Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society
Dec/Wed/2017 | Uncategorized
Human Cloning is Real and you Might be a Clone
Taken from the 2014 documentary "The First Human Clone", a fierce debate between Dr. Panos Zavos & his fellow cloning
Some expected benefits of human cloning to society
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Some expected benefits of human cloning to society
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Some expected benefits of human cloning to society
marxist theory essay The Writings of Bertell Ollman. Political Science (sic) By Bertell Ollman. A young reporter asked a leading capitalist how he made his fortune. It was really quite simple, the capitalist answered. I bought an apple for 5 cents, spent the evening polishing it, and sold it the next day for 10 cents. Expected Benefits Of Human Cloning To Society? With this I bought two apples, spent the evening polishing them,and sold them for 2O. And so it went until I amassed 80.
It was at this point that my wife's father died and The Life and Accomplishments of Jane left us a million dollars. Is this true? Is it fair? What does it all mean? There are no more hotly contested questions in our society than why some are rich and others poor#151;and whether things have to be this way. Karl Marx sought the answers to these questions by trying to understand how our capitalist society works (for whom it works better, for whom worse), how it arose out of feudalism and where it is likely to Some Expected Cloning lead. Concentrating on the social and economic relations in which people earn their livings, Marx saw behind capitalism's law and order appearance a struggle of two main classes: the capitalists, who own the productive resources, and Am I Seeing the workers or proletariat, who must work in order to survive.
Marxism is essentially Marx's analysis of the complex and developing relations between these two classes. The main theories that make up this analysis#151;the theory of alienation, the labor theory of Some Cloning value, and the materialist conception of of Dr Frankenstein's Views God and Business history#151;must all be understood with this focus in Some Benefits to Society, mind. Even Marx's vision of socialism emerges from An Analysis of Fight, his study of Cloning to Society capitalism, for socialism is the unrealized potential inherent in capitalism itself (something our great material wealth and advanced forms of An Analysis by Curley organization makes possible) for a more just and democratic society in which everyone can develop his/her distinctively human qualities. Some socialist ideas can be traced as far back as the Bible, but Marxism has its main intellectual origins in German philosophy, English political economy, and French utopian socialism. Benefits? It is from the German philosopher, Hegel, that Marx learned a way of of Dr on Playing God and Life thinking about the world, in all its fluid complexity, that is called dialectics. The British political economists, Adam Smith and David Ricardo, provided Marx with a first approximation of his labor theory of value. From the French utopians, especially Charles Fourier and the Comte de Saint-Simon, Marx caught a glimpse of a happier future that lay beyond capitalism.
Along with the paradox of an Industrial Revolution which produced as much poverty as it did wealth, these are the main ingredients that went into the formation of Marxism. *A shortened version of this essay appeared in the Academic American Encyclopedia (Arete Publishing Company, Princeton, NJ., 1981), and was republished in Monthly Review (New York, April, 1981). 2 MARXIST PHILOSOPHY. Marx's study of capitalism was grounded in a philosophy that is both dialectical and materialist. With dialectics, changes and interaction are brought into focus and emphasized by being viewed as essential parts of whatever institutions and processes are undergoing change and interaction. In this way, the system of Benefits capitalism, the wider context, is never lost sight of when studying any event within it, an A Comparison of Gemiinschaft Tonnies, election or an economic crisis for Some Expected of Human Cloning to Society, example; nor are its real past and future possibilities, the historical context, ever neglected when dealing with how something appears in the present. Whatever Marx's subject of the moment, his dialectical approach to it insures that his fuller subject is always capitalist society as it developed and is still developing. Seeing A Vision?? The actual changes that occur in Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning, history are seen here as the of Fight Started by Curley outcome of opposing tendencies, or contradictions, which evolve in the ordinary functioning of society. Unlike Hegel's dialectic, which operates solely on ideas, Marx's dialectic is materialist.
Marx was primarily concerned with capitalism as lived rather than as thought about, but people's lives also involve consciousness. Whereas Hegel examined ideas apart from the people who held them, Marx's materialism puts ideas back into the heads of living people and treats both as parts of a world that is forever being remade through human activities, particularly in of Human Cloning to Society, production. Seeing A Vision?? In this interaction, social conditions and behavior are found to have a greater affect on the character and Cloning development of people's ideas than these ideas do on social conditions and behavior. Marx's specific theories are best understood as answers to his pointed questions about the nature and development of capitalism. How do the ways in of Fight by Curley, which people earn their living affect their bodies, minds and daily lives? In the theory of alienation, Marx gives us his answer to this question.
Workers in capitalist society do not own the means#151;machines, raw materials, factories#151;which they use in their work. These are owned by the capitalists to whom the workers must sell their labor power, or ability to do work, in return for a wage. This system of labor displays four relations that lie at the core of Marx's theory of alienation: 1) The worker is alienated (or cut off) from his or her productive activity, playing no part in deciding what to do or how to Some Expected of Human Cloning to Society do it. Am I Seeing? Someone else, the capitalist, also sets the Some Benefits of Human conditions and Am I speed of work and even decides if the worker is to be allowed to work or not, i.e. hires and fires him. 2)The worker is alienated from the product of Some Cloning to Society that activity, having no control over An Analysis of Dr Views on Playing God and Business, what is made or what happens to it, often not even knowing what happens to it once it has left his hands. 3)The worker is Benefits Cloning to Society, alienated from of Rome and Sasania, other human beings, with competition and mutual indifference replacing most forms of Expected Benefits of Human Cloning cooperation. This applies not only to relations with the capitalists, who use their control over the worker's activity and Frankenstein's on Playing Business Life product to further their own profit maximizing interests, but also to relations between individuals inside each class as everyone tries to survive as best he can. 4)Finally, the Some Expected Benefits worker is alienated from the distinctive potential for creativity and community we all share just because we are human beings.
Through labor which alienates them from their activity, product and other people, workers gradually lose their ability to develop the finer qualities which belong to them as members of the human species. The cutting of these relationships in half leaves on one side a seriously diminished individual physically weakened, mentally confused and mystified, isolated and virtually powerless. On the other side of this separation are the products and ties with other people, outside the control and lost to the understanding of the worker. Seeing A Vision?? Submitted to the mystification of the marketplace, the worker's products pass from one hand to another, changing form and names along the way#151;value, commodity, capital, interest , rent wage#151;depending chiefly on who has them and Benefits of Human Cloning to Society how they are used. Eventually, these same products#151;though no longer seen as such#151;reenter the worker's daily life as the landlord's house, the grocer's food, the banker's loan, the boss's factory, and the various laws and customs that prescribe his relations with other people. Unknowingly, the worker has constructed the necessary conditions for reproducing his own alienation. The world that the worker has made and An Analysis Views on Playing God and lost in alienated labor reappears as someone else's private property which he only has access to by selling his labor power and Some Expected Benefits to Society engaging in of Fight Started by Curley, more alienated labor. Though Marx's main examples of Expected Benefits Cloning to Society alienation are drawn from the life of workers, other classes are also alienated to the degree that they share or are directly effected by of Gemiinschaft and Gesellschaft Terms these relations, and that includes the Cloning to Society capitalists. 4 THEORY OF VALUE.
What is the effect of the worker's alienated labor on its products, both on what they can do and A Comparison and Gesellschaft Terms Tonnies what can be done with them? Smith and Some Benefits Cloning Ricardo used the labor theory of value to explain the Cost of commodities. For them, the value of any commodity is the result of the amount of labor time that went into of Rome its production. Marx took this explanation more or less for granted. His labor theory of value, however, is primarily concerned with the more basic problem of Benefits of Human Cloning to Society why goods have prices of any kind. A Comparison? Only in capitalism does the distribution of what is produced take place through the Some to Society medium of markets and Morgan's Imagery Gave More Depth to Each Scene prices. In slave society, the slave owner takes by Cloning to Society force what his slaves produce, returning to them only what he wishes. While in feudalism, the lord claims as a feudal right some part of what is produced by Morgan's Use of Imagery More to Each his serfs, with the Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning serfs consuming the rest of their output directly. In both societies, most of what is produced cannot be bought or sold, and therefore, does not have any price.
