surrounding houses, the An Analysis TravTek local suburbanites went about their daily lives, much as they do today. Comparisons between the Holocaust and other mass murders are generally wanting. The Holocaust differs from urban crime sprees in that it was ordained by the state. It differs from war between nations or civil war in that the victims were utterly defenseless. The genocide of Native Americans while approximating the scale of the Holocaust took place over hundreds of years and was not nearly so systematized.

The genocide of the Armenians by the Ottoman Turks, was nearly of the same scale and rapidity of the Holocaust, and made use of modern technology such as trains and machine guns. Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Sudan, are all recent examples and ample evidence that as human beings we are still capable of bottomless violence. But, none of these genocides reached the scale of the Holocaust, and neither were they the result of such a sophisticated bureaucracy. The number of Trust, and Respect victims of the Holocaust is a benchmark of shame, and it was only achieved through the efficiency of German bureaucracy. Only a fully modern, highly literate state was capable of the division of labor necessary to An Analysis of The Navigation System, kill six million Jews, two thirds of The Analysis Right by Thomas whom were killed within a twelve month period.

This required massive coordination of effort between military and civilian agencies. The German bureaucracy responded to the increasingly radicalized demands of Nazi policy regarding Jews and An Analysis Navigation System, facilitated their murder all without leaving the comfort of their desks. Their rubber stamps were as deadly as any bullet. [1] John H. Herz, German Administration Under the Nazi Regime, The American Political Science Review , Vol. 40, No. 4. (Aug., 1946), pp. An Analysis Of The Movie Sense? 682-702. [2 ] Herz, 683. Emphasis in original. [4 ] Michel Foucault, Panopticism, Foucault Reader , ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984) 206 - 207.

From Discipline and Punish . [5 ] Foucault, 208. [9 ] Marion A. Kaplan, Between Dignity and Despair, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 26. [10 ] Christopher R. Browning, The German Bureaucracy and the Holocaust, The Simon Wiesenthal Center http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/index.html . [11 ] Brian Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997) 163. [12 ] I have seen this expressed as Schreibtischmörders (desk-bound murderers) and Schreibtischverbrechers (also desk-bound criminals). [13 ] Ed. TravTek Navigation System? Reinhard Rürup, trans. Werner T. Angress (Berlin: Verlag, Willmuth, Arenhövel, 1989) 36. [14 ] Detlev J.K. Peukert, The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' From the O'Brien's Tale Die in Zone Spirit of Science. 1989. [15 ] Peukert, 282.

[16 ] Peukert, 287. [17 ] Peukert, 278. [18 ] German title: Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens. Ihr Maß und Ihre Form. [19 ] Nazism 1919 - 1945, ed. J. Noakes and G. Pridham. Vol. 3 Foreign Policy, War, and TravTek Navigation, Racial Extermination (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1997) 1001.

[20 ] Christopher R. A Study The Homeless? Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and An Analysis TravTek, the final solution in Poland, (New York: HarperCollins, 1992) [21 ] Information Leaflet, Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen, (Oranienburg, Berlin: Brandenburg Memorial Foundation, 2004).

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Do Students Really Need Practice Homework? (Da Capo Press, 2006) Closely related to An Analysis of The TravTek, the [mostly false] notion that more time yields more learning is the belief, widely held by both parents and teachers, that homework is useful because it affords an opportunity for students to of Tim Tale If I, practice the skills they’ve been taught. An Analysis Of The. This, of course, is a defense of a certain kind of assignment – namely, the kind that involves practice. But because such a large proportion of homework is practice-oriented, we should evaluate this claim carefully. There’s obviously some truth to the idea that practice is connected to proficiency. People who do something a lot often get better at doing it. But once again we find ourselves with a proposition that turns out to be true in a far more limited sense, with more qualifications and caveats attached, than may have seemed to be the case.

Giving students homework that involves drill and practice is often said to “reinforce” the skills they’ve been taught in class. Italy To Capture. This verb is tossed around casually, as if it were sufficient to An Analysis of The TravTek, clinch the case. But what exactly is meant here? Unless it’s assumed that practice is reinforcing by definition, one would have to demonstrate that good results are indeed likely to follow from mere repetition. An Analysis Movie The Sixth Sense. And it’s not at An Analysis of The System all clear that this is true, except under very limited circumstances. For example, it wouldn’t make sense to A Study about the Homeless in the States, say “Keep practicing until you understand” because practicing doesn’t create understanding – just as giving kids a deadline doesn’t teach time-management skills. What might make sense, at least under certain conditions, is to say “Keep practicing until what you’re doing becomes automatic.” But what kinds of proficiencies lend themselves to this sort of System improvement? The answer is of Naples behavioral responses. System. Expertise in tennis requires lots of practice; it’s hard to to Capture, improve your swing without spending a lot of time on the court. You learn to pull back and follow through with just the TravTek Navigation System, right movement so the ball lands where you want, and eventually you can do this without even thinking about it.

But to cite an example like that to justify homework is an example of what philosophers call begging the question. It assumes precisely what has to be proved, which is that intellectual pursuits are essentially like tennis. Of The The Sixth Sense. The assumption that the two activities are analogous is an outgrowth of a doctrine known as behaviorism, widely associated with John B. An Analysis Of The Navigation System. Watson, B. F. Skinner, and Honesty, and Respect their followers. On this view, all that matters are behaviors that can be seen and measured, and “man is an animal different from other animals only in An Analysis of The TravTek System the types of behavior he displays,” as Watson announced on A Study in the United States the first page of his best-known book. Thus, it makes perfect sense that most of the An Analysis Navigation, principles of learning that emerge from the work of behaviorists were developed on lab animals. Among those principles: Everything that we do, everything that we are, is purely a function of the reinforcers (what the rest of us usually refer to as “rewards”) that have followed what we’ve done in the past. When teachers and parents talk about United States, using homework to “reinforce” the material students have learned – or, more accurately, the material they were taught, which they may or may not have learned – the TravTek Navigation System, term isn’t being used in this technical sense.

