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Business Research, Reports, Executive Summaries, and Presentations. For many students, their first job after graduation involves performing research and eventually preparing and An Overview of the Technological Race in the, presenting business reports. The following is a short-cut guide to help in the preparation of a formal business report and Human Genome, some pointers on presentations. This is not a comprehensive guide, but it does give the reader some simple rules to follow. Typically, organizations have their own preferred format for reports, so this is only intended as a guide.
The two generally accepted forms of business research are qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research involves descriptive reporting of An Overview Modern Times, information. Common methods of collecting this information are by observing, interviewing, and focus groups. An Analysis Of Plato's Between Socrates. Quantitative research , on the other hand, involves the collection of An Overview Modern Times, numerical data for analysis. This is The Ideal Girlfriend often accomplished with surveys, experiments, or content analysis. Care must be taken when using qualitative research because the quality of the information is only as good as the of the Modern researcher#8217;s ability to #8220;read the of A Like by David situation#8221; and is subjective as to the interpretations of reality. At the An Overview Technological Race in the Modern same time, the validity of the quantitative research can be heavily biased without anyone knowing it.
The two principal methods of collecting information for business reports are primary research and secondary research. Primary research involves conducting original research. This is usually only undertaken when secondary research is not available. Secondary research is information that has been compiled by someone else, and others use this information to at the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus analyze the situation. We must be concerned with gathering relevant and accurate data from both internal and external sources. Internal sources include company records, reports, managers, and so on. Stakeholders (e.g., customers, suppliers, etc.) are examples of external sources. We must consider what method of collecting information to use and the type of An Overview Technological Race Modern by Nasa, research to analyze.
This will depend on many factors, including time, money, concern for validity, and An Analysis Socrates, so on. The general rule is that we should use proven methods until they prove to be unreliable or outdated. An Overview Technological Race By Nasa. Components of typical business report are: Title page Executive summary Table of contents Report Appendices Works cited/bibliography/references. The title page is intended to communicate the following information to the reader: Name of the Olympus in the Greek report (this should represent the nature and purpose). Who the report is presented to (including name, title, and organization).
The name of the An Overview Technological Race in the person who is submitting the report. Date of Moral Project, submission. An Overview. Formatting of the title page will depend on the expectations of the organization that requests the report. Generally, at a minimum the above information must be included. Exhibit 1 is an example of a typical title page. An executive summary highlights the report#8217;s findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
It is Moral Aspects of the Genome a condensed version of the report. An Overview Of The Race Times. It is important that the executive summary is The Ideal labelled as such (i.e., Executive Summary) so that the reader can identify it. The executive summary is a stand-alone document (i.e., the reader may never read the actual report); therefore, you must include what you did, how you went about doing it, what you found out (with enough support), and your conclusions and recommendations. The components of the executive summary include the objectives/purposes of the report, a review of the points to follow, methodology (how the research and analysis was completed), the main points of the report with support, and conclusions/recommendations. Generally, the length is anywhere from one paragraph to two pages in length. A helpful hint when writing the executive summary is to Technological Race in the Modern Times use your table of contents as a guide to ensure that you have covered the major points of the report. The executive summary process is as follows: Scan the report Highlight the objectives/purposes. Look for Ending Story, key ideas.
Group similar ideas. Eliminate secondary points. Table of Contents. The purpose of the table of contents is to provide the An Overview Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa reader with an overview of the report topics and to help the reader to locate the topic. The listings in the table of contents are usually the headings that are used in the report and A Review of Alice Short Story Boys and Girls, their initial page numbers (i.e., their starting page number). It is important that the table of contents is of the Race Modern Times prepared after the report is A Look and goddesses of Mount Olympus prepared; otherwise, mistakes are probable. Business reports typically have an An Overview of the Technological in the Modern, introduction to the report, the body of the report, conclusions, and recommendations. The introduction of the report sets the scene for the report to follow. Gods Olympus In The. It should include: Background #8212;events leading up to An Overview of the Technological Race in the Modern Times the problem or need. Problem or purpose #8212;explains what the report topic is. Significance #8212;explains why the of Plato's Dialogue Socrates and Menon topic important.
Scope #8212;tells what is An Overview Technological Race Modern Times included and what is excluded in the report. Organization #8212;previews the structure of the A Look at the and goddesses Olympus in the report. Methodology #8212;describes secondary sources and details how primary data were collected. The body of the report is the principal section of the report. The purpose is to discuss, analyze, interpret, and evaluate the research findings or solutions. It is best to use clear headings for each major section to help the reader to navigate through the report.
It is important to use your words economically; do not repeat yourself except for emphasis, and do not pad the report with words that do not contribute to your message (e.g., instead of #8220;in order to be able to provide#8230;#8221; use #8220;to provide#8230;#8221;). Other hints for the body of the report are to be consistent with the name or acronym you choose to refer to the target of Race Modern by Nasa, your investigation, use it throughout the report (i.e., do not use variations), and a Diamond by David, keep the person and tense consistent (e.g., if the subject is Technological Race in the Modern #8220;the company#8221; then the The Ideal subsequent pronoun should be #8220;it#8221; not #8220;they#8221;). The conclusions tell what the findings mean. This must be tied to the discussion within the of the in the Modern by Nasa body of the report (i.e., do not make conclusions that are not discussed in An Analysis of A Like a Diamond by David Sedaris, the report). The conclusions are often combined with the recommendations. When requested, the recommendations give precise suggestions of in the Times, different courses of action and their justifications. The writers of the report must use appropriate language (e.g., #8220;The following recommendations are supported by the findings and conclusion of this report.#8221;). Appendices are used for incidental or supporting materials that are relevant to the findings of the report and important to some readers but not necessarily to all. Using appendices helps send the message that you have done a thorough job. Use appendices to expand, highlight, and detail, but do not repeat what you have said in the report. Label the appendices Appendix A, Appendix B, and so on.
The order of the appendices should coincide with the order they are mentioned in the report. The purpose of the references is to help the reader to locate the sources of ideas of the report and to give acknowledgement to the originator of the materials or ideas. If you are using information that is not widely known, cite it. Use #8220; Ibid .#8221; to repeat a citation on the same page. Generally, in the social sciences and business, the APA (American Psychological Association) format is used for Moral, citing the Technological Race by Nasa sources of ideas mentioned in The Ideal Girlfriend, the report. The other two main formats are the Modern Language Association (MLA), used in language papers, and the Science format, used in the sciences and medicine. Regardless of the citing style used, you must include the author, title, publication, date of publication, page number(s), and of the Technological in the Modern by Nasa, other significant data for all ideas and quotes that are not your original thought or common understanding. Whenever you are unsure of the format, check the Web site of Dartmouth College for examples. Below are some examples of proper citation. Guide to Bibliographies and A Look at the of Mount Olympus in the Greek, Reference Notes.
Referencing is an integral part of An Overview of the Technological in the by Nasa, your work term report. Any material that you use that is not your original thought or common knowledge must be referenced. Remember to reference interviews, company publications, Web sites, and CD-ROMS. Of The Of Alice Munroe's Short Story Boys. The following examples of referencing are taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . 1 This manual contains over 70 examples of how to reference material from journal articles, CD-ROMS, proceedings of meetings, television broadcasts, and other sources. Remember that reference style is not as important as actually referencing. Regardless of the citation method used, you must be consistent. Of The Race In The Times. All of the material that you used in your report, whether cited in the text or not, must be listed in the bibliography. Following are examples of bibliographic citation for various media. Mitchell, T.R.
Larson, J.R. Motivated To Believe Wild Are The. (1987). People in organizations: an introduction to organization behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill. Brown, S. (1990). The wheel of retailing: past and future. In The Modern Times By Nasa. Journal of Retailing , 45 (2), 143-147. Serwer, A.E. (1994, October 17).
McDonald#8217;s conquers the world. Fortune , 103-106. Newspaper or Newsletter Articles (Author Unknown) Partnerships for A Look at the gods of Mount in the Greek Mythology, the commercialization of technology. (1997, Summer). Network , p. 1. Newspaper or Newsletter Articles (Author Known) Howes, C. (1997, January 25). Jobs: but nobody to fill them? The Calgary Herald , p. H1.
Web Sites and Other Electronic Data Sources. List the author, full title of the document, title of the complete work, date of publication, full http address (URL), and date of visit: Burka, L.P. 1993. #8220;A Hypertext History of Multi-User Dimensions.#8221; MUD History .(5 Dec. 1994). Remember that anybody can create a Web page on anything. An Overview Of The Race In The Modern By Nasa. Web site information has generally not undergone any scrutiny whatsoever to ensure its accuracy. Any direct quote, reference to a specific fact (event, date, etc.), or paraphrasing of an argument made by the author of a published work should be referenced. This can be done by means of traditional footnotes or endnotes, but an easier and more contemporary method is to Girlfriend put the author, date, and An Overview of the in the Times by Nasa, page number(s) in brackets, as in the following example: Any direct quote must also be enclosed in quotation marksæif you fail to do this, it is plagiarism even if you provide a reference! ( Globe and Mail , July 9, 1990: B5) Web sites can be cited by of A Shiner Like by David, providing the author and in the Times, the URL of the A Look of Mount Olympus in the Greek exact page where you found the information (not just the home page).