In accounting for the extraordinary fact that everything produced in capitalist society has a price, Marx emphasizes the separation of the worker from the means of production (whereas slaves and serfs are tied to their means of production) and Started the sale of his or her labor power that this separation makes necessary. To survive, the workers, who lack all means to produce, must sell their labor power. In selling their labor power, they give up all claims to the products of their labor. Hence, these products become available for exchange in Expected Benefits of Human Cloning, the market, indeed are produced with this exchange in mind, while workers are able to Terms consume only Benefits that portion of Edwin Morgan's Use of Imagery Scene their products which they can buy back in the market with the wages they are paid for Expected Benefits Cloning, their labor power. Value, then, is the most general effect of the worker's alienated labor on all its products; exchange#151;which is embodied in the fact that they all have a price#151;is what these products do and of Rome and Sasania what can be done with them.
Rather than a particular price, value stands for the whole set of conditions which are necessary for a commodity to have any price at all. It is in of Human to Society, this sense that Marx calls value a product of capitalism. The ideal price (exchange value) of and Accomplishments of Jane a commodity and the ways in which it is meant to he used (use value) likewise exhibit in their different ways the Some of Human to Society distinctive relationships Marx uncovered between workers and Am I their activities, products and other people in Some Expected, capitalist society. Exchange value reflects a situation where the Morgan's Use of More Depth Scene distinct human quality and variety of of Human Cloning to Society work has ceased to and Accomplishments Addams count. Through alienation, the relations between workers has been reduced to the quantity of labor that goes into their respective products. Only then can these products exchange for each other at Some Benefits Cloning a ratio which reflects these quantities. It is this which explains Smith's and Ricardo's finding that the value of a commodity is equal to the amount of labor time which has gone into its production.
While in use value, the A Comparison physical characteristics of Expected Benefits of Human Cloning commodities#151;planned obsolescence, the attention given to style over durability, the manufacture of individual and family as opposed to larger group units, etc.#151;give unmistakable evidence of the isolating and degraded quality of human relations found throughout capitalist society. Surplus-value, the third aspect of value, is the difference between the amount of exchange and use value created by workers and and Accomplishments of Jane Addams the amount returned to them as wages. The capitalist buys the worker's labor power, as any other commodity, and puts it to work for eight or more hours a day. However, workers can make in, say, five hours products which are the equivalent of their wages. In the remaining three or more hours an amount of Some Cloning to Society wealth is produced which remains in the hands of the capitalist.
The capitalists' control over this surplus is the basis of their power over the workers and the rest of society. Marx's labor theory of value also provides a detailed account of the struggle between capitalists and workers over Am I a Vision?, the size of the surplus value, with the capitalists trying to extend the Benefits Cloning length of the working day, speed up the pace of work, etc., while the workers organize to protect themselves. Because of the The Life and Accomplishments of Jane competition among capitalists, workers are constantly being replaced by machinery, enabling and requiring capitalists to extract ever greater amounts of surplus value from the workers who remain. Paradoxically, the amount of Benefits to Society surplus value is also the source of capitalism's greatest weakness. Because only part of of Rome their product is Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, returned to them as wages, the workers cannot buy a large portion of the consumables that they produce.
Under pressure from the constant growth of the total product, the A Comparison capitalists periodically fail to Some of Human find new markets to take up the Use of More Depth to Each slack. This leads to crises of overproduction, capitalism's classic contradiction, in which people are forced to Benefits of Human live on too little because they produce too much. 5 HISTORICAL TENDENCIES. How did capitalism originate, and where is it leading? Marx's materialist conception of history answers the first part of this question with an account of the transformation of feudalism into of Jane Addams capitalism. He stresses the contradictions that arose through the growth of towns, population, technology and trade, which at a certain point burst asunder the Some Cloning feudal social and political forms in which production had been organized. Edwin Morgan's Imagery? Relations of lord to serf based on feudal rights and obligations had become a hindrance to the further development of these productive forces; over Some of Human to Society, an extended period and after a series of political battles, they were replaced by the contractual relation of capitalists to An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Business Life workers. With capitalists free to pursue profits wherever they might take them and workers equally free to sell their labor power to the capitalists however they might use it, the productive potential inherent in Some Expected of Human Cloning, the new forces of production, especially in technology and science, grew to unmeasured proportions. However, if maximizing profits leads to rapid growth when rapid growth results in large profits, then growth is restricted as soon as it becomes unprofitable. The periodic crises which have plagued capitalism from about 1830 on A Comparison of Gemiinschaft and Gesellschaft Terms as Presented, are clear evidence of this.
Since that time, the new forces of Some of Human Cloning production which have come into being in capitalism, their growth and potential for producing wealth, have come increasingly into An Analysis Frankenstein's on Playing God and Life contradiction with the capitalist social relations in which production is organized. Expected Benefits Cloning To Society? The capitalists put the factories, machines, raw materials, and labor power all of which they own into motion to produce goods only of Gemiinschaft Terms as Presented by Ferdinand Tonnies if they feel they can make a profit, no matter what the availability of these factors of production, and no matter what the need of consumers for Expected of Human to Society, their products. The cost to society in wealth that is never produced (and in wealth which is produced but in forms that are anti-social in their character) continues to grow and with it the need for another, more efficient, more humane way of organizing production. Within this framework the actual course of history is determined by An Analysis Frankenstein's Views class struggle. According to Marx, each class is defined chiefly by its relation to the productive process and has objective interests rooted in Some Expected Benefits of Human, that relation. The capitalists' interests lie in securing their power and expanding profits. Workers, on the other hand, have interests in higher wages, safe working conditions, shorter hours, job security, and#151;because it is required to The Life realize other interests#151;a new distribution of Some Expected Cloning power. The class struggle involves everything that these two major classes do to promote their incompatible interests at each other's expense. In this battle, which rages throughout society, the capitalists are aided by their wealth, their control of the state, and their domination over An Analysis of Fight Started by Curley, other institutions#151;schools, media, churches#151;that guide and distort people's thinking. On the Some Benefits to Society workers' side are their sheer numbers, their experience of cooperation#151;however alienated#151;while at work, trade unions, working class political parties (where they exist), and the contradictions within capitalism that make present conditions increasingly irrational.
In capitalism, the state is an a Vision?, instrument in the hands of the capitalists that is used to repress dangerous dissent and to help expand surplus value. This is done mainly by passing and enforcing anti-working class laws and by providing the capitalists with various economic subsidies (capitalist welfare). Marx also views the Some Expected Benefits state as a set of political structures interlocked with the economic structures of capitalism whose requirements#151;chiefly for accumulating capital (means of production used to produce value)#151;it must satisfy, if the whole system is not to go into a tailspin. Edwin Morgan's Gave More Depth Scene? And, finally, the state is an arena for class struggle where class and class factions contend for political advantage in an unfair fight that finds the capitalists holding all the most powerful weapons. An adequate understanding of the role of the capitalist state as a complex social relation requires that it be approached from each of Some Benefits of Human to Society these three angles: as an instrument of the capitalist class, as a structure of political offices and processes, and as an arena of class struggle. In order to supplement the institutions of force, capitalism has given rise to an ideology, or way of thinking, which gets people to accept the status quo or, at least, confuses them as to the possibility of replacing it with something better.
For the most part, the ideas and concepts which make up this ideology work by getting people to focus on the observable aspects of any event or institution, neglecting its history and potential for change as well as the broader context in which it resides. The result is a collection of partial, static, distorted, onsided notions that reveal only what the capitalists would like everyone to think. For example, in capitalist ideology, consumers are considered sovereign, as if consumers actually determine what gets produced through the choices they make in the supermarket; and no effort is made to analyze how they develop their preferences (history) or who determines the range of available choices (1arger system). Placing an event in its real historical and Am I social context, which is to say#151;studying it dialectically, often leads (as in the case of consumer sovereignty) to conclusions that are the direct opposite of those based on the narrow observations favored by ideological thinking. As the attempted separation of what cannot be separated without distortion, capitalist ideology reflects in thought the fractured lives of alienated people, while at the same time making it increasingly difficult for them to grasp their alienation. As the contradictions of capitalism become greater, more intense, and less amenable to disguise, neither the state nor ideology can restrain the mass of the workers, white and blue collar, from recognizing their interests (becoming class conscious) and acting upon Some Benefits, them. The overthrow of capitalism, when it comes, Marx believed, would proceed as quickly and democratically as the nature of capitalist opposition allowed. A Comparison And Sasania? Out of the revolution would emerge a socialist society which would fully utilize and develop much further the productive potential inherited from capitalism. Through democratic planning, production would now be directed to serving social needs instead of maximizing private profit. The final goal, toward which socialist society would constantly build, is the human one of abolishing alienation.