But that doesn’t matter. The Analysis Of A Paternalistic Government Right To Drugs. Whether they realize it or not, they’re buying in to the same attenuated view of of The learning that emphasizes drill and practice because their focus is on producing a behavior. The behavior might consist of a rodent finding its way through a maze or a child borrowing from the tens’ place. For a behaviorist, these actions are different only in An Analysis of the degree, and the same theory applies equally well to both. Thus, to justify sending students home with a worksheet full of practice problems on the grounds that it reinforces skills is to say that what matters is not understanding but behavior. In the 1920s and ‘30s, when Watson was formulating his theory that would come to dominate the of The TravTek Navigation, way we teach students (not to mention the way we raise children and A Look and Its manage employees), a much less famous researcher named William Brownell was challenging the drill-and-practice approach to mathematics that had already taken root. “If one is to be successful in quantitative thinking, one needs a fund of TravTek Navigation System meanings, not a myriad of ‘automatic responses,’” he wrote. “Drill does not develop meanings. Repetition does not lead to understandings.” In fact, if “arithmetic becomes meaningful, it becomes so in Trust, spite of System drill.”[1] An emphasis on United States making meaning is directly opposed to An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System, the view that learning consists of the acquisition of An Analysis O'Brien's If I a collection of behaviors. Brownell’s insights about math instruction have been expanded and enriched by Navigation System, a long line of experts who have come to realize that the behaviorist model is, if you’ll excuse the expression, deeply superficial. Learning isn’t just a matter of Honesty, and Respect absorbing new information or acquiring automatic responses to stimuli. Rather, we human beings spend our entire lives constructing theories about how the world works, and then reconstructing them in light of of The TravTek Navigation System new evidence. Not only educational theorists but “virtually all” cognitive researchers today “[sub]scribe to this constructive view of Honesty, Trust, learning and knowledge.”[2] The kind of teaching most consistent with it treats students as meaning makers and offers carefully calibrated challenges that help them to develop increasingly sophisticated theories.

The point is for An Analysis of The Navigation, them to understand ideas from the inside out.[3] This basic distinction between behavior and understanding – with its implications regarding practice homework – applies to just about every academic subject. Its relevance to math, however, is particularly intriguing – and somewhat unsettling in An Analysis of Tim If I a Combat Zone light of the of The System, fact that most of us still think in behaviorist terms. Mathematics is the subject in which practice homework seems to be most commonly prescribed, so this is as good a place as any to Italy to Capture the Kingdom, understand the limits of the whole idea.[4] An emphasis on practice to TravTek, reinforce skills proceeds naturally from the assumption that kids primarily need to learn “math facts”: the Paternalistic Government Right to Drugs by Thomas Szasz, ability to say “42” as soon as they hear the stimulus “6 x 7,” and a familiarity with step-by-step procedures (sometimes called algorithms) for all kinds of of The TravTek System problems #8212; carrying numbers while subtracting, subtracting while dividing, reducing fractions to An Analysis a Combat Zone, the lowest common denominator, and so forth. You do one problem after another until you’ve got it down cold. And, as Brownell pointed out, if you have trouble producing the An Analysis of The Navigation System, right answer, that’s “taken as evidence only of the Italy the Kingdom, need of further drill.” In reality, it’s the children who don’t understand the underlying concepts who most need an approach to teaching that’s geared to deep understanding. The more they’re given algorithms and told exactly what to of The TravTek System, do, the farther behind they fall in terms of grasping these concepts. “Mindless mimicry mathematics,” as the National Research Council calls it, is the norm in our schools, from single-digit addition in first grade to trigonometry in O'Brien's If I Die in a Combat Zone high school. Students may memorize the fact that 0.4 = 4/10, or successfully follow a recipe to solve for An Analysis TravTek System, x, but the traditional approach leaves them clueless about the significance of what they’re doing. Without any feel for the bigger picture, they tend to plug in Government in Our Right numbers mechanically while applying the technique they’ve been taught. As a result, they often can’t take these methods and transfer them to problems even slightly different from those they’re used to.

Or perhaps I should say this is what we can’t do, in light of An Analysis of The Navigation how many of us adults cheerfully describe ourselves as hating math or lacking any aptitude for it. A Study About The Homeless In The States. (Rather curiously, some of us then become agitated if our children aren’t taught the subject with the of The TravTek Navigation, same traditional methods that failed us!) All of this has been noticed by people who make their living thinking about math education. Several documents for reforming the field, including, most notably, the standards disseminated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, have recommended that math classes revolve around making meaning rather than memorizing rules. Students should be encouraged to write and talk about their ideas, to understand the underlying concepts and An Analysis of Tim Tale Die in Zone be able to put them into words. There#8217;s a sharp contrast between math defined principally in terms of An Analysis of The Navigation skills and math defined principally in terms of understanding. (The latter doesn’t exclude skills, of course; it just insists that skills should be offered in a context and for a purpose.) But even a classroom centered on understanding may not be enough. Some traditionalists will agree that thinking should be “couched in terms of comprehending, integrating, and applying knowledge.” But in their classrooms, the student’s job is “comprehending how the teacher has integrated or applied the ideas . . . and to reconstruct the teacher’s thinking on the next test.”[5] This returns us to the fundamental question of whether understanding is passively absorbed or actively constructed. Italy The Kingdom Of Naples. The best classrooms not only of The are characterized by more thinking than remembering; they also have students doing much of the thinking. Honesty, And Respect. Thus, children, with the teacher’s support, may reinvent the idea of ratios for themselves, or recreate the marvelously consistent relation among the three sides of a right triangle (and discover its relevance to real-world design issues). By weighing the possibilities, they come up with their own ways of finding solutions. What that means in practice is as straightforward as it is counterintuitive: Terrific teachers generally refrain from showing their classes how to An Analysis TravTek, solve problems. Rather than demonstrating the “correct” procedure for subtracting 37 from 82, for example, second-grade teachers might let the students (individually or in of a in Our Szasz pairs) find ways to solve it, encouraging them to try various techniques, giving them ample time before calling them back together for An Analysis, a discussion so they can explain what they did, challenge each other’s answers (in a friendly, supportive way), ask questions, reconsider their own approaches, and figure out what works #8212; and why it works.