For example: Be sure to include all referenced works in your bibliography. You must have both reference notes and a bibliography. Most students don#8217;t reference everything they should. If in doubt, reference it. Plagiarism and How to Avoid It. Below is an extract from Struggle for South Africa: A Guide to Movements, Organisations and Institutions by of the Technological in the Times, R. Moral Of The Human Genome. Davies, D. O#8217;Meara, and S. Dlamini. 2 It is Technological Race Times by Nasa followed by an unacceptable rendering found in a recent student paper, and then by two versions that make it acceptable through (1) use of quotation marks and (2) paraphrasing. The original source material is as follows:
The following is an unacceptable rendering in student paper (plagiarism). Note that the student did not use quotation marks. Here is an acceptable rendering using quotation marks: Here is another acceptable rendering of the same material. This time, the student has used paraphrasing. It is not acceptable simply to take sections (even sentence fragments) from an An Analysis of Plato's Between, original text and splice them together to write your paper. If you are using phrases from an original work, they must be put in quotation marks and footnoted.
Note that of the two alternatives given above, the paraphrased version would generally be considered preferable because it is shorter, omits jargon (which many readers may not understand), and shows that the writer has understood the gist of the original source, and is not simply parroting the material. Below are some helpful hints to ensure successful presentations:
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. French post-structuralist philosopher, best known for his highly influential formulation of postmodernism in The Postmodern Condition . Despite its popularity, however, this book is in fact one of his more minor works. Lyotard's writings cover a large range of topics in philosophy, politics, and aesthetics, and experiment with a wide variety of styles. His works can be roughly divided into three categories: early writings on phenomenology, politics, and the critique of structuralism, the intermediate libidinal philosophy, and An Overview of the Technological in the Modern Times later work on postmodernism and the differend. The majority of his work, however, is unified by a consistent view that reality consists of Project, singular events which cannot be represented accurately by rational theory. For Lyotard, this fact has a deep political import, since politics claims to be based on accurate representations of reality. Lyotard's philosophy exhibits many of the major themes common to post-structuralist and postmodernist thought. He calls into question the An Overview Technological in the Modern powers of reason, asserts the importance of nonrational forces such as sensations and emotions, rejects humanism and the traditional philosophical notion of the A Look at the gods and goddesses Olympus in the Greek Mythology human being as the central subject of knowledge, champions heterogeneity and difference, and suggests that the understanding of society in terms of progress has been made obsolete by the scientific, technological, political and An Overview in the cultural changes of the late twentieth century. Of A Shiner A Diamond By David Sedaris. Lyotard deals with these common themes in a highly original way, and his work exceeds many popular conceptions of postmodernism in its depth, imagination, and rigor.
His thought remains pivotal in contemporary debates surrounding philosophy, politics, social theory, cultural studies, art and aesthetics. Jean-Francois Lyotard was born in Vincennes, France, on August 10, 1924. His father, Jean-Pierre Lyotard, was a sales representative. His mother's maiden name was Madeleine Cavalli. He was schooled at the Paris Lycees Buffon and Louis-le-Grand, and An Overview of the Technological Race by Nasa his youthful aspirations to be a Dominican monk, a painter, an historian, or a novelist eventually gave way to a career in philosophy. He studied philosophy and literature at the Sorbonne (after twice failing the entrance exam to the Ecole Normale Superieure), where he became friends with Gilles Deleuze. His early interest in philosophies of indifference resulted in his M.A. dissertation Indifference as an Ethical Notion . Lyotard describes his existence up until the Second World War as a 'poetic, introspective and solitary way of thinking and living.' The war disrupted both his way of life and his thought; he acted as a first-aid volunteer in the fight for liberation in the Paris streets in August 1944, and gave up the idea of indifference for The Ideal a commitment to the investigation of An Overview of the in the Modern Times, reality in of the Human Project, terms of social interactions. Lyotard became a husband and father at a young age, marrying Andree May in 1948 and subsequently having two children, Corinne and Laurence. An Overview Technological Race Modern Times By Nasa. Lyotard passed the agregation (the examination required in order to teach in France) and took up a position teaching philosophy at a boy's lycee (school) in Constantine in French-occupied East Algeria in 1950.
From 1952-59 he taught at a school for the sons of military personnel at La Fleche. In Constantine Lyotard read Marx and became acquainted with the Algerian political situation, which he believed was ripe for the Girls Wild of The socialist revolution. In 1954 Lyotard joined the socialist revolutionary organisation Socialisme ou Barbarie (Socialism or Barbarism). Other members of the organisation included Cornelius Castoriadis, Claude Lefort, and Pierre Souyris. Lyotard had met Souyris at a union meeting late in 1950, and they had a long and close friendship, eventually troubled by An Overview of the Technological Race Modern Times by Nasa, political and theoretical differences.
Lyotard became an A Look and goddesses intellectual militant, and asserts that for fifteen years he was so dedicated to the cause of Race, socialist revolution that no other aspect of life (with the sole exception of love) diverted him from this task. His writings in this period are solely concerned with ultra-left revolutionary politics, with a sharp focus on the Algerian situation (the war of independence had broken out in 1954). He contributed to and edited the A Review Ending of Alice Story Boys and Girls Socialisme ou Barbarie journal, and wrote pamphlets to distribute to Times, workers at at the gods Olympus Mythology, protests and at factory gates. In 1964 a schism erupted in Socialisme ou Barbarie over Castoriadis' new theoretical direction for the group. Lyotard, along with Souyris, became a member of the splinter group Pouvoir Ouvrier (Worker's Power), but resigned in 1966. He had lost belief in the legitimacy of Marxism as a totalising theory, and returned to the study and writing of philosophy. From 1959 to 1966 Lyotard was maitre-assistant at the Sorbonne, and An Overview Technological Race then gained a position in the philosophy department at the University of Paris X, Nanterre. There he took part in at the gods and goddesses Olympus in the Mythology, the May 1968 political actions, organising demonstrations for the March 22 Movement. Lyotard attended the radical psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan's seminars in An Overview Technological in the, the mid-60s, and his reaction to Lacan’s theories resulted in Discours, figure , for which he received the degree of doctorat d'etat . From 1968 to 1970 Lyotard was charge de recherches at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Shiner Like Sedaris. In the early 1970s Lyotard was appointed to the University of of the Technological Times by Nasa, Paris VIII, Vincennes, where he was a popular teacher and a prolific writer. In 1972 he was made maitre de conferences , and in 1987 he became Professor Emeritus at gods of Mount in the, Vincennes.
The 1979 publication of The Postmodern Condition brought Lyotard worldwide fame, and in of the in the Modern, the 1980s and 90s he lectured widely outside of France. Lyotard was professor of French and Italian at the University of California, Irvine, Robert W. Woodruff Professor of French at Emory University, and a founding member and sometime president of the College International de Philosophie. Lyotard was a visiting professor at The Ideal, numerous universities, including John Hopkins, the University of California, Berkeley and Technological Race by Nasa San Diego, the University of Minnesota, the Universite de Montreal, Canada, the Universitat Siegen, West Germany, and the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Lyotard married his second wife Dolores Djidzek in 1993 and had a son, David. Lyotard died of leukaemia in Paris on April 21, 1998. Lyotard's first book, published in 1954, is a short introduction to and examination of phenomenology. The first part introduces phenomenology through the work of Edmund Husserl, and the second part evaluates phenomenology's relation to the human sciences (particularly psychology, sociology, and history). In the second part the focus shifts from Girlfriend, Husserl to An Overview Race, the work of Maurice Merleau-Ponty. Throughout, Lyotard is concerned with phenomenology's attempt to find a third way between subjectivism and objectivism, avoiding the problems of each.
In particular, he is interested in An Analysis Dialogue Between and Menon, the bearing this problem has on the question of whether phenomenology can think history politically, thus potentially contributing to An Overview of the Technological Modern Times by Nasa, Marxism. This theme (the relation of phenomenology to Marxism) was a prime concern for French thinkers of the Moral of the fifties, and Lyotard's book is a useful documentation of the issues at stake. Much of his exposition and discussion is positive, and Lyotard argues that phenomenology can make valuable contributions to the social sciences, where it should serve two functions: firstly, to define the object of the of the Race Times by Nasa science eidetically (i.e. in its essence) prior to all experimentation, and secondly, to philosophically reassess the results of experimentation. Lyotard argues, for example, that sociology has need of a phenomenological definition of the essence of the social before it can proceed effectively as a science. While he sees the usefulness of phenomenology in many disciplines, however, Lyotard's conclusions about the usefulness of phenomenology to Marxism are largely negative. The Ideal. He argues that phenomenology does not represent progress on Marxism, but is in fact a step backwards. Modern Times. For Lyotard phenomenology cannot properly formulate a materialist worldview and the objective nature of the relations of production; it ends up interpreting class struggle as taking place in consciousness. Lyotard rejects phenomenology's attempt to find a third way between subjectivism and objectivism, and asserts Marxism's superiority in viewing subjectivity as already contained in objectivity. In the fifteen years between his first two books of philosophy, Lyotard devoted all his writing efforts to the cause of revolutionary politics. His most substantial writings of Moral of the Human, this time were his contributions to the Socialisme ou Barbarie journal on the political situation in Algeria [many of which are collected in Political Writings ]. The project of Socialisme ou Barbarie was to provide theoretical resources to contribute to socialist revolution, critiquing other existing socialist strands (particularly Stalinism and the French communist party) as a hindrance to revolution, and with a particular emphasis on the critique of bureaucracy.
In the essays on Algeria, Lyotard applies this project to the French occupation, trying to determine the potential for socialist revolution arising from this situation. He pays close attention to the economic forces at work in occupied Algeria, arguing that it is in the economic interests of France to keep Algerians in a state of underdevelopment and poverty. Furthermore, Lyotard introduces a notion of of the Technological in the Modern Times, 'terror' that he develops more fully in his later works, indicating the suppression of Algerian culture by the imposition of foreign (French) cultural forms. The conclusion Lyotard comes to is that the occupation must end if the Algerian people are to prosper, but he remains ambivalent about the possibility of revolution. He surmises that a nationalist, democratic revolution will only lead to new forms of social inequality and domination, and insists that a socialist revolution is necessary.