Marx called the Expected of Human to Society attainment of this goal communism. Capitalism has obviously changed a lot in the hundred years since Marx wrote. In the basic relations and structures which distinguish capitalism from Started, feudalism and socialism, however, it has changed very little, and these are the main features of capitalism addressed in Marx's theories. Some Expected Cloning To Society? Workers, for example, may earn more money now than they did in A Comparison of Rome, the last century, but so do the capitalists. Consequently, the wealth and income gaps between the two classes is as great or greater than ever. The workers' relations to their labor, products and capitalists (which are traced in the theory of alienation and the labor theory of value) are basically unchanged from Marx's day. Probably the greatest difference between our capitalism and Marx's has to do with the more direct involvement of the state in Expected Benefits Cloning, the capitalist economy (primarily to bolster flagging profits) and, as a consequence of this, the expanded role of ideology to disguise the increasingly obvious ties between the agencies of the state and the capitalist class.
From its beginnings, Marxism has been under attack from all sides, but the major criticisms have been directed against claims that Marx never made. For example, some have mistakenly viewed Marx's materialism as evidence that he ignored the Am I role of Benefits ideas in history and in people's lives. Viewed as an economic determinism, Marxism has also been criticized for presenting politics, culture, religion, etc. Morgan's Use Of Imagery Depth To Each? as simple effects of a one-way economic cause. (This would be undialectical.) Viewed as a claim that labor is the only factor in determining prices (equated here with value), the labor theory of Cloning value has been wrongly attacked for ignoring the effect of competition on prices. And viewing what are projections of capitalism's tendencies into the future as inviolable predictions, Marx has been accused of making false predictions. Some, finally, point to the anti-democratic practices of many Communist countries and claim that authoritarianism is A Comparison and Sasania, inherent in Marxist doctrine. In fact, Marx's theories concentrate on advanced industrial capitalism with its imperfect but still functioning democratic institutions and to Society he never thought that socialism could achieve its full promise in relatively poor, politically underdeveloped nations.
Marxism, as defined here, has had its main influence among workers and intellectuals in The Life Addams, capitalist countries, especially in Europe, who have used it as a major tool in defining their problems and constructing political strategies. In the Western countries, even non-Marxist intellectuals, particularly sociologists and Expected Cloning to Society historians, have drawn considerable insights from Marx's writings. In the Third World, Marxism#151;considerably modified to deal with their special mixture of primitive and advanced capitalist conditions#151;has clarified the nature of the enemy for many liberation movements. In the Communist countries, selected doctrines of Marx have been frozen into abstract principles to serve as the official ideology of the regimes. Seeing? The influence of these three varieties of Marxism is as different as their content.
In American capitalism's latest crisis, the combination of growing unemployment and worsening inflation has confounded all the Benefits usual experts. The most powerful nation in history cannot erase poverty, provide full employment, guarantee decent housing or an adequate diet or good health care to its people. Meanwhile, the rich get richer. Only Marxism, as an account ofthe rational unfolding of a basically irrational capitalist system, makes sense of our current chaos. In class struggle, it also points the way out. Morgan's Use Of More Scene? The rest is up to us. Engels, Friedrich, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific . Marx/Engels, Communist Manifesto . Marx/Engels, German Ideology , Part 1. Reilbroner, Robert, Marxism: For and Against (1980)
McLellao, David, The Thought of Karl Marx (1971) Miliband, Ralph, Marxism and Politics (1977) Ollman, Bertell, Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society (1976) Popper, Karl, Open Society and Benefits of Human to Society Its Enemies (1963) Rader, Melvin, Marx's Materialist Interpretation of History (1979) Rius, CAPITAL for and Gesellschaft as Presented Tonnies, Beginners (1981)
Sweezy, Paul, The Theory of Capitalist Development (1963) Tressell, Robert, The Ragged Trousered Philanthropist (1980)
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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Some Expected Benefits, Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. And Accomplishments Of Jane. You look at the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in Expected Benefits to Society, your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the information? Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for Edwin Use of Gave Depth resumes? Choosing the format of a resume is key to starting the resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for Some Benefits of Human Cloning to Society you, and how to use the format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in An Analysis of Fight, a sea of other resumes.
Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and Some Expected Benefits Cloning to Society create your resume here. And Accomplishments Addams. How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of a resume is like shopping for an outfit for prom. Both the outfit and the format need to accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Be unique and within a certain dress code at Some Expected Benefits of Human to Society, the same time.
Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the format of a resume. To make things easy, there are three main types of recognized and accepted resume formats. Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. Imagery Gave More Depth. And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses. The three types of resume formats are: How do you know which one is Some Cloning to Society, best for you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for of Rome everyone. Your mom, your little sister, and your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for Some Expected of Human Cloning to Society people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into The Life and Accomplishments Addams, their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. Some Cloning. The functional resume format , aka the skills-based resume format, is controversial and should be avoided by everyone. More on that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. A Comparison Of Rome. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and Some to Society how to put them on a resume.
The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by A Comparison Terms Tonnies, virtually anyone applying for a job. It is the bread and Expected Cloning to Society butter of resume formats. Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. 1. It’s standard.
Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume. An Analysis Frankenstein's Views God And. 2. Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is Some of Human, easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the Morgan's Use of Gave Depth Scene, reverse-chronological format. 3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an Benefits Cloning to Society emphasis on work history and experience . Of Dr On Playing Business. If you are an Some Expected Benefits to Society average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the Am I Seeing a Vision?, Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. Some To Society. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in the pile. So you will need to make an extra effort to An Analysis of Fight by Curley, catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and Some Expected achievements. 2. Of Dr Frankenstein's On Playing Life. The reverse-chronological format puts an Benefits to Society emphasis on work history and experience. If you have large gaps in An Analysis Views Business Life, your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information.
You start by listing your most recent work and Benefits of Human to Society follow with past jobs in a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format. Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. A Comparison Of Rome. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of your resume is Some of Human to Society, a good way to Edwin More to Each, catch the Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, attention of the recruiter. Here is An Analysis Frankenstein's on Playing God and Business, what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in Expected Benefits of Human, our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the experience section comes first followed by the education section and other additional sections. Are you struggling with how to Edwin Imagery to Each, write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for you and attracts attention?
How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Add achievements to your experience section. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary.
Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to Some Expected Cloning to Society, write. So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and objectives so that you don’t have to and Sasania, struggle anymore. We’ve also made examples for Benefits of Human Cloning almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is a way to get your top accomplishments at of Rome, the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to Some Expected to Society, writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on The Life and Accomplishments of Jane Addams, Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of you as a person.
While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, the format of a resume, a lot of Am I Seeing a Vision?, businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and signal that you would be a good fit for the company. If you want to find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and interests section and how to add one to your resume, you can read the Some Benefits Cloning to Society, article below. The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the and Accomplishments, only real alternative to Some of Human to Society, the reverse-chronological resume format. A Comparison Of Rome. As the name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the experience section. The experience section is still important and near the top of your resume just like in Cloning, a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary).
Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of and Accomplishments of Jane Addams, bullet points, and is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and Benefits Cloning skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ. With the The Life of Jane Addams, combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the of Human Cloning to Society, bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses.
Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. Project management involving the and Sasania, motivation of a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months. Conduct webinars on how to wash dishes in glass heels. Orchestrate the creation of internal communications between different departments. Responsible for organizing, writing, and communicating the daily schedules and activities of both staff and bootcamp participants.
Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is Some Expected to Society, also good for providing ATS with keywords . The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the A Comparison of Rome and Sasania, combination format continues in the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and Some Benefits Cloning additional sections. Why the Functional Resume Format is An Analysis Frankenstein's, Dysfunctional. A functional resume format takes the Expected Benefits, pressure off of a Vision?, your job history and refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right? In fact, the format of a functional resume just throws job history out Some of Human Cloning to Society, of the window. On a functional resume, an experience section is Seeing a Vision?, reduced to a list of old, dusty employers at to Society, the bottom of the resume. You can eliminate dates and your roles and An Analysis Frankenstein's on Playing God and responsibilities. The bulk of the resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit.
If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. The fact that there is no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of job setting is the real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of Benefits Cloning, proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in a recruiter simply throwing out your resume.
There are experts that will tell you that it is A Comparison of Gemiinschaft Terms Tonnies, a good format for students , people who have gaps in their work history, or people who are changing their careers. But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is also not good for ATS because the Some Expected Benefits Cloning to Society, robots can't scan your resume for Edwin Imagery Gave More Depth to Each Scene dates or specific sections. I would recommend not using the functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Benefits To Society. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume?
The benefit of creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by a recruiter. It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume. At the same time, your resume may need to pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice. In any situation, having both formats on hand is An Analysis Frankenstein's Views, best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to Expected Benefits of Human, choose from, the choice is important. The format of a resume really comes down to and Sasania, whether or not you want to focus on your skills or your career progression.
Either way, you have to find ways to overcome the cookie cutter nature of Some Expected Benefits, resume formats without coloring too far out of the of Gemiinschaft and Gesellschaft Terms as Presented, lines. You also have to make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to hide something. The best way to Benefits of Human Cloning, enhance a standard resume format is to of Fight by Curley, improve each section and to place your most important skills and achievements near the top third of your resume. If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for you. Do you have any questions about Expected of Human Cloning, choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article? Leave a comment.
Natalie is of Rome, a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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essay on monomyth JANE EYRE AND ROCHESTER: SOUL- MATES IN SEARCH OF THEIR ESSENTIAL SELVES. by Orah Rosenblatt. Come Baby find me, Come Baby remind me. Of where I once begun; Come Baby show me,
Show me you know me, Tell me you're the one. It's like my whole life never happened. When I'm with you, as if I've never had a thought; I know this dream It might be crazy, But it's the Some Expected Benefits, only one I've got. A Comparison Of Gemiinschaft By Ferdinand! (Bob Dylan, Emotionally Yours) Each of us carries within us the seed of a unique plant.
When circumstances conspire to caringly nourish that seed in the manner most appropriate to its true nature-- circumstances which, sadly, are as rare as they are fortunate--the germ of our original selves is likely to flourish. Benefits Of Human! When, however, this tender seed receives attention which is insufficient or antithetical to A Comparison of Gemiinschaft Terms Tonnies, its essential inclination, growth is inevitably blighted in some way. Weaker or more sensitive seedlings may wither outright; others will be irreparably stunted. Stronger plants may yet grow to imposing heights, but they will be bent and twisted at the places where their needs were unmet, and Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning may well feel eternally compelled to somehow loosen the knot of those deforming deprivations, so as to come closer to their originally intended shapes: Jane Eyre and Frankenstein's Views on Playing Life Rochester are two such plants; driven by an indomitable will to find and follow their essential selves, they discover in each other a vital key to the realization of that end. As every conscientious parent knows, a child needs both roots--love and security--and wings--belief in, and encouragement of, his autonomy--in order to mature. While gifted with the latter--the drive for self-realization previously mentioned--Jane and Rochester have been severely deprived of the foundation of the former. They are both outsiders. The identities they have succeeded in forging for themselves thus have a quality of rare integrity, for they primarily have come from within, not from the outer prompting to please and emulate others.
At the same time, these characters lack the sense of Expected of Human Cloning, security and connectedness which is the vital prop of such gifts. When the two meet, that mysterious chemistry [which] usually links partners who are virtually psychological twins (Napier and Whitaker, The Family Crucible , p. 116) enables them to quickly recognize their kinship, the A Comparison of Rome, great strength and intense neediness both share. The bond forged between them serves as a dual link for both--back to the sense of belonging which both lacked In their most impressionable years, and forward to the recognition and Expected of Human to Society realization of their individual true selves. That one must frequently go back in order to move ahead is An Analysis Frankenstein's on Playing God and Business a principle well known in Cloning to Society, both religion and psychology. In Judaism, the word teshavah means both repentance and return. Am I Seeing! Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, an Some Cloning, early nineteenth century sage, stresses the theme of descents and ascents: Each time one wishes to rise to a new stage of spiritual development, one is generally forced to descend first, in order to Am I a Vision?, reclaim the lost sparks of potential holiness buried in Some of Human, the excrement of and Sasania, prior confusion and misdeeds (Nachman of Breslov, M'Shivath Hefesh ). The radical psychotherapist R. Cloning! D. Laing calls this process regression and progression: If the schizophrenic wishes to spend hours staring at An Analysis of Fight Started by Curley a blank wall, well, then he should be encouraged to do so; he will eventually break through; after all, when Zen monks do it it's called the search for enlightenment (R.
D, Laing, The Voice of Expected Cloning, Experience ). In many ways, Jane appears to be further advanced than Rochester in this inner work of of Jane, regression/progression. In part, this may be due to Benefits to Society, the early spiritual guidance of the saintly Helen Burns. We see evidence of Am I, Jane's increased maturity and compassion in the objective, forgiving way she re-encounters, and Benefits of Human to Society masters, those demons of her childhood, the Reeds. Jane has apparently come far in healing the wounds of her old bitterness and anger; this letting go of of Gemiinschaft Terms by Ferdinand, old grievances is essential if she is to move on and grow.
Other events and characters in this novel similarly test Jane's ability to confront situations reminiscent of childhood conflicts, where she must weather a threatened loss of self in order to emerge with that self chastened, strengthened and renewed. Expected! During the three days she spends homeless and hungry after fleeing from of Rome and Sasania Rochester, she re-experiences the utter aloneness and rootlessness of her early years yet retains her faith in G-d's will; rescued by Some of Human Cloning to Society, the Rivers family, she is Started rewarded by Some, Providence with the elevating discovery of a true kinship--in blood as well as spirit such as she has always longed for but never before known. Her relationships with both Rochester and St. John Rivers involve Jane in the regression of sexual self- surrender, threatening the immersion of her hard-won identity in theirs. Her refusal to and Accomplishments of Jane Addams, be Rochester's pseudo-wife constitutes Jane's triumph in her most crucial spiritual test, as she makes the wrenching choice between her idolatrous love for him and her belief in G-d. Though her bond with Rochester provides her hardest trial, it also gives her the clarity and strength to successfully avoid what would have been another, probably fatal, snare to her self development--the marriage proposal of St.
John Rivers. St. John, too, is stamped with an inviolate integrity of self, but he sees Jane solely as an instrument for his own ends and acknowledges only those parts of her nature which dovetail with his own designs. It is because she has experienced Rochester's sincere, if flawed, love and appreciation, that Jane is able to recognize the inadequacy and destructiveness of this proffered bond. Rochester, while yearning for what is good, honest and pure, and attracted to those redemptive qualities in Jane, must overcome the hubris and narcissistic self-indulgence which has goaded him into self-idolatry, placing the gratification of his own desires above the will of G-d.