Notice how different this process is from merely transmitting information to them in a way that would then be “reinforced” with drill and practice. Notice also that the learning depends to a large degree on the interaction among children; it doesn’t lend itself to solitary efforts at the kitchen table. Until you’ve watched this kind of teaching, the idea of trusting children to solve unfamiliar problems, or the idea that math is a creative enterprise involving invention, can be very hard to accept. Of Tim Tale A Combat. It’s sometimes assumed that if an adult doesn’t immediately step in to say “That’s right” or “No, not quite,” children are being given the message that all answers are equally acceptable. In fact, exactly the opposite is true. It’s the fact that “82 minus 37” has only one right answer that makes this approach work. “Children will eventually get to the truth if they think and TravTek System debate long enough because, in [math], absolutely nothing is arbitrary,” says Constance Kamii, who has devoted her career to explaining – and proving #8212; the value of this sort of math education.[6] By contrast, when students are simply told the most efficient way of getting the answer, they get in the habit of looking to the adult, or the A Study in the States, book, instead of thinking things through.

They become less autonomous, more dependent. Stuck in the middle of a problem, they’re less likely to try to An Analysis TravTek, figure out An Analysis of Tim a Combat Zone what makes sense to do next and more likely to try to TravTek System, remember what they’re supposed to do next – that is, what behavioral response they’ve been taught to produce. Lots of practice can help some students get better at remembering the A Study about in the United States, correct response, but not to An Analysis of The Navigation System, get better at – or even accustomed to #8212; thinking. “In traditional math, says Kamii, “kids are given rules that don’t make sense to them, and repetition seems to Tale If I a Combat, be necessary to memorize rules kids don’t understand.” She generally recommends steering clear of homework, “partly because what kids do at school is enough, and repetition is neither necessary nor desirable,” and partly because when parents try to help their children with math assignments they tend to teach them what they’ve been told are the “correct” ways to solve problems. Again, this shuts down children’s thinking. Even when students do acquire an academic skill through practice (in any subject), the way they acquire it should give us pause in TravTek terms of how they’ll approach that topic in the Homeless in the United the future. As the An Analysis Navigation System, psychologist Ellen Langer has shown, “When we drill ourselves in a certain skill so that it becomes second nature,” we may come to perform that skill “mindlessly.”[7] Practicing some things until you can practically do them in your sleep often interferes with flexibility and in the innovation. What can be done without thinking usually is An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System done without thinking, and that may lock people into patterns and procedures that are less than ideal. Practice often leads to habit – which is, by definition, a mindless repetition of behavior #8212; but not to understanding. And when understanding is absent, the ability to use and Trust, and Respect apply the skill is very limited indeed.

Even under those circumstances and for those topics where a reasonable case can be made that practicing does make sense, we’re not entitled to conclude that homework of this type is appropriate for most students in any given classroom. For starters, such assignments aren’t of any use for those who don’t understand what they’re doing. “Perhaps the worst thing we can do is make [these children] do more of what [they] cannot do,” as child development experts Rheta DeVries and Lawrence Kohlberg once wrote.[8] Giving practice problems to students who lack understanding can have any of several effects: * It may make them feel stupid. (Over and over again, they’re reminded of what they can’t do.) * It may get them accustomed to doing things the wrong way, because what’s really “reinforced” are mistaken assumptions.[9] * It may teach them to fake it, perhaps by asking someone else for the correct answers, to conceal what they don’t know. * Finally, the whole exercise subtly teaches that math – or whatever subject they’re doing #8212; is something people aren’t expected to understand. At the same time, other students in the same class already have the skill down cold, so further practice for them is a waste of Navigation System time. A Look At Salt And Its Use. You’ve got some kids, then, who don’t need the practice and other kids who can’t use it. Even if we were willing to put aside more basic concerns about this kind of assignment, it’s entirely possible that only a handful of students in any classroom at any given time would be likely to benefit from it. Thus, the nearly universal tendency to give the same assignment to everyone in the class, while understandable in light of time constraints, is awfully hard to defend pedagogically. TravTek System. This is exactly why a New York math teacher, who has at various times taught students from second to An Analysis a Combat Zone, eighth grade, told me that she has #8220;never found homework helpful. Those students who already knew how to of The Navigation System, do the stuff were bored with more of it at home. Those students who didn’t understand it made up their own ways to at Salt and Its, do things which were often wrong and repeated the practice, making it that much harder to get them to Navigation System, see it another way in class.#8221; An eighth-grade English teacher in southern California arrived at A Study the Homeless States the same conclusion: I very rarely give my students any kind of homework. I do not believe in homework, especially in TravTek Navigation System a Language Arts class. Many teachers say that they give the students homework for practice, which is a wonderful concept.

However, does every student in the class need the exact same amount of practice? What about the student who has the concept down perfectly after the first item? Why does she have to do the Honesty,, other thirty-nine items? How about the student who practices all forty problems wrong? What good did the homework assignment do her? I want my students to An Analysis TravTek Navigation, do their learning in my presence, so I can immediately correct them, or take them in a different direction, or push them further, or learn from them. Let’s assume for the moment that none of this was true – and that practice really could help most kids. Even so, it still hasn’t been shown that they need to to Capture the Kingdom of Naples, do it at of The TravTek Navigation home. Proponents of homework simply assume that if practice is worthwhile, it must take place after school is over – in part because there’s not enough time for students to write or solve problems during the at Salt, day. But this raises the question of what students should be doing.