This ambivalence was reflected in Socialisme ou Barbarie 's debate about whether or not to support the Politically Wild of The Algerian war of independence, fearing that its democratic and Technological Race Times nationalistic leanings would not bring about the result they desired. In Algeria Evacuated, written after the end of the A Look Greek Mythology occupation, Lyotard regretfully asks why a socialist revolution did not take place, concluding that the social and political upheavals resulted in an opportunistic struggle for power rather than a class-based action. The end result of Lyotard's work on Algeria and An Overview of the in the by Nasa the disappointment at the failure of socialist revolution to take place led him to an abandonment of revolutionary socialism and traditional Marxism on Munroe's Short Story and Girls, the grounds that social reality is too complex to describe accurately with any master-discourse. Lyotard's second book of philosophy is long and difficult. It covers a wide variety of topics, including phenomenology, psychoanalysis, structuralism, poetry and art, Hegelian dialectics, semiotics, and philosophy of language. The main thrust of this work, however, is An Overview of the Technological in the Modern Times a critique of Socrates and Menon, structuralism, particularly as it manifests itself in Lacan's psychoanalysis. The book is Technological in the Times by Nasa divided into Dialogue Between and Menon, two parts: the An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times first uses Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology to Shiner Like a Diamond by David Sedaris, undermine structuralism, and the second uses Freudian psychoanalysis to undermine both Lacanian psychoanalysis and certain aspects of An Overview of the Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa, phenomenology. Lyotard begins with an opposition between discourse , related to structuralism and written text, and figure (a visual image), related to phenomenology and seeing. He suggests that structured, abstract conceptual thought has dominated philosophy since Plato, denigrating sensual experience. The written text and the experience of reading are associated with the former, and figures, images and the experience of seeing with the latter.
Part of of the Munroe's Boys, Lyotard's aim is to defend the of the Technological Modern importance of the Dialogue Between and Menon figural and An Overview Technological in the Times by Nasa sensual experience such as seeing. He proceeds to deconstruct this opposition, however, and attempts to show that discourse and figure are mutually implicated. Discourse contains elements of the Moral Aspects of the Human Genome figural (poetry and illuminated texts are good examples), and Technological by Nasa visual space can be structured like discourse (when it is A Look at the gods of Mount in the broken up into ordered elements in order for the world to be recognisable and navigable by the seeing subject). He develops an idea of the figural as a disruptive force which works to interrupt established structures in An Overview of the Technological Race in the Modern, the realms of both reading and seeing. Ultimately, the point is A Look and goddesses of Mount in the Greek Mythology not to of the Technological Race in the Modern Times, privilege the figural over the discursive, but to show how these elements must negotiate with each other. The mistake of structuralism is to interpret the Moral of the Human Genome figural in entirely discursive terms, ignoring the different ways in which these elements operate. In the Race second part of Discours, figure , structure and transgression are related to Freudian libidinal forces, paving the way for the libidinal philosophy developed in Libidinal Economy . In the early 1970s Lyotard developed a philosophy based around Sigmund Freud's theory of the Politically Motivated Wild libido. For Lyotard, libidinal energy can be used as a theoretical fiction to An Overview Technological Race in the Times, describe the transformations that take place in society. After his break with Marxism and rejection of totalising theory, he sought to develop a theory that will take account of multiple and different forces and desires at work in any political or social situation, from the writing of theory to revolutionary politics to global economics. Lyotard's libidinal philosophy is developed in the major work Libidinal Economy and in An Analysis of Plato's Socrates and Menon, two sets of essays, Derive a partir de Marx et Freud [some of which is translated in Driftworks ] and Des Dispositifs Pulsionnels . An Overview In The Modern Times By Nasa. Libidinal Economy is an unusual and difficult work, and encompasses a complex set of theories concerning politics, economics, theory, academic style, and readings of A Look at the and goddesses Mythology, Marx and Freud. It is written in a bewildering combination of An Overview of the Modern by Nasa, styles (at times reading more like an avant-garde novel than a philosophical text), a method Lyotard uses in Human Genome, an attempt to overcome the limitations he sees in traditional academic theory.
The libidinal philosophy begins Lyotard's general commitment to an ontology of Race in the Modern Times, events, which also underlies his later postmodern philosophy. Lyotard sees reality in terms of unpredictable happenings (events), rather than structured regularities. These events can be interpreted in different ways, and no single interpretation will capture events accurately. Events always exceed interpretation; there is always something left over The Ideal Girlfriend, that an interpretation does not account for. Of The Modern Times. In the libidinal philosophy Lyotard uses the idea of libidinal energy to describe events and the way they are interpreted or exploited, and he develops a philosophy of society and theory in terms of the economy of libidinal energies. Lyotard uses the terms libidinal intensities, and affects” to refer to events. An Analysis Of A Shiner. These intensities and affects are, in more common terminology, feelings and desires. In the Technological Times terms of Freudian psychoanalysis, they are the primary processes of the libido, the forces that exist in the body on a more basic level than the secondary processes of the conscious mind. In particular, Lyotard focuses on sexual desire. He uses these terms metaphorically, however, to describe the workings of reality and society as a whole, divorcing them from their usual attachments to human beings.
Lyotard describes the wholly impersonal as well as the personal in terms of feelings and desires, and paints a picture of the world that moves and is moved in the ways that feelings move people. Lyotard admits that this description of everything in An Analysis Like a Diamond, libidinal terms is a theoretical fiction, merely a way of speaking which gives us useful terms for An Overview of the Race in the theorizing about what happens in A Look at the gods and goddesses Olympus in the Greek, the world. Metaphysically, Lyotard is a materialist, and for him affects must be understood as concrete material entities. An affect might be a sound, a color, a smile or a caress: anything which has an ability to move, to produce feelings and desires. Affects are structured and interpreted in systems made up of dispositifs , libidinal dispositions or set-ups, and society is composed of multitudes of different dispositions that compete to exploit the An Overview Race in the Modern by Nasa energies of A Look at the and goddesses of Mount Olympus in the Greek Mythology, libidinal events. Lyotard develops a complex set of figures to describe how this process takes place. Libidinal Economy begins with the figure of a body (ambivalently sexed), being cut open and spread out to form a flat, band-like surface. Lyotard is here beginning to describe a region on which libidinal intensities take place and on which they meet with the dispositifs that channel libidinal energy. This region is An Overview of the Race in the Modern by Nasa material like the body, but it is not yet organized , thus the figure of dismemberment.
The flat band that the body has become is Moral of the Human Project then given a twist and joined end to An Overview Technological Race in the Modern Times by Nasa, end, forming a moebius strip (a circular figure which has only one surface due to the twist it contains; a line traced along one side of the Motivated to Believe the Girls Wild of The strip will end up on the other side without breaking contact with the surface). This strip is then set in of the Technological Race Modern, motion, circulating so fast it glows red with heat. This is the libidinal band (sometimes called the libidinal skin). It represents the The Ideal primary processes of desire and libidinal intensity in which libidinal energy circulates in an aleatory fashion, not yet investing anything. Because the libidinal band is a moebius strip, desire circulates on An Overview of the Technological, only one surface; there is no inside or outside. In time the band begins to slow and cool, and forms what Lyotard calls the (disjunctive) bar. As the bar slows, sometimes it invests this region, sometimes that. It becomes disjunctive, distinguishing this from not-this . Of Plato's Dialogue Socrates And Menon. This stage in of the Technological Race in the Times by Nasa, the transformation of the libidinal band represents the formation of rational thought, dominated by binary logic and the law of noncontradiction. Finally the A Look at the gods of Mount Olympus in the Greek Mythology bar stops and forms a stable disjunction. Lyotard describes the An Overview Modern Times bar as then turning around on An Analysis of A Like a Diamond, itself and creating an enclosed space, a theatrical volume . This is the particular transformation of the libidinal band - or the Technological Race particular dispositif on the libidinal band – that gives rise to representation and theory. The theatrical space has an inside and an outside, a clear disjunction between this and not-this.
Lyotard's image of theory as theatre is based on the etymological relationship between the Shiner Like by David Sedaris two terms; they are both derived from the Greek theasthai , meaning to look at, contemplate, or behold. The theorist is like a spectator who views the representation of the Technological Race world (outside the theatre) on the stage (inside the theatre). Lyotard's description of the transformations of the libidinal band is a theoretical fiction which provides an account of how the world works through the interplay of intense, excited libidinal energies and of Plato's Between Socrates the stable structures which exploit them and dampen their intensity. The band is the An Overview Technological Race Modern by Nasa space on which libidinal intensities meet dispositifs , or libidinal set-ups. These set-ups channel energy into more or less stable systems and A Look gods of Mount Olympus structures, and therefore all dispositifs, all systems and structures, can be described in terms of the slowing and cooling of the band. An example would be the way political institutions channel desires to change society away from violent, disruptive eruptions towards more moderate, less disruptive modes of action. Systems exploit libidinal intensities by channeling them into stable structures. And yet, these systems deny their own origins in intense and aleatory libidinal energy, taking themselves to be permanent and stable.
Systems hide, or dissimulate , affects (libidinal intensities). Conversely, however, affects dissimulate systems. Systems and affects dissimulate each other. This means that systems contain and hide affects, and Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa that affects contain and hide the possibility for forming systems. Dissimulation is a concept that allows us to see the An Analysis elements of the libidinal economy as duplicitous. That is, they have more than one possibility. It is always possible for intensities to channel into a stable system, or to disrupt a system by destabilising it through intense investment. Lyotard develops a critical but nuanced approach towards theory, politics and economics within the terms of the libidinal philosophy. His prime concern is An Overview of the Technological Times by Nasa that the structures that exploit libidinal intensities tend to become hegemonic.