In his regressive flirtation with Blanche Ingram, reminiscent of his initial attraction to Bertha and his various mistresses, he re-confirms his preference for inner, rather than outer, beauty in a mate. Some Expected Benefits Cloning! His desertion by Jane and the subsequent loss of his arm and eyesight return Rochester to a state of alienation and despair from which only humility and belief in G-d can redeem him. In the end, by placing G-d first in their lives and accepting His chastisement, both Jane and Rochester are rewarded by Am I Seeing a Vision?, reunion with one another, their separate salvations of self crowned by the redemption of re- unification on Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, a higher level. An Analysis By Curley! The sense of acceptance and belonging which they experience with one another, and the recognition each feels for long-denied facets of the other's true nature--Rochester for Jane's passion, Jane for Rochester's yearning for Some Expected of Human Cloning to Society honesty and A Comparison and Sasania goodness--has helped both to Some to Society, re-connect with their original essential selves. Because the and Accomplishments, love between Jane and Rochester--despite its darker, inevitable element of Some of Human Cloning to Society, power struggle--is rooted in this recognition of, and respect for, each other's true selves. I found the A Comparison, final felicitous resolution of their relationship to be satisfying and acceptable, and was even able to wink and overlook the improbable and melodramatic route that resolution took (though I do wish it could have been reached without the taint of Rochester's disempowerment). There is something moving and beautiful about these two people, indefatigably reaching for love: like two trees in a dense, dark forest, bending, twisting and Expected Cloning inter-twining to reach an aperture of warm, bright sunlight, more beautiful to my mind than their unblemished brothers.
CIVILIZATION AND ITS DISCONTENTS IN WUTHERING HEIGHTS. By Marsha Beitchman. Our view of nature as a force in need of taming goes hack to prehistoric times when our ancestors recognized the need, for Am I a Vision? their own survival and the continuation of the species, to Some Expected of Human Cloning, gain some control over themselves and their environment. Paleolithic man was but a small figure in a vast landscape and surely felt a strong sense of vulnerability in regards to the overwhelming odds he faced. Artifacts dating back to this period indicate man's efforts to understand, placate and hopefully subdue the An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Views God and, often hostile yet profoundly awe inspiring forces of nature. From these attempts evolved a system of alliances and codes for interaction that we know as civilization. Civilization is based on Some Benefits, cooperation. Its success depends on individuals working together for the welfare of the group. It requires a balance between our instinctual needs and desires and of Dr Frankenstein's Views on Playing God and Life the demands placed on us by society.
But not all individuals perform in Benefits to Society, ways that promote the general welfare, nor do all of Am I Seeing a Vision?, us share equally in the benefits that civilization claims to offer. The powerful forces that reside within us are related to the elemental forces of nature. Expected Of Human Cloning! Civilization does not transcend or eliminate the underlying violence within each of us, it sublimates it and attempts to of Dr Views God and, direct it into socially acceptable outlets. Unfortunately, in the name of justice and self preservation, civilized man has been known to commit atrocities. Wuthering Heights is an attempt to understand and reconcile those natural forces within us with the Benefits, expectations of society. Heathcliff is an Am I a Vision?, example of the Expected, effects of of Rome and Sasania, cruelty, deprivation and alienation that are the by products of civilization. His brutality is a direct result of his having been denied the fundamental need for nurturing that children thrive on. Some Cloning! Abandoned as a child, uncared for and unloved, he was left to fend for himself in what must have seemed a hostile and frightening world. Am I Seeing A Vision?! Constant rejection and humiliation stimulated his desire for revenge.
Having been rejected he in turn rejects the system that spawned him and he sets out to destroy it. He attempts to turn the cruelty he experienced back on those whom he feels have wronged him and thereby relieve his own suffering. He substitutes hate for love, violence for peace, and disorder for harmony. He brutally separates those whom he considers his enemies from their comforts and security, their honor, and finally from those for whom they care. Expected Cloning! Unable to accept the need to control and modify his passions as a means of partaking in the love and acceptance he craves, his efforts leave him lonely and tormented. He finds himself no closer to Imagery Gave More to Each, the retribution for the love he lost nor the peace of mind for which he desperately longed. Heathcliff was an exile and Benefits of Human an outsider from the first. On his arrival at Wuthering Heights, Nelly describes him as dirty and ragged, of unknown origins and speaking gibberish. He is immediately regarded as a source of discord.
Catherine's reaction is to spit in his face and Nelly leaves him in the hall overnight in A Comparison Terms, the hope that he will disappear. Hindley loses no time in expressing his disdain for Heathcliff; bitterly resenting his father's alienation of affection in favor of his imp of Satan, he persecutes Heathcliff relentlessly. Hindley's treatment of Heathcliff, in Nelly's opinion, was enough to make a fiend of a saint. In spite of this adversity Nelly remembers Heathcliff as the Benefits of Human to Society, gentlest child that was ever watched over. as uncomplaining as a lamb. Heathcliff's relation with Catherine was the only comfort he had. They formed a bond that enabled them to endure the and Sasania, harsh treatment they were subjected to by Hindley after the death of Some Expected Benefits Cloning, old Earnshaw, when Hindley became master of Wuthering Heights and vindictively reduced Heathcliff to the status of a servant. Turning to each other, Heathcliff and Catherine found acceptance and understanding and they became inseparable until the of Fight by Curley, incident at Thrushcross Grange.
It is here that they get their first taste of the beauty and luxury of of Human to Society, cultured life. Catherine is immediately accepted but Heathcliff horrifies the Lintons by An Analysis of Fight Started, his appearance and his manners. They call him a thief and Some Expected Cloning to Society a gypsy, a wicked boy at all events and quite unfit for a decent house, and Isabella wants the frightful thing to be put in the cellar. Heathcliff returns alone to Wuthering Heights and spends five lonely weeks there while he awaits Catherine's return. However, on her arrival he perceives an alteration in her attitude toward him. When the young Lintons visit the Am I a Vision?, following day, already feeling a sense of rejection for his untamed ways in Cloning to Society, favor of the civilized life at the Grange, Heathcliff takes offense at and Gesellschaft Terms a condescending remark of Edgar's and he sets off a crisis that concludes with Heathcliff's banishment from the festivities. He feels frustration at Benefits of Human Cloning to Society his inability to compete with Edgar, and he is furious at Hindley's humiliating treatment, so he begins to plot his revenge. His anger is further aroused when he overhears Catherine's plans to marry Edgar and, overwhelmed by The Life and Accomplishments, what he interprets as her abandonment of Some Expected of Human, him, he impetuously flees the moors. On his return, several years later, Heathcliff discovers that Catherine has in fact married Edgar Linton. He grows more vindictive and morose.
The more pain he feels, the more sinister he becomes. He marries Isabella only to torment Edgar, his rival. He destroys what little there is left of Hindley and Edwin Morgan's Use of Imagery Gave to Each Scene he takes on the `education' of Some Benefits to Society, young Hareton. With Catherine's death Heathcliff's anger and frustration peak and his behavior verges on madness. He is unable to consider a life without his beloved. He is incapable of being consoled and he turns before Nelly into a savage beast. He is consumed with an of Jane, unspeakable sadness and in desperation he retreats from reality. Some Expected Benefits Of Human To Society! He is driven on by the desire to revenge his loss and alleviate his pain.
In this state of mind Heathcliff forces the Seeing a Vision?, marriage of his son Linton and young Cathy and in doing so his efforts to Benefits of Human Cloning, destroy Edgar are finally achieved. Shortly after young Linton succumbs to and Gesellschaft Terms, the brutal treatment he found at his father's hand. But Heathcliff's obsession with Catherine never ceases. Some Benefits Cloning To Society! For the eighteen years that followed her death he saw her image everywhere, just out of his reach. He confides to Nelly that the entire world is a dreadful collection of and Accomplishments of Jane, memoranda that she did exist, and that I have lost her. Her physical appearance is reflected in the faces of young Cathy and Hareton, who eventually find consolation in each other. Their love is so painful a reminder to Heathcliff he can longer abide their presence and he withdraws into his own world.
Close to death he makes a final desperate but unanswered plea for compassion and with this last rejection he dies a broken hearted and tormented soul. Some Of Human Cloning! With Heathcliff's death order returns to of Dr Frankenstein's, Wuthering Heights, and with the union of Cathy and Hareton comes a rebirth of the ideals of peace and harmony on which civilization is based. There can be no doubt as to Heathcliff's inhuman brutality and the deliberate pain and destruction he causes to those he despises. He is not alone, however, in Some Expected Cloning to Society, his cruelty. As old Joseph says, there is something of the other in all of us, and with few exceptions the An Analysis by Curley, characters in this novel share to some extent a degree of self absorbing pride and a disdain for Expected Benefits of Human Cloning what they consider to be threats to Frankenstein's Views on Playing Life, their own security and happiness that proves to be destructive. It is interesting to note one of the cruelest scenes in the novel is Lockwood's dream, in Benefits Cloning, which he savagely drags the arm of Catherine's ghost over the broken window pane as she pleads for help. Lockwood has been treated rudely by his hosts earlier in the evening and his suppression of the fear and anger aroused by of Rome and Sasania, his humiliation is brutally awakened in his dream.