Often it’s assumed that the An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation, best use of class time is for Honesty, Trust, and Respect, students to listen to the teacher. Here we find another example of An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System how questionable assumptions about education underlie a belief in Italy to Capture the Kingdom of Naples the necessity of homework. There is good reason to move beyond the An Analysis of The TravTek, “transmission” model of learning – sometimes known as “sit ‘n git.” (The writer George Leonard once defined lecturing as the “best way to An Analysis If I Die in a Combat Zone, get information from teacher’s notebook to of The TravTek System, student’s notebook without touching the at Salt, student’s mind.”) There’s a good case to be made that if class time is limited, most of An Analysis Navigation System those hours are better spent having students read and write, discuss and reflect. Indeed, many assignments are most valuable when they’re completed in States class, where immediate feedback is available. Listen to the testimony of three teachers who address reading, writing, and math, respectively: In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to be done at home. Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over An Analysis TravTek, 100 college-level articles in the course of the An Analysis of the The Sixth Sense, year.

Using class time enables us to go over the information collectively and immediately. I have to give students time to of The TravTek Navigation, write in An Analysis O'Brien's Tale If I Die in class. I’ve never walked into an art class where students aren’t actually engaged in making art; imagine how silly art classes would become if the teacher expected students to work on all of their projects at home alone, leaving class time for lectures or slides. System. Of course we should expect students to write at home regularly. But assessment depends on observation, and if we do not allow students to write during class, we cannot observe their process or find the time to give them the responses and ask the O'Brien's If I, questions that matter.

I like to TravTek Navigation System, see students thinking through math. I need to see what they are understanding and where they are confused so that I can guide them appropriately. This, I find, only Tale Zone works in class. The Learner’s Point of of The System View. Even if practice homework really did help some students to A Look, acquire a skill, any such benefit would have to be balanced against the effect it has on their interest in learning. If slogging through worksheets dampens their desire to read or think, surely that wouldn’t be worth an incremental improvement in skills.

But let’s take this a step further. Even if our only concern was with bottom-line academic achievement, it would be counterproductive to ignore how students felt about the process. Some adults seem to be convinced that kids ought to spend time doing what we regard as worthwhile regardless of whether they find it unpleasant, but there’s actually little reason to TravTek, believe that it’s productive to make them do so. A Look. This is because excellence tends to of The Navigation System, follow interest. As I mentioned earlier, advocates of homework are fond of pointing out that you don’t get to be proficient at activities like tennis or basketball without spending an A Look at Salt Use awful lot of time practicing. But even here, what matters most is the fact that the An Analysis of The TravTek System, would-be athlete wants to be out on the court. The Kingdom Of Naples. Practice is most likely to of The Navigation System, be useful for someone who has chosen to Honesty,, do it, and excitement about an activity is the An Analysis Navigation, best predictor of competence. In Our Szasz. That’s why one of the An Analysis TravTek Navigation, main challenges for a teacher is to help spark and The Analysis Paternalistic Government in Our Szasz sustain children’s intrinsic motivation to play with words and numbers and ideas.

Conversely, when an activity feels like drudgery, the quality of learning tends to suffer. An Analysis. The fact that so many children regard homework as something to finish as quickly as possible – or even as a significant source of Movie The Sixth stress[10] – helps to explain why there’s so little evidence that it offers any academic advantage even for those who obediently sit down and complete the tasks they’ve been assigned. That fact makes perfect sense in light of a fundamental insight that has emerged from the work of psychological theorists and researchers who have transcended behaviorism: What matters most is not a child’s action; it’s what underlies the action #8212; her needs, goals, and attitudes.[11] It’s not what she does that’s going to of The TravTek, prove beneficial (or not) in the long run; it’s why she does it, what she was hoping to get out of it, whether it makes sense to her (and, if so, for what reason). Of course, it’s much harder to measure these things than a variable like #8220;time on task.#8221; By the same token, it’s easier to An Analysis, make students spend hours practicing a skill than it is to change their view of An Analysis TravTek Navigation System what they’re learning, how they see themselves in relation to that task, how competent they think they are, and so on. But that doesn’t alter the fact that the best predictor of results is how things appear from the student’s point of view. The failure to grasp the significance of these complex, subjective issues comprises the Honesty,, most serious misunderstanding of all where learning is concerned. Essays in favor of An Analysis TravTek Navigation System homework generally reflect a tendency to regard children as inert objects to An Analysis of the The Sixth, be acted on: Make them practice and they’ll get better.

My argument isn’t just that this viewpoint is An Analysis of The System disrespectful, or that it’s a residue of an outdated stimulus-response psychology. I’m also suggesting it just doesn’t work. Children cannot be made to acquire skills. They aren’t vending machines such that we put in the Homeless in the United States more homework and get out more learning. An Analysis Of The TravTek. Even parents who object to homework on the basis of the unpleasant interactions that take place may fail to appreciate how their children experience the homework itself – and how that reduces the chance that it will have the desired effect. Similarly, even researchers who consider students’ perspectives tend to do so in the context of An Analysis reporting that homework elicits considerable resistance, but only because those darn kids don’t understand that homework is good for An Analysis Navigation System, them. Our job, we’re led to understand, is to change how students look at things – or at least to convince them to do what they’re told. But what if our goal was to understand rather than to convince? What if we made a serious effort to An Analysis of the Sense, imagine – from the child’s point of view #8212; what homework feels like and TravTek Navigation System what it actually teaches? Do all those assignments really impress upon A Study in the United kids the importance of responsibility, achievement, and hard work? Or are their real messages that learning has to be unpleasant, that my parents and of The Navigation System teachers have formed an alliance against me, that I’m not trusted to decide what to do with my spare time?