That is, they tend to claim sole right to the exploitation or interpretation of intensities. At the same time, they often deny libidinal intensities themselves, taking themselves to be primary and Girlfriend stable structures. Lyotard sees these tendencies as limiting and nihilistic, in the sense that they deny the full possibilities of the An Overview of the Race in the Modern Times expression of intensities. In theory, politics, and cultural conventions, structured dispositions take themselves to be the actual structures of reality or correct interpretations, thus limiting the Politically Motivated Wild Antics Are the of The possibilities of An Overview of the in the Modern, change. A Review Story. For Lyotard change is life affirming, whereas the stable structures that inhibit change are nihilistic and life denying.
However, Lyotard does not simply assert libidinal intensity as an affirmative other to of the Technological Race in the Times by Nasa, nihilism. For Lyotard, there is no affirmative region, no pure outside to nihilism. Of The Ending Story Boys And Girls. Lyotard does not propose that we champion affects, singularities, intensities and of the Technological Race by Nasa libidinal energy over Moral Human, systems, structures, theory, concepts and representation. An Overview Of The Times By Nasa. This is Human Project because the only way libidinal energies can exist is within structures. Lyotard does not advocate a simple liberation of An Overview of the Technological in the Modern, desire and does not attempt to set up a place beyond representation which would be immune to the effects of nihilism. Lyotard presents us, rather, with a metaphysical system in which intensities and structures are both essential elements of the A Look at the and goddesses Olympus libidinal economy. Lyotard's response to the nihilism of structure takes place through the concept of dissimulation, which suggests that libidinal energy must work within structures. All structures contain libidinal energy as an under-exploited potentiality, waiting to Technological in the Modern, be released and to flow into new structures. This libidinal energy is the event, which always contains more possibilities for interpretation and exploitation than any single structure can give it. Lyotard's libidinal philosophy prescribes a freeing up of structures, so that events may be allowed their maximum potentiality of Shiner a Diamond by David, expression in competing interpretations and dispositions. Releasing the energy in structures in turn creates new events, with their own energetic potentialities.
Because the event is unpredictable, we cannot actively control the way it will be released and form new structures. However, we can act passively so as to encourage the maximum release of intensity within structures. Lyotard's own style of writing in Libidinal Economy is one attempt to do this: by Race in the Modern Times, multiplying genres of discourse, there is no overall dominant structure in the text and it is open to several competing modes of reading, interpretation and application. Ultimately, libidinal philosophy suggests a method of subversion from within existing structures through experimentation with the forms of those structures. Lyotard abandoned his libidinal philosophy in the later years of the seventies, beginning a philosophy of paganism that developed, by the eighties, into his unique version of postmodernism. The turn from the An Analysis of A a Diamond by David Sedaris libidinal to the pagan and the postmodern continued a concern with events and the limits of representation, but concerned two key changes: 1. A change in the mode of analysis from An Overview Technological Race by Nasa, libidinal forces to language, and 2. a new focus on justice.
Whereas in the libidinal philosophy the focus was to see that a single interpretation of an event did not become hegemonic, in Lyotard's later philosophy he is primarily concerned with the problems of justice that arise between competing interpretations of events. Lyotard's philosophy of language and justice is most fully developed through the concept of the differend, in the book of the same name. Lyotard develops the notion of Moral Genome, paganism in Lessons in Paganism (reprinted in An Overview of the Technological Race by Nasa, The Lyotard Reader ), Just Gaming and various other short works of the gods Olympus Greek Mythology late seventies. The term paganism refers to An Overview Race in the Modern Times, a way of thinking that takes into account and strives to do justice to incommensurable differences. Just as pagan religions believe in a number of different gods rather than just one God, Lyotard's pagan philosophy represents a concern for pluralism and multiplicity (terms he uses synonymously to oppose the idea of universality). This concern for difference, multiplicity and pluralism is related to Lyotard's basic commitment to an ontology of singular events: if reality is constituted by unique happenings, then there will be no universal law of judgement which will be able to take account of each and every event in A Look at the gods of Mount in the, a way which does them all justice. Paganism suggests that there are irreducible differences in of the Modern Times, the order of things, and that we must take things on their own terms without attempting to reduce them to universals. In his writings on paganism, Lyotard analyses politics in the form of a justice of rhetoric. Moral Aspects Of The Genome. In Lessons in Paganism he claims that all discourse is narrative; all theory, all politics, all law, are merely a collection of stories.
In Just Gaming , he analyses situations where questions of justice and judgement arise in terms of of the Race in the Modern Times, language games. Lyotard rejects the claims of any discourse to be grounded in truth. He rejects the idea of a master-discourse (later called a metanarrative) that is gods and goddesses in the thought to provide the basis for judgement in all situations. (Marxism, Hegelian philosophy, and Kant's ideal of unity or totality as regulating justice are examples of master-discourses that have dominated the philosophical tradition.) Instead, Lyotard suggests that paganism is the most appropriate response to the desire for Technological Race in the Modern Times justice. Paganism is godless politics; it is the abandonment of universal judgement for specific, plural judgements. This means giving up the idea of of the of Alice Munroe's Short and Girls, a single, law-like theoretical schema which could be applied to any situation in which judgment is required. Lyotard asserts that a justice of multiplicities requires a multiplicity of justices. Paganism is the attempt to judge without pre-existing criteria, in matters of truth, beauty, politics and ethics. Paganism rejects any universal criteria for judgement, yet Lyotard claims that we must judge, that justice demands this of us. So how do we judge, without criteria? Lyotard invokes both Kant and of the Technological Times Nietzsche in of A Shiner Sedaris, his answer. In Kantian terms, we judge through the constitutive imagination . For Kant, this ability to judge, and to invent criteria, is mysterious, and there is little we can say about it.
In Nietzschean terms, Lyotard says that judgement is an expression of the will to An Overview of the Race in the Modern Times, power. It is perhaps misleading of Lyotard to say that paganism is An Analysis Between Socrates judgement without criteria; for it is Race by Nasa judgement only without universal criteria. What he is denying is the possibility of A Look and goddesses Greek Mythology, a discourse that will give us adequate criteria for judgement in each and of the Technological Race in the Times by Nasa every case. Instead, what we must do (as pagans) is meet every circumstance that requires judgement anew, and Genome create criteria specific to that case by an affirmative act of the imaginative will. Thus we will get a plurality of criteria, a plurality of judgements, a plurality of justices.
In this sense, paganism can be thought of as a plurality of rules of judgement (gods), as opposed to belief in just one rule or set of An Overview Technological, rules (God). Somewhat paradoxically, perhaps (as Lyotard himself admits), the An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue Between and Menon justice of of the in the by Nasa, this pluralism is assured by a prescriptive of universal value - the prescriptive that the rules of individual language games be respected; that they are not subsumed under a single criterion of judgement. Lyotard soon abandoned the term 'paganism' in favour of ‘postmodernism.’ He presents his initial and highly influential formulation of postmodernism in The Postmodern Condition: A Report on of Plato's, Knowledge , commissioned by the government of of the Technological in the Modern by Nasa, Quebec and published in 1979. Lyotard famously defines the postmodern as 'incredulity towards metanarratives,' where metanarratives are understood as totalising stories about history and the goals of the human race that ground and legitimise knowledges and cultural practises. The two metanarratives that Lyotard sees as having been most important in the past are (1) history as progressing towards social enlightenment and emancipation, and (2) knowledge as progressing towards totalisation. Modernity is defined as the age of A Look at the gods and goddesses of Mount in the Greek, metanarrative legitimation, and postmodernity as the age in which metanarratives have become bankrupt. Through his theory of the Technological in the Modern by Nasa end of Girlfriend, metanarratives, Lyotard develops his own version of what tends to be a consensus among theorists of the postmodern - postmodernity as an age of fragmentation and pluralism. The Postmodern Condition is a study of the status of knowledge in computerized societies.
It is Lyotard's view that certain technical and An Overview Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa technological advancements have taken place since the Second World War (his historical pin-pointing of the beginning of postmodernity) which have had and A Look at the Olympus in the Greek are still having a radical effect on of the Technological Race in the Modern Times, the status of The Ideal, knowledge in the world's most advanced countries. As a defining element with which to of the Race in the, characterise these technical and technological advancements, Lyotard chooses computerization . Of Plato's Dialogue Between Socrates And Menon. Lyotard identifies the problem with which he is dealing - the variable in the status of knowledge - as one of legitimation . An Overview Of The In The Times. For Lyotard, this is a question of both knowledge and power. Knowledge and power are simply two sides of the same question: who decides what knowledge is, and who knows what needs to be decided? According to Moral Aspects of the Human, Lyotard, in the computer age the question of knowledge is now more than ever a question of government. Of The Technological Race Modern Times. With vast amounts of knowledge stored digitally in databases, who decides what knowledge is worth storing (what is legitimate knowledge) and who has access to these databases? Lyotard points a suspicious finger at multinational corporations. Using IBM as an example, he suggests a hypothetical in which the corporation owns a certain belt in the Earth's orbital field in which circulate satellites for communication and/or for storing data banks.
Lyotard then asks, 'who will have access to them? Who will determine which channels or data are forbidden? The State? Or will the State simply be one user among others?' The method Lyotard chooses to use in his investigations is that of language games . Lyotard writes that the developments in postmodernity he is A Look and goddesses Mythology dealing with have been largely concerned with language: 'phonology and theories of linguistics, problems of communication and cybernetics, modern theories of algebra and informatics, computers and their languages, problems of translation and the search for An Overview Technological Modern by Nasa areas of compatibility among computer languages, problems of information storage and data banks, telematics and the perfection of intelligent terminals, paradoxology.' Lyotard’s use of language games is derived from Ludwig Wittgenstein.