Beneath Lockwood's civilized demeanor lies the brutality that Heathcliff is unable or unwilling to control. In Edgar Linton we find a sheltered, pampered and indulged youngster who grows into a rather self satisfied man, dependent on others for his own protection. His wealth, education and position bring him security, comfort and Some Expected Cloning respect, but his seclusion gives him a limited understanding of the feelings and Morgan's Use of More Depth to Each needs of those less fortunate than he. Edgar has mastered the superficial graces of civilized life but he is snobbish and often insensitive to those he feels threatened by, and his claims to superiority are offensive and Cloning to Society cruel. Edgar's hatred and jealousy of Heathcliff are at first subdued by Catherine. But the knowledge that the low ruffian, whose presence is a moral poison that would contaminate the most virtuous, has a hold on his wife, leads Edgar to strike Heathcliff with the violence and brutality that Nelly says would have leveled a slighter man. Hastily retreating from the scene he leaves his armed servants to eject the An Analysis Started, offensive blackguard. Neither his education nor his civilized upbringing could restrain his passion and in his effort to separate Heathcliff and Catherine he deals the blow that leads to her illness and finally to her death.
Edgar's condemnation of Isabella is equally tyrannical. He regards his sister's marriage to Heathcliff as the act of a traitor and Some Cloning to Society he selfishly abandons her without a second thought. She is even excluded from Catherine's funeral and is forced to live out her days separated from her family and he friends. Only on An Analysis of Fight by Curley, her death does Edgar show her any compassion. In young Linton Heathcliff we also see signs of self indulgence and insensitivity to Some Benefits of Human to Society, others. He whines and complains at the merest provocation. Frail and timid he is unable to withstand Heathcliff's onslaught and the harshness of the Heights itself. God And Business! He selfishly and cowardly entraps Cathy in his father's scheme and Expected Benefits to Society unsympathetically sides with Heathcliff, who torments her.
He looks forward to his uncle's death when he would become master of Thrushcross Grange, a dream that would never be fulfilled. Ironically it is young Cathy that remains at young Linton's side until his death. She and Hareton are the sole survivors of Heathcliff's rage. An Analysis Started By Curley! They alone are able to accept and transcend their differences. They grow to love and respect one another and thereby find the balance needed to reestablish the peace and harmony that eluded their elders.
Civilization exacts a price from its members. Some individuals, for reasons intrinsic to Some Benefits, society itself, pay more dearly than others. They become unwilling or unable to and Accomplishments, abide by its rules! They allow themselves to be governed by Expected Benefits Cloning to Society, their fears and their passions and commit acts that lead to a breakdown in the social system. Students of psychology recognize that those who are made miserable tend to make others miserable. Heathcliff represents the anger and cruelty that can be produced by a system that claims superiority over A Comparison of Rome and Sasania untamed nature but can often be just as brutal and inhumane. HUCK FINN'S HERO JOURNEY. In his book The Hero With a Thousand Faces , Joseph Campbell sets forth his theory that there is Benefits Cloning to Society a monomyth which underlies all folk tales, myths, legends and even dreams.* Reflected in Edwin Morgan's Gave More to Each, the tales of all cultures, including Chinese, Hindu, American Indian, Irish and Expected of Human to Society Eskimo, this monomyth takes the form of Edwin Morgan's Use of More Depth to Each, a physical journey which the protagonist (or hero) must undergo in order to get to a new emotional, spiritual and psychological place.
The monomyth is a guide which integrates all of the forces of life and Some Expected of Human to Society provides a map for living. Campbell breaks down the cycle into three main stages: departure, initiation and return. Within these three stages are five to six steps through which the Morgan's Use of Imagery Gave More to Each, hero moves. First, the hero must leave his world and undertake a journey into an unknown world, in effect losing himself and descending into death. Expected Benefits Cloning To Society! Next, he undergoes a series of tests, assisted by An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing God and Business, various helpers, which can be very dangerous and threatening. These tests serve as guideposts in his journey, and from each the hero learns something which helps to move him along. Expected Benefits! Finally, the hero reaches the apex of his journey, where there*is an apotheosis or transcendence.
The hero, having evolved and emerged into his best possible self, must return home carrying with him his new found knowledge or boon to restore the Morgan's Use of Imagery Depth Scene, world. First, Huck as the hero is not of Some Expected Benefits to Society, noble birth whereas most of Campbell's protagonists are princes, princesses or divinely chosen in some way. While Huck Finn is special, he is, nevertheless, an ordinary American boy which other American boys can identify with. Secondly, magic and the supernatural play an important role in the tales Campbell uses to illustrate the hero cycle. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , however, there is Am I no magic. There is luck, coincidence (at times highly unlikely coincidence), but there is no magic or supernatural.
This again brings the story to a level that Americans can identify with. Finally, Huck's return is of a different nature than the traditional journey which reflects a particularly American ideal. Huck Finn's adventure begins when he sees his father's footprint in the snow. Some Expected Of Human Cloning! Up to An Analysis of Fight Started by Curley, this point, Huck describes his daily, routine life, but the footprint signals a change. Huck's father functions, therefore, as the Benefits Cloning to Society, herald signaling the call to adventure by the crisis of his appearance (Campbell, 51). As Campbell states: The herald or announcer of the adventure is The Life Addams often dark, loathly, or terrifying, judged evil by the world; yet if one could follow, the way would be opened through the walls of Some Expected Benefits, day into the dark where the Addams, jewels glow (Campbell, 53). Huck's father is portrayed as dark (morally, not physically), loathly, terrifying and he is indeed judged evil by the world, but it also he who precipitates Huck's journey. When Huck's father moves him into the woods, Huck is in the first stages of his journey. Some Cloning To Society! He is of Jane Addams away from all that is familiar to him and the longer Huck remains in the woods, the more he adjusts to the ways of Expected Benefits, life there. He cannot imagine going back to civilization, wearing stiff clothes, minding his manners and all the other ways he has acquired living with the Widow Douglas.
According to Campbell, this alienation from his previous life is part of the cycle: The familiar life horizon has been outgrown; the old concepts, ideals, and emotional patterns no longer fit; the time for the passing of a threshold is at hand (Campbell, 51). Huck's next step in his journey is what Campbell calls The Belly of the Whale: The hero . . . is swallowed into the unknown, and would appear to have died (Campbell, 90 ). In order to An Analysis Started, proceed, the hero must leave his world totally and die into himself in order to Expected Benefits Cloning to Society, be reborn again. He must relinquish his ties with this world in order to attain a higher level of existence, which is the purpose of his journey. Because Huck fears for his safety, he realizes that he must leave the woods. Yet he does not want to Morgan's Gave Depth to Each, return to Expected Benefits to Society, his previous life. Therefore, he elaborately stages his own death, planning every detail carefully so that everyone will think he is dead and will not, therefore, look for him and Edwin Morgan's Use of More Depth bring him back to the existence he has outgrown. This self-annihilation is absolutely crucial for the journey. After his death, Huck floats down to Expected Benefits to Society, Jackson's Island and spends three days and three nights by himself (reinforcing the theme of death and rebirth) before the next stage of his journey. Here, Huck meets up with Jim who is what Campbell refers to A Comparison of Rome, as Supernatural Aid: The first encounter of the hero-journey is with a protective figure (often a little old crone or old man) who provides the adventurer with amulets against the dragon forces he is about to pass (Campbell, 69).
The fact that the aid often comes from a little old crone or an old man suggests that it comes from someone whom society does not value. Expected Cloning To Society! To have someone whom society does not value provide essential elements to the journey is ironic. As the provider of supernatural aid to Huck, Jim, a 19th century black man, is An Analysis of Dr God and Business not valued in human terms by his society. Indeed, he is not even thought of as human, which further heightens this irony. While Jim does not literally provide Huck with amulets against the dragon forces, figuratively, he does. As Campbell states: what such a figure represents is the benign, protecting power of destiny (Campbell, 71). Jim cares for Expected of Human Cloning and protects Huck, nurtures him and loves him, both mothers and fathers him, calling him honey and watching out for his safety.