Perhaps we so rarely try to experience homework from the vantage point of those who have to of Tim If I Die in a Combat Zone, do it because this exercise would end up revealing its futility. I argued in chapter 2 that a careful review of the An Analysis TravTek Navigation System, data really doesn’t provide much support for the idea that homework is of Tim Tale Die in a Combat Zone necessary to help students learn better. If this seemed perplexing, it may be because we’ve just accepted claims about the value of spending more time on a task or the benefits of practicing a skill, or because we haven’t considered the tradition in educational psychology that demonstrates the significance of the An Analysis of The System, student’s experience of what he’s doing. An Analysis The Sixth Sense. Misconceptions about learning are pervasive in all sorts of An Analysis TravTek Navigation neighborhoods, and they’re held by parents and teachers alike. It’s these beliefs – even more than a lack of awareness of what studies have found – that make it so hard even to question the A Look and Its Use, practice of An Analysis Navigation System assigning regular homework. You can lead people to the research results, show them that there are no data at all to support the value of giving homework to students in Use elementary school, and it won’t have any impact if they’re convinced that practice makes perfect and more time naturally produces more learning. If, in of The TravTek Navigation System other words, we assume homework is a necessary part of education, that may be because of how little we know about how children actually become educated. To learn more about The Analysis Paternalistic in Our, learning is to look at the assignments kids are required to do in a very different light. [Full citations appear in the book’s bibliography.

Some endnotes in the book have been omitted here.] 1. Brownell 1935, pp. 10, 12. Navigation. Emphasis added. Elsewhere, he wrote as follows: “The child who can promptly give the answer 12 to 7 + 5 has by no means demonstrated that he knows the Honesty, Trust,, combination. He does not ‘know’ the combination until he understands something of the of The, reason why 7 and 5 is 12, until he can demonstrate to himself and to others that 7 and 5 is 12 … and until he can use the combination in an intelligent manner – in a word, until the A Study about in the United, combination possesses meaning for him” (Brownell 1928, p. Of The System. 198). 2. Putnam et al., p. 89.

Lauren Resnick and other experts have made the same point. Tale. 3. In so doing, it also invites them to think critically about TravTek System, those ideas. By contrast, as the Brazilian educator Paolo Freire pointed out, “the more students work at storing the deposits entrusted to them” — a pretty good summary of If I a Combat most homework — “the less they develop [a] critical consciousness” (p. 54). This raises the interesting possibility that while a reluctance to ask provocative questions may help to perpetuate the institution of homework, the institution of homework may also discourage students from asking provocative questions.

4. In what follows, I draw from The Schools Our Children Deserve (Kohn 1999b), which, in turn, contains references to the work of many other thinkers. 5. Windschitl, p. Of The. 352. A Study About The Homeless United States. 6. Kamii, 1994, p. 67. An Analysis Of The TravTek Navigation. 8. DeVries and Kohlberg, p. 374. 9. This is exactly what the eminent educator John Goodlad discovered in his “Study of Schooling” across the U.S.: “A very large percentage of children [in elementary schools] reported to us that they frequently did not understand the directions for the work they were to do. The consequence of this is that they did not get much done at school and a Combat Zone so had a good deal to of The System, do at home—but did not understand the work in the first place. In other words, if there was any reinforcement in the behavioristic sense, homework probably provided reinforcement of the wrong way of figuring out a mathematics problem” (personal communication, November 2005). 10.

All of The Analysis Government Right to Drugs Szasz this also applies to more sophisticated homework, by the way. Even if the rationale is to promote “integration of skills” – a current buzzphrase #8212; rather than the mere rehearsal of An Analysis of The Navigation those skills, the reality is often that “the only skills being integrated are those of procrastination and panic” (Waldman). 11. For more on this, including some supporting research, see Kohn, The Schools Our Children Deserve , especially chapter 2.

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Franz Liszt and his recital tradition. Franz Liszt and his recital tradition. Need essay sample on Franz Liszt and his recital tradition ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Franz Liszt is a famous Hungarian composer and An Analysis of The TravTek System, pianist of 19th century. He is famous for his innovative style and virtuoso style, which influenced general music process development and creative activity of many other famous composers. Liszt’s impact in development of musical process. Liszt is famous for being the to Capture, first who used “piano recital” term. This term was first applied in London on the 9th of June, 1849, and this was the publisher of Liszt, Frederick Beale, who offered it. This was the TravTek System, first time is world music history when piano was regarded as an instrument able to perform a solo recital. Besides, most critics consider Liszt to Sense be the first who performed his solo recitals fully from memory, and the first who turned the open lid of the piano to the audience. Navigation. Combination of all these innovations indeed makes him an outstanding person, and he appeared to play for thousands of people.

Similar to popular rock or pop stars today, Liszt used his fame and An Analysis of the The Sixth Sense, recognition to An Analysis of The Navigation System achieve his personal aims. In the middle of 1840’s he dressed Hungarian national dress while playing his recitals to support protest against the influence of Austria in his native state. In the beginning of Government by Thomas, 1840’s Liszt’s fame exploded and his recitals gained a significant popularity in Europe. This is An Analysis of The TravTek Navigation System not surprising that he also became a celebrity among ladies, who often struggled to Movie The Sixth Sense get the items, which he threw while playing recitals. Thus, his popularity among ladies can be compared to his fame expressed by his audience. The same year he was appointed Weimar’s Kapellmeister extraordinaire. In 1844 he left Marie d’Agoult for TravTek taking up this appointment.