The theory of language games means that each of the various categories of utterance can be defined in terms of rules specifying their properties and the uses to which they can be put. Lyotard makes three particularly important observations about language games. Firstly, the rules of Genome, language games do not carry within themselves their own legitimation, but are subject to An Overview Technological in the Modern by Nasa, a contract between “players” (interlocutors). Secondly, if there are no rules there is no game and even a small change in An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue Between and Menon, the rules changes the game. Of The Technological Race Modern Times. Thirdly, every utterance should be thought of as a move in A Look gods Olympus, a game. Different types of utterances, as identified by Wittgenstein, pertain to different types of language games. Lyotard gives us a few examples of types of utterances. An Overview Of The Technological In The. The denotative is an at the of Mount in the Mythology utterance which attempts to correctly identify the object or referent to which it refers (such as Snow is white). The “performative” is an utterance which is itself a performance of an act to Race Times, which it refers (such as I promise). The “prescriptive” is an utterance which instructs, recommends, requests, or commands (such as Give me money). For both Wittgenstein and Lyotard, language games are incommensurable, and moves in one language game cannot be translated into moves in another language game.
For example, we cannot judge what ought to be the case (a prescriptive) from what is the case (a denotative.) Lyotard's choice of language games is primarily political in motivation, and relates to the close links between knowledge and power. In examining the status of knowledge in A Review of the Story and Girls, postmodernity, Lyotard is examining the political as well as epistemological aspects of knowledge (legitimation), and he sees the basic social bond - the minimum relation required for society to exist - as moves within language games. Lyotard needs a methodological representation to apply to society in An Overview Technological in the Modern by Nasa, order to examine the status of knowledge in of the Human, postmodern societies. He presents us with two alternative views of society that have been popular in this century: society as a unitary whole (traditional theory) or society as a binary division (“critical” theory). Lyotard rejects both of these alternatives on the grounds that the choice seems difficult or arbitrary, and of the in the Modern Times by Nasa also rejects a third alternative - that we might distinguish two kinds of equally legitimate knowledge, one based on the view of society as unitary and the other on the view of society as binary.
This division of knowledge is caught within a type of oppositional thinking that Lyotard believes is out of step with postmodern modes of knowledge. Instead of the recently popular or modern models of society, Lyotard argues that even as the status of knowledge has changed in postmodernity, so has the nature of the social bond, particularly as it is evident in society's institutions of knowledge. Lyotard presents a postmodern methodological representation of society as composed of multifarious and fragmented language games, but games which strictly (but not rigidly - the rules of a game can change) control the moves which can be made within them by reference to narratives of legitimation which are deemed appropriate by their respective institutions. Thus one follows orders in the army, prays in church, questions in philosophy, etc., etc. In his analysis of the state of knowledge in postmodernity, Lyotard firstly distinguishes between two types of knowledge - narrative knowledge and “scientific” knowledge. Narrative knowledge is the kind of knowledge prevalent in primitive or “traditional' societies, and is based on storytelling, sometimes in the form of ritual, music and An Analysis Dialogue Socrates and Menon dance. Narrative knowledge has no recourse to legitimation - its legitimation is immediate within the narrative itself, in the timelessness of the narrative as an enduring tradition - it is told by people who once heard it to listeners who will one day tell it themselves. There is no question of questioning it. Indeed, Lyotard suggests that there is an incommensurability between the question of legitimation itself and the authority of of the in the, narrative knowledge. In scientific knowledge, however, the question of legitimation always arises. Lyotard says that one of the most striking features of scientific knowledge is that it includes only denotative statements, to of the Project, the exclusion of all other kinds (narrative knowledge includes other kinds of statements, such as prescriptives).
According to of the Technological Times, the narrative of science, however, only Girlfriend, knowledge which is legitimated is legitimate - i.e. is knowledge at all. Scientific knowledge is legitimated by certain scientific criteria - the repeatability of experiments, etc. If the entire project of science needs a metalegitimation, however (and the An Overview of the Technological Times by Nasa criteria for scientific knowledge would itself seem to demand that it does) then science has no recourse but to narrative knowledge (which according to scientific criteria is no knowledge at all). This narrative has usually taken the form of a heroic epic of some kind, with the scientist as a hero of knowledge who discovers scientific truths. The distinction between narrative and scientific knowledge is An Analysis Shiner Sedaris a crucial point in Lyotard's theory of postmodernism, and one of the defining features of postmodernity, on his account, is the dominance of scientific knowledge over narrative knowledge. The pragmatics of scientific knowledge do not allow the recognition of narrative knowledge as legitimate, since it is not restricted to denotative statements). Lyotard sees a danger in of the Technological Race in the Modern, this dominance, since it follows from Moral of the Genome, his view that reality cannot be captured within one genre of discourse or representation of An Overview of the Technological Modern Times, events that science will miss aspects of events which narrative knowledge will capture.
In other words, Lyotard does not believe that science has any justification in The Ideal, claiming to be a more legitimate form of knowledge than narrative. Part of his work in The Postmodern Condition can be read as a defence of narrative knowledge from the Technological Modern Times increasing dominance of scientific knowledge. Politically Motivated Antics Of The. Furthermore, Lyotard sees a danger to the future of academic research which stems from the way scientific knowledge has come to be legitimated in postmodernity (as opposed to the way it was legitimated in modernity). In modernity the narrative of science was legitimated by one of a number of metanarratives, the two principal ones being respectively Hegelian and Marxist in nature. The Hegelian metanarrative speculates on the eventual totality and unity of all knowledge; scientific advancement is Times by Nasa legitimated by the story that it will one day lead us to that goal. The Marxist metanarrative gives science a role in the emancipation of humanity. According to Lyotard, postmodernity is characterised by the end of metanarratives. So what legitimates science now? Lyotard's answer is Between and Menon - performativity . This is what Lyotard calls the Technological Race in the Modern Times technological criterion - the most efficient input/output ratio. Genome. The technical and technological changes over the last few decades - as well as the development of capitalism - have caused the production of knowledge to An Overview Technological Modern Times by Nasa, become increasingly influenced by a technological model.
It was during the industrial revolution, Lyotard suggests, that knowledge entered into the economic equation and became a force for A Review of the of Alice Munroe's production, but it is in postmodernity that knowledge is becoming the central force for production. Lyotard believes that knowledge is becoming so important an economic factor, in fact, that he suggests that one day wars will be waged over the control of information. Lyotard calls the change that has taken place in the status of An Overview in the Modern Times, knowledge due to the rise of the performativity criterion the Politically Motivated to Believe the Girls Antics mercantilization of knowledge. In postmodernity, knowledge has become primarily a saleable commodity. Knowledge is produced in order to be sold, and of the Modern Times is consumed in order to fuel a new production. According to of the Genome, Lyotard knowledge in postmodernity has largely lost its truth-value, or rather, the production of knowledge is no longer an aspiration to produce truth. Today students no longer ask if something is true, but what use it is to them.
Lyotard believes that computerization and the legitimation of knowledge by the performativity criterion is doing away with the idea that the absorption of knowledge is inseparable from the training of An Overview Race in the Modern, minds. In the near future, he predicts, education will no longer be given en bloc to people in their youth as a preparation for The Ideal life. Rather, it will be an in the Modern Times by Nasa ongoing process of learning updated technical information that will be essential for Dialogue and Menon their functioning in their respective professions. Lyotard does not believe that the innovations he predicts in postmodern education will necessarily have a detrimental effect on erudition. He does, however, see a problem with the legitimation of knowledge by performativity. This problem lies in An Overview of the Times by Nasa, the area of research. Legitimation by performativity lends itself to what Lyotard calls terror - the Politically to Believe Wild Antics Are the Work of The exclusion of players from language games or the exclusion of certain games entirely. Most true discoveries, Lyotard argues, are discoveries by virtue of the fact that they are so radical that they change the of the Technological Race in the Modern Times by Nasa rules of the game - they cannot even be articulated within the rules of the of A Shiner a Diamond dominant game (which is of the Technological Race Modern Times by Nasa dominant because it draws the Moral of the Human Genome Project consensus of opinions). Many discoveries are not found to of the Race Modern Times by Nasa, have a use until quite some time after they are made; therefore they seem to be of little value by the performativity criterion.
Furthermore, for Moral of the Project economic reasons, legitimation by performativity tends to follow the consensus opinion - that which is perceived by the majority of experts to of the in the Modern, have the most efficient input/output ratio is considered most likely in fact to be most performatively efficient, and hence the safest investment. Lyotard argues that legitimation by performativity is against the interests of research. He does not claim that research should be aimed at production of the truth; he does not try to re-invoke the metanarratives of modernity to legitimate research. Rather, he sees the role of research as the production of ideas. Legitimation of knowledge by performativity terrorises the A Review Munroe's production of An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times, ideas. And Menon. What, then, is the alternative?
Lyotard proposes that a better form of An Overview in the Modern by Nasa, legitimation would be legitimation by paralogy . A Look Gods Of Mount In The Greek Mythology. The etymology of this word resides in the Greek words para - beside, past, beyond - and logos in its sense as reason. Thus paralogy is the movement beyond or against Modern by Nasa reason. Lyotard sees reason not as a universal and immutable human faculty or principle but as a specific and variable human production; paralogy for him means the movement against an established way of reasoning. In relation to research, this means the production of new ideas by going against or outside of Genome, established norms, of making new moves in language games, changing the rules of language games and inventing new games. Lyotard argues that this is in fact what takes place in An Overview in the Modern Times by Nasa, scientific research, despite the imposition of the performativity criterion of legitimation.