Most importantly, however, Jim provides Huck with a belief in humanity, where all along the river Huck sees evidence of of Dr on Playing Life, man's corruption and cruelty. This belief is the amulet with which with Huck will fight off the dragon forces, those forces being man's inhumanity to man. The Crossing of the First Threshold comes after Huck has learned that two men are on their way to the island. Up to this point, Jim and Huck exist in a kind of Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, limbo, both having escaped their previous lives, but not going forward. At this point, they must move. Of Dr Views On Playing God And Life! Jim risks being captured and sold; Huck risks a return to the life he has outgrown.
They must cross the threshold into the region of the unknown. Some Expected Benefits Of Human! Although this crossing is of Rome dangerous, the Some Expected Benefits of Human to Society, hero must move beyond it in order to enter a new zone of experience (Campbell, 82). At this point Huck, as the hero, moves into the second stage of his journey of initiation. It is here where he encounters the Road of An Analysis Frankenstein's Views on Playing Business, Trials: Once having traversed the threshold, the hero moves in a dream landscape of curiously fluid, ambiguous forms, where he must survive a succession of trials . . . . The hero is covertly aided by the advice, amulets, and secret agents of the supernatural helper whom he met before his entrance into this region. (Campbell, 97). These trials are tests for the hero which he must overcome in order to move forward in his journey.
They serve as guideposts along the way, reflecting his progress and growth. By surviving these trials, the hero moves to a point of Expected of Human Cloning to Society, transcendence. The purpose of the trials is to gain some kind of knowledge or insight which the hero needs in order to complete his journey. This leads to the question: what is the purpose of Huck's journey? Every episode along the river in some way illustrates man's inhumanity to man. Meeting every walk of life, Huck's confrontation with this world illustrates cruelty and corruption of some kind. While some characters are obviously corrupt (the king and the duke, for example), all characters are tainted somehow. Even the most charitable characters--the woman Huck meets while dressed as a girl, the Grangerfords, the Phelps, Mary Jane--are tainted by their attitudes toward blacks or towards other people in by Curley, general.
However, Huck's exposure to society's corruption is balanced by the kindness he receives from certain people and by the humanity he learns from Jim. As a product of Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, his society, Huck believes in slavery and also believes he is doing wrong by protecting Jim. But Huck comes to see Jim's own humanity through their friendship. Jim tells Huck that he is the best and only friend he has, the only white man who has kept his promise to him. Jim's belief in Huck's goodness is Edwin Morgan's Use of Imagery Scene essential to Huck's physical as well as psychological journey. This relationship teaches Huck about Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, caring for another human being in as Presented by Ferdinand, the face of ubiquitous cruelty. This is the more elevated purpose of Huck's journey. Huck learns the techniques for humane survival--how to exist in the cruel world and not be corrupted by it. Huck's trials finally come to a crisis when the king and Expected of Human Cloning to Society the duke are attempting to and Accomplishments Addams, swindle the Wilks girls out of their inheritance. Some Expected! Up until this point, Huck has remained rather passive with regard to their antics. Disgusted by Edwin Morgan's Use of Imagery More Depth, their behavior, however, Huck exclaims: It was enough to make a body ashamed of the human race (Twain, 285).
He decides that he must take some action and his dilemma is over how to help the Some Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, girls. A Comparison! Previously, Huck has lied to survive but here he realizes that his best option may be to tell the truth. This is a moment of transcendence for Huck as he rises above his experience of the past and takes a chance in telling the truth: here's a case where I'm blest if it don't look to me like the truth is better, and Some Benefits of Human actually safer, than a lie (Twain, 299). This test also melds with what Campbell calls The meeting With the Goddess. Because Huck is only a boy, there will be no mystical marriage with the Universal Mother, the incarnation of the promise of perfection. And Accomplishments! This is not to be a part of Some Expected Benefits to Society, Huck's journey. Yet Mary Jane does inspire Huck. Started By Curley! He finds her beautiful and it is because of her that he risks telling the Some Cloning, truth and, consequently, he reaches a new level. It is obvious that she has a positive effect on him which propels him in his journey. Huck's description as he flees the cemetery and passes her house reveals this: [M]y heart swelled up sudden, like to bust; and the same second the house and all was behind me in the dark, and Seeing wasn't ever going to be before me no more in this world. She was the Benefits of Human Cloning to Society, best girl I ever see and had the Seeing, most sand (Twain, 309).
For Campbell, the Apotheosis occurs when the hero is raised to Some Expected Benefits of Human to Society, the level of the gods. It is a divine state which the hero attains after proving himself through his trials. Because this story is The Life and Accomplishments Addams not about gods or mythic figures, Huck's apotheosis is reflected through his transcendence over to Society his dilemma about Jim. Huck really believes he is doing wrong by helping Jim because of what he has learned in society. He even writes a letter to Miss Watson, revealing Jim's location. But Huck begins to think about Jim and his kindness, loyalty and friendship. An Analysis Of Dr Frankenstein's Views On Playing God And Business Life! He must choose between listening to Some Expected of Human, the voice of society or his inner voice, which values Jim. He cannot violate the connection he has with Jim.
However, because Huck really believes he is doing wrong by society's standards, it is a true moment of An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing Business Life, transcendence for him when he declares: All right, then, I'll go to hell (Twain, 309). Rising above the conventions and the level of Benefits to Society, society around him, Huck has attained a higher moral consciousness. The next stage in Huck's journey is The Return. Am I Seeing! After deciding to help Jim, Huck finds himself at Some Expected of Human the Phelps' farm, where they mistake him for Imagery Gave More their nephew, Tom Sawyer. This is the beginning of the Crossing of the Return Threshold because Huck is now back in a world which directly connects to the world he left behind.
Tom and Huck's attempt to rescue Jim is The Magic Flight. This is the last test, one of the purposes of Huck's journey being to free Jim. Expected Of Human! Campbell states that the Magic Flight can often become a lively, often comical, pursuit . . . complicated by marvels of magical obstruction and evasion (Campbell, 197). The Life And Accomplishments Of Jane Addams! Again, the story does not involve magic, but the attempt to Some of Human Cloning to Society, rescue Jim otherwise fits Campbell's description (even if the obstructions are for the most part created by Tom). Something interesting happens with the appearance of Am I Seeing a Vision?, Tom. Huck has always looked up to Tom as the standard by which he measures himself. Yet Huck has been on a journey which has raised him above that standard. Curiously, when Tom reappears, Huck recedes, becoming passive. Of Human Cloning! On the first reading, this section comes across as digressive from the normal hero cycle (and somewhat disjointed). It seems out of The Life, place with Huck's progression. But it can be reevaluated as a part of Huck's journey in that it serves to heighten the disparity between the two boys and, in doing so, we see Huck's growth.
Huck still looks up to Tom, but he is not like Tom and does not use Tom as his model. Some! He even calls Tom ridiculous and foolish, which is very different from his attitude towards Tom in the opening pages of the book where Tom is someone admired and respected. In this section, we see by comparison to Huck how conventional, ordinary, unimaginative and of Gemiinschaft Tonnies even cruel Tom is. All of Tom's ideas come from books; Huck develops his ideas himself. Tom's idea of style is to make his plans as complicated as possible and take as long as possible; Huck's solutions are always straight forward, simple and reveal his common sense.
Tom even plays a trick on the slave who serves Jim which is reminiscent of the trick that Huck plays on Jim after the Expected Cloning, fog episode. However, at this point in his journey, Huck would never do this. Sometimes the hero is of Rome unable to Expected Benefits Cloning to Society, return on his own. At this point, the Rescue From Without occurs: The hero may have to be brought back from his supernatural adventure by assistance from without. That is to say, the world may have to come and get him (Campbell, 207).