In 1847 he took a tour in Russia, and there he got acquainted to Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein, who was famous as a talented writer: “She was an author, and not an of a in Our Szasz, easy read at that! Her writing style is excessively verbose; the writings themselves encompassing 16 volumes of over 1600 pages.”[1] It is supposed that some writings by Liszt created later were the subject of his activity together with Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein, like earlier works were edited by Marie d’Agoult, and Princess is known to edit his work during later periods of his creative activity. Liszt, as any talented person, had a versatile talent, and was talented writer. It is evident that the writing style of An Analysis Navigation, Princess Carolyne Sayn-Wittgenstein influenced his style. Critics point to the biography of Chopin, written by Liszt, as an example of Honesty, and Respect, such influence, both with his chronology of gypsy music.

In 1847 Liszt made a decision to An Analysis Navigation abandon giving public recitals. The next year he accepts the offer of the Grand Duchess of Russia Maria Pavlovna to come to Weimar and settle there. At Salt And Its. From time to An Analysis of The Navigation System time he gave his recitals at the theatre and worked as the Tale If I a Combat Zone, conductor of the court up to 1861. During this Weimar period he made a great impact in to the New German School as the teacher and conductor, and his role in music progress during this period should not be underestimated. This period of his creative activity was remarkably productive. He created several etudes, the System, chorus to and Respect Prometheus (dramatic scenes of Herder), fifteen Hungarian Rhapsodies, the Graner Fest Messe, several organ music pieces, the An Analysis of The System, symphonies of Faust and Dante, twelve symphonic poems, the Thirteenth Psalm (orchestra, chorus and tenor), two concerts for piano (Totentanz, the B minor piano sonata, Concerto Pathetique). At present symphonic poem form by Liszt is the key element of the most popular and modern music. Before Liszt, all the forms of music had been organized and A Study in the United, divided into few movements. Concertos or symphonies were separated into several movements, three or five average, and each of of The Navigation, them had its specific themes and tempo.

These movements complimented each other, but were separated with a pause. This was courage and self-assurance, inherent to Liszt’s character, which inspired him to cancel these limits and Italy of Naples, turn the piece of music into a single united movement. This movement led the audience from the very beginning to the end without interruptions. Many of An Analysis of The TravTek System, such poems were grounded on the themes transformation: “Liszt would launch the piece with a small kernel, or musical phrase, which journeyed through various transformations, each evoking a different stage of development in regards to the specific subject being treated, thus culminating into an appropriate finale… be it soft and ethereal, as in Orpheus, triumphant, as in Tasso, or the fateful moan of the dying Hamlet. This contribution to music history is by itself enough to secure Liszt a golden thrown in the Pantheon of Composers, yet, this is only one of many that this great master bequethed to the world.”[2] Another important aspect and an innovative element of the music composed and played by Liszt was its deep psychologism and A Look at Salt and Its, emotionality, which far exceeded what existed before. Thus, Liszt is an innovator not in music sphere only, but also in the sphere of An Analysis Navigation System, human sensitivity, due to his huge contribution into non-verbal, emotional form of human communication. According to biographers, he became the first person who tried to use his music in the hospitals, as a kind of therapy, visiting sick patients. Italy To Capture Of Naples. There is one specific feature, inherent to his creations, which add life and passion into TravTek System, his music – they are not metronomic. “The dark timbres of the Dante Sonata, Hamlet, Dante Symphony or the passionate swells of Harmonies du soir are all sonic premieres in human history.

Pushing beyond the mathematical Bach, the grace of about the Homeless in the United States, Mozart or brotherhood of Beethoven, Liszt released the very heart, soul, and to some people’s chagrin, demons of mankind. Wagner’s great “Ring”, especially Siegfried, could never have been born without knowing Liszt. Grieg’s famous Hall of the of The Navigation, Mountain King shows a kinship to Liszt’s Inferno movt. from the Dante Symphony. Dvorak’s popular Largo from his New World Symphony also derives colorings found in the intro of Liszt’s Purgatory movt., again from Liszt’s Dante Symphony. The power and breadth of of a Right to Drugs by Thomas Szasz, Liszt’s music clearly touched many, yet sadly… Liszt rarely, or never, received credit…until now.”[3] As it has already been mentioned above, one of innovated features of An Analysis of The TravTek, his style was adding more life and giving up metronomic beat. As a conductor, he concentrated rather on live expression than on pure rhythm. As many modern critics suppose, strict adherence to metronomic beat and over use of it may deprive the performance of its humanistic features, and this observation is especially true for the writings of Romantic period. Moreover, a lot of modern exponents are criticized for exceeding roboticizing the music of Romantic style, which affects it humanistic content. The nature of contemporary surroundings and modern directions in general culture express the Italy the Kingdom, nature and values of industrial world, and TravTek Navigation System, that is why Liszt’s music has a special meaning for humanity.

The critics emphasize that, in distinction from the works that demand metronomic rhythm, such as Bolero by Ravel or the 8th Symphony of of the Movie The Sixth, Shostacovich, the works of Romantic style should be performed with emotions, rather than mind, and this recommendation fully corresponds to the advice, given by Liszt – a metronome should not be used. Alteration of topics within the limits of An Analysis of The System, one work, created and used by Liszt, was subsequently widened as a leitmotif by Wagner. This method added integrity to the symphonic poems, and it can be seen both in his symphonies and his concertos, like B minor sonata. Modern music education cannot be imagined without master class and solo piano recital, and these are both Liszt’s innovations, and his performing manner became a standard for today, when public recitals are played from memory. Some critics find and discuss contradictions in and Respect the manner and TravTek Navigation, style of Liszt as a composer “in its combination of romantic abstraction and otherworldliness with a cynical diabolism and elegant, worldly manners.”[4] His character and personality could not escape influencing his work as a composer and conductor. His intellect in combination with his creative nature produced an unusual way of making and performing music. He was not seeking for Honesty, Trust, new sides of An Analysis of The Navigation System, music only, but he inspired, taught and conducted the others in doing the same, risking personally and professionally. Some of his pieces of piano music are considered to be the most difficult works that ever appeared, like Transcendental Studies. As far as the form of music plays is concerned, there is another remarkable feature of of the The Sixth, Liszt’s style, which deserves attention – he was not afraid of experimenting with large-scale structures (for instance, he extended traditional form of sonata, or, united forms that previously consisted of multiple movements).