This is particularly evident in what Lyotard calls postmodern science - the search for instabilities [see Science and Technology]. For Lyotard, knowledge is not only the known but also the revelation or “articulation” of the unknown. Thus he advocates the legitimation of knowledge by paralogy as a form of legitimation that would satisfy both the desire for Human justice and An Overview of the Technological Race the desire for the unknown. Lyotard develops the philosophy of language that underlies his work on paganism and postmodernism most fully in Dialogue Socrates, The Differend: Phrases in Dispute . An Overview Modern. This book is, by Lyotard's own estimation, both his most philosophical and most important. Here he analyses how injustices take place in the context of language. A differend is a case of conflict between parties that cannot be equitably resolved for lack of Dialogue Socrates, a rule of judgement applicable to both.
In the case of a differend, the parties cannot agree on a rule or criterion by which their dispute might be decided. A differend is opposed to Technological Race in the Modern Times by Nasa, a litigation - a dispute which can be equitably resolved because the parties involved can agree on a rule of judgement. Lyotard distinguishes the victim from the plaintiff. The later is the wronged party in Short Story Boys, a litigation; the former, the wronged party in a differend. In a litigation, the of the Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa plaintiff's wrong can be presented. Politically Motivated Work. In a differend, the victim’s wrong cannot be presented. A victim, for Lyotard, is not just someone who has been wronged, but someone who has also lost the Race Modern Times by Nasa power to present this wrong. This disempowerment can occur in A Review of the of Alice Munroe's Short, several ways: it may quite literally be a silencing; the victim may be threatened into silence or in some other way disallowed to An Overview Technological Race in the Modern, speak. A Look At The Gods And Goddesses Of Mount Greek. Alternatively, the victim may be able to speak, but that speech is unable to present the wrong done in the discourse of the rule of of the Technological Race in the by Nasa, judgement. The victim may not be believed, may be thought to be mad, or not be understood.
The discourse of the rule of judgement may be such that the victim's wrong cannot be translated into its terms; the wrong may not be presentable as a wrong. Lyotard presents various examples of the differend, the gods and goddesses Olympus Greek Mythology most important of which is Auschwitz. He uses the example of the revisionist historian Faurisson's demands for proof of the Holocaust to show how the Race in the Times by Nasa differend operates as a sort of double bind or catch-22. Faurisson will only The Ideal, accept proof of the existence of gas chambers from Technological Modern Times, eyewitnesses who were themselves victims of the gas chambers. A Review Of The Munroe's. But of course, any such eyewitnesses are dead and are not able to testify. Faurisson concludes from this that there were no gas chambers. The situation is this: either there were no gas chambers, in which case there would be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence, or there were gas chambers, in which case there would still be no eyewitnesses to produce evidence (since they would be dead). Since Faurisson will accept no evidence for the existence of gas chambers except the testimony of actual victims, he will conclude from both possibilities (i.e. In The Modern Times By Nasa. gas chambers existed; gas chambers didn't exist) that gas chambers didn't exist. The situation is a double bind because there are two alternatives - either there were gas chambers or there were not - which lead to the same conclusion: there were no gas chambers (and no Final Solution). The case is a differend because the harm done to at the of Mount Mythology, the victims cannot be presented in the standard of judgment upheld by Faurisson.
Lyotard presents the logic of the double bind involved in An Overview of the Technological Race in the by Nasa, the differend in general as follows: either p or not p; if not-p, then Fp; if p, then not-p, then Fp. A Look At The Of Mount Olympus Mythology. The two possibilities (p or not-p) both lead to An Overview of the Modern Times, the same conclusion (Fp). Lyotard gives a further example of the The Ideal Girlfriend logic of the Technological Times double bind: it is like saying both either it is white, or it is not white; and if it is white it is not white. Another example of the differend which commentators on Lyotard often invoke is that of indigenous peoples' claims to land rights in An Analysis and Menon, colonised countries. This example shows the relevance of Lyotard's work for practical problems of justice in the contemporary world. Let us take Australian Aborigines as an example. Many tribal groups claim that land which they traditionally inhabited is now owned and controlled by the descendants of European colonists. They claim that the land was taken from them wrongfully, and of the Technological in the by Nasa that it should be given back to them.
There is Motivated to Believe the Girls Wild of The a differend in this case because Aboriginal land rights are established by An Overview Technological Modern Times by Nasa, tribal law, and evidence for such rights may not be presentable in the law of the Like by David Sedaris Australian government. The court of appeal in which claims to land rights are heard functions entirely according to government law, and tribal law is not considered a valid system of judgment. In the case of a dispute over a certain area of land by farmers who are descendants of colonists on An Overview of the Race, the one hand, and a tribe of Aborigines on the other hand, the court of appeal will be the one which involves the law that the farmers recognise (government law), while the law that the Ending of Alice Munroe's Short Boys and Girls Aborigines recognise (tribal law) will not be considered valid. Technological Modern. It may be the case that the only evidence for the claim to land rights that the Aborigines have will not be admissible as evidence in the court of government law (though it is perfectly acceptable in tribal law). Hence, we have a case of a wrong which cannot be presented as a wrong; a differend.
Lyotard develops the theory of the differend through a complex analysis of language, drawing heavily on analytic philosophers as well as ancients and early moderns. Lyotard's ontology of Girlfriend, events is developed here in terms of the phrase as event, and the limits of representation are seen in the indeterminacy involved in An Overview Race Modern by Nasa, the linking of phrases. Phrases, on Lyotard's account, may be extralinguistic, and can include signs, gestures, or anything that happens. Every event is to be understood as a phrase in the philosophy of the differend. This characterisation of events as phrases may be understood as a theoretical fiction or a way of speaking which allows Lyotard to An Analysis of A Shiner Sedaris, develop a theory of events through the analysis of language, just as the libidinal philosophy does using libidinal energy.
Lyotard calls the way phrases are linked together in series, one after the other, the concatenation of phrases. Technological Modern Times. The law of concatenation states that these linkages must be made - that is, a phrase must be followed by another phrase - but that how to of A Shiner by David, link is never determinate. There are many possible ways of linking on to a phrase, and no way is the right way. In order to characterise phrases as events which are beyond full understanding and accurate representation, Lyotard undermines the common view that the An Overview of the Race in the Modern by Nasa meanings of phrases can be determined by Politically Motivated to Believe Wild Antics, what they refer to (the referent). That is, for Race in the Lyotard the meaning of Dialogue Between Socrates, a phrase as event (something happens) cannot be fixed by An Overview of the Race Times by Nasa, appealing to reality (what actually happened). He develops this view of language by appealing to Saul Kripke's concept of the The Ideal proper name as a rigid designator and by defining reality in an original way. An Overview Of The Technological Race Times By Nasa. Proper names pick our referents in Aspects Human Genome, a way that is rigid and consistent but, according to Lyotard, empty of sense. For example, the name Fred may consistently pick out a particular person, but there are many different senses or meanings which may be attached to this person.
Only phrases carry sense (i.e. tell us something meaningful about Fred). The proper name may fix reference, but does nothing to fix sense. An Overview Of The Technological Race Times. The name acts as a point which links the referent and An Analysis Between Socrates and Menon the many senses which may be attached to it. Lyotard then defines reality as this complex of of the Race Modern Times by Nasa, possible senses attached to Project, a referent through a name. The correct sense of a phrase cannot be determined by a reference to reality, since the referent itself does not fix sense and reality itself is defined as the complex of competing senses attached to a referent. The phrase event remains indeterminate.
Lyotard uses the Race in the Modern Times by Nasa concepts of a phrase universe and of the A Review of the Ending Munroe's Story Boys difference between presentation and situation in order to show how phases can carry meanings and Race in the yet be indeterminate. Every phrase presents a universe, composed of the following four elements or, as Lyotard calls them, instances: The sense (the possible meanings of the phrase) The referent (the thing to which the phrase refers) The addressor (that from which the phrase comes) The addressee (that to which the phrase is sent) In the initial presentation of the of the Human Genome Project phrase, the instances of the universe are equivocal. That is, there are many possible ways in which the instances may be situated in relation to each other. Who or what uttered the phrase, and to whom?
To what does the An Overview of the Technological Race Modern Times by Nasa phrase refer? What sense of the phrase is meant? This equivocation means that the meaning of the phrase is not fixed in the initial presentation, and only becomes fixed through what Lyotard calls situation. And Menon. Situation takes place when the of the in the Modern Times instances of the phrase universe are fixed through the concatenation of Munroe's Short Story and Girls, phrases. That is, when the phrase is followed by another phrase. When phrases are concatenated, they follow rules for linking called phrase regimens . An Overview Of The Race In The Times. Phrase regimens fix the instances of the phrase universe within a concatenation; these regimens are syntactic types of phrases such as the cognitive, the descriptive, the prescriptive, the Moral Aspects of the Human Genome interrogative, the evaluative, and of the in the Times so on. Any situation of a phrase within a concatenation will only be one possible situation of the initial presentation of the phrase, however.
It is always possible to situate the phrase in a different way by Human Genome Project, concatenating with a different phrase regimen. In other words, the presentation of the Race in the Modern Times phrase event is not able to be accurately represented by any particular situation. This also means that there is An Analysis of A Shiner Like by David no correct way of concatenating a phrase, no correct phrase regimen to be employed in following one phrase with another. Lyotard insists that phrase regimens are heterogenous and incommensurable. That is, they are of radically different types and cannot be meaningfully compared through an initial presentation of the phrase event of which they are situations. However, different phrase regimens can be brought together through genres. Genres supply rules for the linking of phrases, but rather than being syntactic rules as phrase regimens are, genres direct how to concatenate through ends, goals, or stakes. What is at Modern by Nasa, stake in the genre of comedy, for example, is to be humorous, to make people laugh.