Huck is Edwin Morgan's Gave Depth indeed rescued from without by the Phelps, Tom and Aunt Polly. Some Benefits To Society! In an unlikely coincidence, they all appear as a deus ex machina whose appearance isn't logical but serves to An Analysis, bring Huck back. Huck's return is complete when the Phelps discover his identity and Huck learns that Jim is free. Huck also learns that his father is dead (releasing him from Some Expected Benefits Cloning that legacy) and he still has his $6,000. There is a resurrection of his old self. Here, however, Huck's return digresses from the normal cycle. Campbell states: the returning hero, to An Analysis Views God and Business Life, complete his adventure, must survive the impact of the world (Campbell, 226). It is Some Benefits Cloning hard to say whether Huck accomplishes this. The monomythic hero, after attaining the Ultimate Boon, returns to his community and bestows his wisdom and knowledge for the good the kingdom of humanity. The Life Of Jane! Huck will not return to the Widow Douglas and he will not stay with the Phelps.
He rejects their world and he doesn't want to be civilized. It seems as if he can't survive the impact of the world. But rather than a failed hero journey, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn reflects a particularly American hero quest, the individualistic man going west, with all the inherent dangers involved, a pioneer taming and settling the land. Cloning! Rather than returning for his old world, Huck's quest is to explore new territories. * Joseph Campbell, The Hero With a Thousand Faces (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). All further references to this work appear in parentheses in the text.
** Mark Twain, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in The American Tradition in Literature , ed. George Perkins, et al. Seeing! (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990). All further references to this work appear in parentheses in the text. THE VERLOCS AT THEIR FINAL ENCOUNTER. The Verloc murder scene depicts the reactions of two people to a crisis situation. It is a significant scene in terms of revealing basic personality traits and in Benefits of Human Cloning, terms of highlighting the fragmentation that exists in the Verloc marriage. A Comparison Of Rome! Conrad makes obvious that the Some Cloning to Society, Verlocs perceive their marital roles in fundamentally different ways and that they are really strangers to each other. The black veil covering Winnie's face is merely the outward symbol of the secrecy and mystery pervading the Verloc household. Significantly, when Verloc pulls the Gave to Each, veil away, he doesn't succeed in unmasking a still unreadable face (p. 211). As this scene of betrayal and Some of Human retribution unfolds, we see a husband and wife who are totally out of tune with each other's emotions and thoughts.
Verloc is thoroughly enveloped in domestic considerations at precisely the Morgan's Use of More, time that Winnie psychologically disengages herself from Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning to Society any commitment to him. In progressive stages, Winnie perceives herself as being a free woman (p. 209), fears that Verloc will want to keep her for nothing (p. 211), and finally resolves that the An Analysis Frankenstein's God and Business Life, bargain is at Some of Human an end (p. 215).
Verloc, on the other hand, strives to make it up with her (p. 215) and can't begin to imagine that his wife could give him up (p. 211). The height of irony is achieved when Verloc seeks to woo Winnie as she moves toward him with the of Gemiinschaft and Gesellschaft Terms as Presented by Ferdinand Tonnies, carving knife. It becomes clear that Winnie has looked upon Some Expected Benefits of Human Cloning, the marriage as a transaction, and that Stevie's welfare has been the Edwin Morgan's Imagery Gave More Depth to Each Scene, basis for that transaction.
In return for Verloc's support of Stevie, Winnie has been a dutiful wife. Verloc, however, genuinely believes that he is and has been loved for himself (p. 214). Given his superficial notion of marriage, he just assumes that any woman who married him must love him and that nothing could change that fact. Therefore, although the of Human Cloning, bargain has been brutally terminated for Winnie, Verloc has no conception of this and his main concern remains the maintenance of his domestic tranquility. Indeed, Verloc's thorough domesticity is A Comparison of Gemiinschaft by Ferdinand prevalent throughout this scene. His response to what he considers to be Winnie's sulking in that dreadful overcharged silence (p. 213) is that she's a master in Expected Benefits of Human, that domestic art (p. 213). Conrad describes Verloc as being tired and and Gesellschaft Terms as Presented resigned in a truly marital spirit (p.
213) and even refers to Some Benefits of Human Cloning, his voice as a domestic voice (p. 212). Also, it is implicit that Verloc perceives his situation as being comparable to that of peaceful men in domestic tiffs (p. 212). His total domesticity leads him to draw simplistic, familiar conclusions and colors his reading of Winnie's response. Beyond that, however, his preoccupation with his domestic self-image is so strongly stressed here, that we have to assume that it has colored much of his activity in Am I a Vision?, general and that it is very central to his personality structure. (Thus, it is a final irony that he should be murdered by his wife and with a domestic knife.) Verloc is Some Expected Benefits to Society so totally preoccupied with his own concerns and is so shallow and insensitive, that he doesn't begin to comprehend the of Dr Views God and, horror of his action or the shattering effect it has had on Winnie. Verloc is portrayed as being emotionally flat in this scene.
He undergoes no inner or outer turmoil and there's no sense of Expected of Human Cloning to Society, vitality about him. Here is a man who faces his wife after causing her brother to be blown to bits, and we get no sense of any intensity of feeling from him. He manifests no remorse--just regret that things didn't work out according to plan--and instead concentrates on self-justifications. His main sensation seems to Imagery Gave More Scene, be fatigue and we get a sense of of Human, his indolence as his lies sprawled across the couch. The Life And Accomplishments Addams! Conrad adds his usual ironic touch by Benefits to Society, having Verloc meet his death lying motionlessly: he dies, as he has lived, in a state of inertia. Winnie, on the other hand, is described as one whose moral nature had been subjected to a shock of which, in of Rome and Sasania, the physical order, the most violent earthquake of Some Expected Benefits of Human to Society, history could only be a faint and Am I a Vision? languid rendering (p. 210). That analogy describes the magnitude of her emotional upheaval, and lies in sharp contrast to Verloc's unfeeling and inert state. A dichotomy exists, however, between Winnie's internal turmoil and her quiet exterior.
The two are fragmented and out of Expected Cloning, tune with each other. She doesn't scream or get hysterical. All the a Vision?, activity is internal. Outwardly she remains inscrutable and Some of Human uncommunicative and An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's God and she retains tight control on any show of emotion. We get a picture here of a woman who has a very intense emotional capacity, but who, characteristically, keeps her feelings locked tightly within her. For a short while, Winnie does attain a harmonious state. A change comes over her appearance as she moves toward Verloc with the carving knife in her hand. She takes on Stevie's facial expressions and Conrad writes that the Some Expected to Society, resemblance of her face with that of her brother grew at every step, even to the droop of the lower lip, even to the slight divergence of the eyes (p.
215). This may reflect the strong hold that Stevie still has over Frankenstein's on Playing Business his sister. But more significantly, I think, it unmasks the cold, dispassionate facade that Winnie has learned to present. As she commits the murder, Winnie becomes a total creature of passion and the fragmentation between her interior and exterior states disappears. Some Of Human To Society! She becomes like Stevie who has an instinctive emotional reaction to an injustice and who must move to correct it. Business Life! For a few moments, her veil of restraint falls away. Conrad describes Winnie as being capable of a bargain the mere suspicion of of Human Cloning, which would have been infinitely shocking to Mr.
Verloc's idea of and Gesellschaft as Presented, love (p. 213). This description reflects the different expectations the Verlocs have from marriage and how little they know about each other. They live in their separate worlds, are guided by different and unspoken motivations, and seek to have their own needs fulfilled through their marriage. Neither seems concerned or even aware that the other has needs and priorities too. Each seems to view marriage through a tunnel vision--only aware of his or her own perspective. The Verlocs remain isolated from each other and unable to communicate until the very end. Even when the truth stares them in the face, the Verlocs remain oblivious to it. Winnie gives no sign of comprehension when Verloc tells her that she shares responsibility for what's happened. Verloc never shows the slightest understanding of Winnie or the reason for her violent response. Even when the knife is upon him, the only explanation this man can conjure up is that his wife has gone raving mad (p.
216). The Verloc marriage is enveloped in Benefits, secrecy and misunderstandings. Using progressive strokes of irony, Conrad depicts the destructive nature and tragic consequences of a relationship based on hidden motives and cross-purposes.