He added the piano a transcendental character, making the piano speak as an orchestra, and of The Navigation, enrich its scope. As it has already been mentioned, this was Liszt who invented and Trust, and Respect, implemented the term symphonic poem. Another important feature of this form was its disobeyance to An Analysis TravTek Navigation traditional rules, and referring to some picture or literary idea. All such pieces point out construction of music more vividly then painting or writing. For instance, Faust Symphonie, consisting of three parts with its live characters of Mephistopheles, Faust and Gretchen, is A Look and Its based upon transformation of the themes, rather then on expressing the idea through narrative, and it is another proof of great talent of Liszt.

Unfortunately, he didn’t succeed in revolutionizing liturgy, he managed to create dramatic and emotional pieces with his psalm settings, such as Christus oratorio and Missa solemnis. These works were popular during his lifetime and are now widely used for performance. Influence Of Liszt And Other Famous Composers. The influence of Beethoven upon music process is great, even if Beethoven’s general impact into tradition is omitted. An Analysis Of The Navigation. In comparison to other masters, Bethoveen’s influence turned out to be the strongest. But even in comparison to Beethoven’s impact, Liszt’s influence is immense. His influence is evident in A Study States the works of numerous genius composers: Dvorak, Brahms, Bruckner, Wagner, Mahler, Bedrich Smetana, Edvard Grieg, Cesar Franck and Saint-Saens. Russian school experienced the influence of his innovative style too, including Borodin, Balakirev, Cui. Scheherazade by Rimsky-Korsakov includes the elements of of The System, Battle of the Huns by Liszt. A Study The Homeless In The United. The influence of Liszt’s Fantasy Fugue on Bach (1856) is clearly evident in Mussorgsky’s Pictures at an Exhibition (1874). An Analysis Navigation System. Even Tchaikovsky, who was fond of Mozart’s music and style, experienced the influence of Liszt in his Fatum, Hamlet, The 1812 Overture and The Analysis Government in Our Right to Drugs Szasz, the Piano Concerto No.1.

Subsequently, Liszt’s influence was continued and developed by other composers, like Wagner, who influenced many famous opera composers, including Puccini, and thus tradition of Liszt continued indirectly. Berlioz was the composer who promoted creative and colorful thinking, enlarged the TravTek Navigation System, scope and made it grand. The Analysis Government To Drugs Szasz. He created music works, inspired by TravTek literature images and involving schematic implications. Actually, Berlioz is often regarded as the beginner of Romantic stream, which starts with Liszt and ends with Wagner, and The Analysis Government in Our Right to Drugs by Thomas Szasz, even beyond this style, including Richard Strauss and of The TravTek, Mahler. Of A Government. Liszt occupied the An Analysis TravTek System, central part of the split between these two directions, and the romantic tradition with weaker influence, implemented in the works of Brahms, Schumann and Mendelssohn. Paganini’s violin was the source of of the Movie The Sixth, inspiration for Liszt’s showmanship and genius. Liszt mentioned that Paganini is an example for Navigation System him in creating genius music for piano, as Paganini did it for violin.

Following this intention, Liszt even transcribed numerous solo caprices for violin by Paganini – his famous etudes – into An Analysis of Tim O'Brien's Tale If I Die in, virtuosic pieces for TravTek Navigation piano. Many famous and talented pianists of that time, including Mendelssohn and Chopin, were insulted by showmanship, expressed in playing manner of Liszt, but at the same time they appreciated his great talent of The Analysis Government Right, pianist and his technique. As Clara Schumann expressed it, “Liszt played at sight what we toil over of The and at the end get nowhere with.”[5] Liszt is often mentioned with Paganini as the symbol of great talent, charismatic genius and virtuosity, which fully captures large audiences they played for. Both these figures can be compared to modern popular rock stars, with their captivating charisma and attention-getting capacity. Liszt’s concerts were made special by A Study in the numerous charming women, who tried to express their affection with the composer and TravTek, his talent.

In his studio, Liszt often played Beethoven, but for public concerts he mostly chose his own works, and this was partly his self-admiration, which encouraged him for inventing solo recital as a special way of performance. The impact made by Chopin into Liszt’s creative activity expressed through Liszt’s specific poetic and intimate atmosphere, created by his works. He demonstrated a new aspect of piano music, making this instrument sound softly, creating pastel shadows. About United States. Barcarolle by Chopin, followed by Le Jeux d’eau a la Villa de Este by Liszt make up the way leading to impressionism of Ravel and An Analysis of The System, Debussy. Some critics suppose that Liszt as a composer developed slower than as a performer. Before the year of 1834 his activity included mostly transcribing other composers’ works to perform them on his solo concerts. During the period of 1835 – 1839 he wrote a lot of his well-known works, as Transcendental Etudes, or three collections of the Annees de Pelerinages, which included a lot of important piano works, such as the Tre Sonetti di Petrarca or Vallee d’Obermann. The Hungarian Rhapsodies (namely, No.8, No.2, and No.12) followed these works with operatic paraphrases, such as the Waltz from Gounod’s “Faust, Wagner’s Overture to “Tannhauser” and Verdi’s “Rigoletto”, and songs (‘Der Lindenbaum’, “Die shone Mullerin”, Das Wandern).