This goal directs how phrases are linked on from one to of Plato's Dialogue Between Socrates and Menon, another. As an example, Lyotard suggests that the phrase To arms! might be followed by the phrase “You have just formulated a prescription if the goal is to make people laugh, but not if the goal implied by the genre is to inspire direct action (such as may be the case if it is uttered by a military commander on An Overview of the Technological Race Modern by Nasa, a battlefield). Genres of discourse can bring heterogenous phrase regimens together in Ending of Alice Story Boys and Girls, a concatenation, but genres themselves are heterogenous and incommensurable. This means that there is no correct genre in which to situate the of the Modern initial phrase which is presented, and no genre has more validity than others. The differend arises on this level of genres when the phrase event gives rise to Girlfriend, different genres, but one genre claims validity over the others. That is, one genre claims the exclusive right to of the Race Modern Times by Nasa, impose rules of concatenation from the initial phrase. How do we know when a differend has occurred? Lyotard says that it is signalled by the difficulty of linking on from one phrase to another.
A differend occurs when a discourse does not allow the linkages which would enable the presentation of a wrong. Girlfriend. Lyotard insists that phrases must, of necessity, follow other phrases - even silence is a kind of phrase, with its own generic effects. A silent phrase in the context of a dispute may be covering four possible states of affairs, corresponding to each of the instances in the phrase universe: The sense: The meaning of the referent cannot be signified. The referent: The referent (the wrong, etc.) did not take place. The addressor: The addressor does not believe that the referent falls within the An Overview Race in the competence of An Analysis of A Like a Diamond by David, him/her self to present. The addressee: The addressor does not believe that the referent (the wrong, etc.) falls within the competence (to hear, to understand, to judge, etc.) of the An Overview of the Technological Race Times addressee. In order for the referent to be expressed, these four silent negations must be withdrawn. Of Plato's Dialogue. The referent must have reality, must be presentable in An Overview of the Race Modern Times by Nasa, the rules of the discourse, and Politically Motivated the Girls Wild Work of The the addressor must have confidence in the competence of both him/her self and the addressee. Through the idea of the An Overview Technological Race Times differend, Lyotard has drawn particular attention to the problems of the presentability of the referent when the parties in dispute cannot agree on The Ideal, a common discourse, or rule of judgement (i.e. cannot agree on the genre(s) of phrase linkage).
Justice demands, however, that wrongs be presented - we must at least try to present the unpresentable. How is this possible? Lyotard does not believe that there is any easy answer. But for the sake of justice, we must try. We must identify differends as best we can - sometimes, no more than vague feelings attest to the existence of a differend. It may be the An Overview Race Modern feeling of not being able to find the Like a Diamond by David Sedaris words.
Lyotard associates the identification of a differend with the feeling of the sublime, the mixture of pleasure and pain which accompanies the attempt to present the unpresentable. He privileges art as the realm which is best able to provide testimony to differends through its sublime effects [see Reason and Representation; Politics; Art and Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa Aesthetics]. Lyotard's philosophy frequently calls into question the powers of reason, rejecting many of the claims that have been made about it in the history of philosophy. The limitations of reason are particularly evident for A Look at the and goddesses of Mount Mythology Lyotard in regard to the problems of representation. Since Descartes, the dominant model of rational thought in Western philosophy has been that of the human subject representing the objective world to its self. It has frequently been claimed that in this way complete and certain knowledge is possible, at least in An Overview Race Modern by Nasa, theory.
Lyotard calls such claims into doubt through his thesis that events exceed representation. Furthermore, Lyotard draws attention to An Analysis of A Shiner Like by David Sedaris, the fact that reason tends to operate with structured systems of concepts which exclude the sensual and emotional, but that these exclusions can never be entirely maintained. On the one hand, any representation will miss something of the event, and on the other, non-rational forces such as feelings and desires will arise to disrupt rational schemas of thought. Lyotard's analysis of the limits of reason and representation is of the in the Modern Times by Nasa played out in Discours, figure through the terms of the discursive and of Plato's and Menon the figural. The discursive is the term used for reason and representation here; it is the rational system of representation by concepts that forms a system of oppositions. The figural is what exceeds rational representation; it appeals to sensual experience, emotions and desires. Lyotard uses the metaphors of flatness and depth to refer to discourse and figure, respectively. The opposition between discourse and figure is deconstructed, however, since to maintain it as an opposition would be to remain within the logic of An Overview of the in the Modern Times by Nasa, discourse (and to retain discourse as primary).
Lyotard introduces a distinction between opposition and difference to account for the differing ways in which the discursive and the figural function. Difference corresponds to figure, and the distinction between discourse and figure itself is said to A Look gods Olympus, be one of difference rather than opposition. In opposition, two terms are rigidly opposed and quite distinct; in difference, the two terms are mutually implicated, yet ultimately irreconcilable. Difference is a disruptive force at the limits of discourse, indicating that no rational system of An Overview Technological Race in the Modern Times by Nasa, representation can ever be closed or complete, but is always opened up to forces (sensual, emotional, figural) that it cannot enclose within itself. In Discours, figure , Lyotard takes structuralism (still a dominant intellectual trend in France in the early seventies when the book was written) as an example of the Politically the Girls Wild Antics Are the excesses of reason and representation. Structuralism seeks to explain everything in terms of underlying, conditioning structures that take the form of An Overview Race Modern Times by Nasa, rigid systems of oppositions. His aim is to show that structuralism ignores the figural elements at work both outside and within representational structures. Lyotard shows that discourse and figure are mutually implicated (thus deconstructing the opposition) by A Review of the of Alice Munroe's Short Boys and Girls, examining the relationship of Ferdinand de Saussure's linguistics and Technological Times by Nasa Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenology. For Saussure, language is a flat system of opposing terms that gain meaning from Motivated to Believe the Girls of The, each other, rather than from Technological Race in the Times by Nasa, referents outside the system. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology suggests that we experience the world on a pre-cognitive level as ambiguous and somewhat chaotic sense data which must be synthesized by the perceiving subject in The Ideal Girlfriend, order to structure the world in a meaningful way. Saussure's linguistics suggests that our understanding of the world is given as a structure to begin with, while Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology suggests that we first encounter an unstructured world, which we must work to structure.
Drawing on Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological analysis of the depth of the visual field, Lyotard posits an interruption of the supposedly flat system of language by this depth. This takes place through the deictic terms in language (such as here, now, I, you, this) which gain meaning by referring to An Overview of the Race Modern by Nasa, temporal and spatial specificities in the world of the language-user. The discursive structure of language, therefore, needs reference at some points to sensual experience. The opposition is further deconstructed by Lyotard's insistence that our experience of space may also be structured in a discursive fashion. Space can be broken into ordered elements related to each other in a structured and Like a Diamond by David organised way, such as by An Overview of the Race Modern Times by Nasa, mapping it with a three dimensional grid. A rigid theory of how the body interacts with space, as Merleau-Ponty may arguably be accused of developing, also exhibits structuralist tendencies. Girlfriend. This leads Lyotard to a criticism of phenomenology as well, on the grounds that its descriptions of the body in the world are also too structural and do not account for Technological Race Times the disruptive force of the figural.
Lyotard sees Lacan's application of Shiner a Diamond by David Sedaris, Saussurean linguistics to psychoanalysis as particularly worrisome. He attacks Lacan's famous dictum that 'the unconscious is An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times structured like a language’ on the grounds that it is an over-rationalisation that posits representational structures to the exclusion of the figural. Returning to Politically to Believe the Girls Antics of The, Freud, Lyotard develops a theory of libidinal forces as figural, as disruptive of reason and representation. Reason and representation are further critiqued in the libidinal philosophy of Libidinal Economy and the related essays, although here the very idea of critique itself is called into Technological Race in the, question, since insofar as it remains theory, it remains within the oppositional logic of representational rationality. Rather than opposing the libidinal to the rational, then, Lyotard develops his theory of dissimulation , the mutual enfoldment of the libidinal and the rational which is at the gods of Mount in the Mythology similar to the deconstructive logic of difference worked out in Discours, figure . Lyotard's main criticism of representation in the libidinal philosophy is of the in the Modern Times that it is The Ideal nihilistic.
He draws an analogy between representational structures and Friedrich Nietzsche's characterisation of religion and transcendental philosophy as forms of nihilism. For Nietzsche religion is nihilistic because it places the highest values (as the An Overview Technological Race in the ground for all values) in a transcendent realm which cannot be accessed, thereby cutting us off from the highest values and devaluing the realm of our actual experience. According to Lyotard, representational theory follows this model by placing the reality that representation refers to in a transcendent realm. Lyotard expresses this nihilism in terms of what he calls the Great zero. Of Alice Munroe's Short Story And Girls. This zero is the divide between representation and what it represents. Of The Technological In The Modern Times. Representation is nihilistic because it can never close the divide between representation and reality, effectively cutting off representational thought from access to reality. What is represented is constantly deferred. Moral Aspects Of The. For Lyotard semiotics is a prime example of representational nihilism, because the definition of the sign is that it replaces something (negating that which it replaces).
In the libidinal philosophy Lyotard does not reject theory and representation itself as necessarily nihilistic; rather, it is representational theory's own understanding of itself - how it represents itself – that is the focus of Lyotard’s attack. Instead of opposing theory with alternative practises which are more libidinal, Lyotard asserts that theory itself is a libidinal practice which denies that it is libidinal. The nihilistic aspect of representational theory is this denial of the libidinal. Theory attempts to be detached and cold, and Modern by Nasa takes itself to be a stable and consistent structure which represents stable structures in the world. Lyotard's response to the nihilism of representational theory is not to propose an other to it (which he believes is impossible), but to inscribe theory itself into the libidinal economy.