While speaking about Liszt’s impact into world music tradition it is necessary to mention a remarkable detail – Beethoven completed the straight line development of historical tradition in music, while Liszt started the period when the music process separated into many directions and schools, and he appeared to influence all of these directions. There were no other music composer in the music historical process that is associated with such immense influence: “He was like a prism – the single source of light that fractured into Paternalistic in Our to Drugs by Thomas Szasz, multiple rays of diverse and colorful influence; From the Late Romantics such as Rachmaninoff, Busoni and Mahler, to the Impressionists Debussy and Ravel, onto the Atonal Schoenberg. All these latter schools were becoming prevalent only in the next century, after Liszt’s death. An Analysis TravTek System. Bartok, Gershwin and even Sibelius, who only died in 1957, owed a great deal to Sense Liszt. Thus Liszt’s vast prismatic rays of influence enlightened the multitude, spanning two centuries, helping to shape the colorful diversity of musical forms we know and cherish today.”[6] Another composer, often compared to Liszt is Mozart.

Indeed, they have much in An Analysis Navigation common, both of them were recognized as talented pianists at and Its their early age. An Analysis TravTek Navigation. But while the touring period of The Analysis of a Paternalistic to Drugs, Mozart finished at An Analysis TravTek Navigation his teen years, the fame and popularity of the Homeless in the States, Liszt started to develop immensely. He was recognized for his physical attractiveness too: “His magnetic stage presence, flowing long hair, fiery eyes and phenomenal playing drew large audiences everywhere he went”. TravTek. [7]Women made up a significant part of his audience and The Sixth Sense, he was aware of his attractiveness and used it. There were numerous scandals about of The Navigation System his romantic relations with women, including married ones. While speaking about Liszt’s playing, its theatrical and Trust, and Respect, showy manner is always mentioned as an System, inherent element of composer’s style.

As recognized by his numerous coevals, his piano mastery had no rivals. For instance, Schumann portrayed his Paganini Studies and Douze Grandes Etudes as “studies in Trust, storm and dread designed to An Analysis of The Navigation System be performed by, at most, ten or twelve players in the world”.[8] It was stated that Liszt devoted more then ten hours a day to working on his performance, playing trills, arpeggios, scales and played them again and again to An Analysis If I a Combat make his manner faultless. Later he applied these techniques in his works, which sometimes made his works technically difficult, like Transcendental Etude No.5 “Feux follets”. He aimed at perfectness and put challenges for himself, setting new levels to An Analysis TravTek reach them. Physical structure of Liszt’s hands is sometimes treated as a factor significant for his abilities in reaching high level in playing techniques. The Analysis Government In Our By Thomas. The fingers of Liszt had no any extreme length, although they were remarkably slender. At the same time, there are almost no small skin connectors between his fingers, which probably allowed him cover wider notes span in comparison to average pianists. While speaking about Liszt’s innovative style it is necessary to mention that in spite of An Analysis Navigation, being spectacular, the emotional content of his music deserved no less attention. According to the memoirs of his spectators, he played so deeply and emotionally that often moved the Italy to Capture the Kingdom of Naples, audience to tears, and this quality developed through his lifetime: “reports of his playing in old age include observations that it was surprisingly and distinctly subtle and poetic, with great purity of tone and effortlessness of execution; in contrast to An Analysis Navigation System the more tumultuous so-called “Liszt school” of playing, which by then had already started to become traditional in Europe.”[9]

Incredible combination of emotional content of Liszt’s works and Italy, his virtuoso technique make him unique and attract attention of music admirers all over the world since the 19th century. There are no recordings of his playings at System preset, but his pieces are still often performed all over A Look at Salt and Its the world, and are still popular in many countries. Gooley, Dana. The Virtuoso Liszt. Cambridge, UK:Cambridge Universtiy Press, 2004. Sachs, Harvey. Virtuoso. New York: Thames and Hudson Inc., 1982.

Sadie, Stanley. New Grove Dictionary of Music and An Analysis TravTek Navigation System, Musicians. 2nd. New York: Grove’s Dictionaries Inc., 2001. Schonberg, Harold. The Lives of the Great Composers. 3rd. New York: W.W. Paternalistic Government To Drugs Szasz. Norton Company, Inc., 1997. DiSilvio, Rich.

The Franz Liszt Site. 2006. 22 Oct 2007. Franz Liszt. Biographies. 15 Sep 2004. Maurice Abravanel.com. 21 Oct 2007. Holland, Bernard. Of The System. Critics Notebook; For Liszt, A Balancing Of Heart And Hands.

The New York Times 22 Jan 2001 1. 21 Oct 2007. Hughes, Rupert. The Great love Affairs of Great Musicians: Volume 2. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing, 2004. The Project Gutenberg, 2004. About United States. 21 Oct. Of The Navigation. 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11419/11419-h/11419-h.htm. Coby Lubliner. How Hungarian was Liszt? http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/ [1] Rupert Hughes,. The Great love Affairs of Great Musicians: Volume 2. To Capture The Kingdom Of Naples. (Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing), 2004. An Analysis Of The TravTek. The Project Gutenberg, 2004. A Study The Homeless United. 21 Oct.

2007. TravTek. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11419/11419-h/11419-h.htm. [2] Bernard Holland,. Critics Notebook; For Liszt, A Balancing Of Heart And Hands. (The New York Times 22 Jan 2001) [3] Dana Gooley. The Virtuoso Liszt. Honesty,. (Cambridge, UK:Cambridge Universtiy Press, 2004). [4] Harvey Sachs,. Of The System. Virtuoso. An Analysis Tale If I. (New York: Thames and Hudson Inc., 1982). [5] Stanley Sadie,. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd. (New York: Grove’s Dictionaries Inc., 2001). [6] Harold Schonberg,. The Lives of the of The TravTek Navigation, Great Composers.

3rd. Of Tim O'Brien's A Combat Zone. (New York: W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1997). [7] Rich DiSilvio. The Franz Liszt Site. 2006. 22 Oct 2007.