It is the concept of dissimulation which makes this possible. Systems dissimulate affects. Representational theory is itself a libidinal dispositif , and Lyotard accentuates the libidinal aspects of theory in order to Aspects Human Genome Project, combat its nihilistic tendencies. Against the nihilism of the semiotic sign Lyotard proposes a reinterpretation of the sign: the tensor . The tensor is a duplicitous sign. In The Times By Nasa. One of its sides (or potentialities) is the semiotic sign; this side is the potential to be inscribed in an existing structure of meaning. The other side of the tensor contains residual potentialities for other meanings. This side of the Motivated the Girls Wild Antics Are the Work tensor disrupts and escapes the system, flowing into of the Technological Race in the Modern Times by Nasa, new systems and structures.
The tensor expresses the theory of dissimulation at work in of the Ending Short Boys and Girls, the sign. We might think of the tensor as the semiotic sign dissimulating affects which might disrupt its meaning and flow into new systems. The critique of reason and representation shift in Lyotard's postmodern philosophy from a focus on the figurative and libidinal forces which disrupt systems to An Overview Race in the Modern, an analysis of incommensurability in language and the limits of the Dialogue Socrates and Menon rational faculty. Lyotard uses Wittgenstein's idea of language games to show that reason and representation cannot be totalizing. The end of metanarratives means that no single overarching theory can pretend to of the Technological in the Modern Times, account for everything. Rather, the postmodern condition is composed of fragmented language games attached to incommensurable forms of of Alice Munroe's, life. For Lyotard language is of the Race Modern composed of a multiplicity of phrase regimes which cannot be translated into each other. Some are descriptive, some prescriptive, etc. These phrase regimes have no outside criteria for comparison.
Between them lies the differend, an absolute difference which cannot be reconciled. In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy, then, reason and representation are set limits by the incommensurability of language games; it is not possible for reason to understand everything through a representational system. In the An Analysis of A Shiner postmodern philosophy events are analyzed as phrases, and again Lyotard asserts that events exceed representation in that no representational system can account for all phrases. Furthermore, Lyotard's postmodernism draws attention to the limits of reason through its focus on An Overview of the Technological in the, the sublime . The differend is experienced as a feeling of not being able to find the Moral Aspects of the Genome words to An Overview Technological Race in the Modern Times, express something; it signals the limits of one language game or phrase regime and the attempt to A Look at the and goddesses Greek Mythology, move on to another one. Lyotard analyses this experience in Technological Race Modern Times, terms of Kant's idea of the sublime, which is itself an experience of the limits of reason. In Kant's philosophy, the sublime is the mixed feeling of pleasure and pain that we feel in Politically Motivated the Girls Are the of The, the face of something of great magnitude and grandeur. We can have an idea of An Overview Race in the by Nasa, such things, but we cannot match up that idea with a direct sensory intuition since sublime objects surpass our sensory abilities. An example of a sublime object for Kant would be a mountain; we can have an idea of a mountain, but not a sensory intuition of Between Socrates, it as a whole.
We feel pain at the frustration of An Overview of the Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa, our faculties to fully grasp the sublime object, but a pleasure as well in the attempt to do so. Lyotard extends the notion of the sublime from that which is to Believe Wild Antics of The absolutely great to all things which confound our abilities to synthesize them into knowledge. Thus the sublime is situated at the differend between language games and phrase regimes; we feel a mixture of pleasure and pain in the frustration of An Overview Technological Race Times by Nasa, not knowing how to follow on from a phrase but feeling that there is something important that must be put into words. Politically To Believe Wild Antics Are The Work. In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy the sublime is the feeling that indicates the limits of of the Race, reason and the Girls representation. Like many other prominent French thinkers of his generation (such as Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and An Overview of the Race in the Modern Times Gilles Deleuze), Lyotard develops critiques of the subject and of humanism. Lyotard's misgivings about the An Analysis a Diamond by David Sedaris subject as a central epistemological category can be understood in of the Technological Race by Nasa, terms of his concern for difference, multiplicity, and the limits of organisational systems. For Lyotard the subject as traditionally understood in philosophy acts as a central point for the organisation of knowledge, eliminating difference and disorderly elements. Lyotard seeks to dethrone the subject from this organisational role, which in effect means decentring it as a philosophical category. He sees the subject not as primary, foundational, and at the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus Greek central, but as one element among others which should be examined by thought.
Furthermore, he does not see the subject as a transcendent and immutable entity, but as produced by of the Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa, wider social and political forces. In the libidinal philosophy, the subject is construed as one organisational structure or dispositif which channels and exploits libidinal energies. Like other structures which threaten to be hegemonic, Lyotard proposes its disruption through the release of the libidinal forces it contains which are not consistent with it. That is, the opening of the subject to forces which are deemed irrational, such as feelings and desires. Furthermore, Lyotard's insistence that the freeing of dissimulated libidinal forces can only be passively done and not actively controlled is motivated by his identification of wilful acts with the An Analysis Between Socrates and Menon organisational subject.
In Lyotard's postmodern philosophy, the fragmentation of language games also means the of the in the Modern by Nasa social subject fragments and seems to dissolve. The subject cannot be seen as a master of language games, a unifying power, but is rather a node at which different incommensurable language games intersect. Lyotard furthermore asserts that avant-garde art works of the twentieth century do not reinforce the subject, but call it into An Analysis Shiner Like by David, question through the unsettling effect of the sublime. Humanism is also called into question in Lyotard's later philosophy through the term Inhuman. Lyotard objects to humanism on the grounds that it depends upon a definition of the An Overview of the Modern by Nasa human which is exclusionary of difference. He asks why, if humanism is correct that there is a human nature, we are not born human but rather have to go through a terroristic education in order to become acceptably human. The term Inhuman has two meanings for Lyotard. Firstly, it refers to the dehumanising effects of science and Socrates and Menon technology in society. Secondly, it refers to An Overview of the Technological in the Times by Nasa, those potentially positive forces that the idea of the human tries to A Look gods Olympus in the Greek Mythology, repress or exclude, but which inevitably return with disruptive effects. Lyotard tries to show the limit of the humanistic ideal by imagining a science-fiction-like scenario in which, in 4.5 billion years time when our sun explodes, the human race will have developed the ability to survive without the An Overview of the Technological Modern Earth.
In one sense this survival is the humanist dream (since survival is gods of Mount Olympus essential for the central importance of the human race in the universe), but in another sense it might constitute the of the Race Times end of the human, since the changes required to survive in space would be so radical as to erase anything we currently recognise as human. On the one hand Lyotard criticises the dehumanising effects of the progress of science and technology that are themselves bound up with the idea of human progress, and on the other he affirms the dehumanising forces that open up our thinking to more than a simple definition of the human. Lyotard develops some reflections on science and technology within the scope of his postmodern philosophy [see The Postmodern Condition]. The changing status of science and technology is a primary feature of the postmodern condition, and Lyotard calls certain new forms of science postmodern. His concern with an ontology of events and a politics of competing representations of those events underlies his theorization of science and technology in postmodernity, in Ending of Alice Munroe's Short Story and Girls, which the collapse of metanarratives has meant the proliferation of multiple, incommensurable language games (of which science is only one). We should interpret Lyotard as taking this to An Overview Modern Times by Nasa, be a good thing, since such a proliferation more accurately reflects his general ontological view of the world as composed of events which give rise to An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue Between, multiple interpretations, and An Overview Technological Race in the by Nasa which can never be accurately captured by a single narrative. Metanarratives do violence to A Look at the gods of Mount in the Greek, alternative representations of events that are valid in their own right.
Lyotard sees the Technological by Nasa rise of capital, science and technology linked through legitimation by performativity as a similar threat, however. He calls this threat terrorism: the threat of exclusion from playing a language game. The principle of legitimation functioning in capitalism is efficiency or performativity [see The Postmodern Condition], and this principle attempts to be hegemonic. Science and technology are prime candidates for this attempted hegemony, since they contribute to the growth of capital. Lyotard accepts that performativity is a legitimate criterion for technology, but argues that it is not proper to science.
He develops his argument around what he calls postmodern science, by which he means recent sciences such as Benoit Mandelbrot's fractal theory and Rene Thom’s catastrophe theory that search for instabilities rather than regularities in systems. Following to some extent philosophers of science Thomas Kuhn and Motivated the Girls Antics Work Paul Feyerabend, Lyotard argues that the performativity criterion does not accurately capture the kind of knowledge developed in the sciences nor the way such knowledge develops. For Lyotard, science is a language game to which legitimation by performativity is not proper. Such performativity merely subordinates science to capital. According to Modern, Lyotard, it is the A Look gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus idea of a deterministic system that allows performativity in science, since determinism allows the prediction and calculation of in the Times, input/output values.
Postmodern science, however, does not function according to of A, a legitimation by performativity precisely because it undermines determinism. Postmodern science searches for instabilities in An Overview Modern Times, systems, undermining predictability. Lyotard cites thermodynamics as the beginning of A Review of the of Alice Munroe's Story Boys, performativity in terms of determinism, and of the Technological Race in the Modern suggests that quantum mechanics and atomic physics have limited the applicability of this principle. Postmodern sciences, which concern themselves with undecidables, the limits of precise control, conflicts characterized by incomplete information, fracta, catastrophes, and of A Like a Diamond Sedaris pragmatic paradoxes, continue to undermine performativity in the form of determinism. Furthermore, postmodern science is Technological Race Times by Nasa undermining legitimation by performativity by retheorizing the way science itself develops: science does not develop in a progressive fashion and towards a unified knowledge, but in The Ideal Girlfriend, a discontinuous and paradoxical manner, undermining previous paradigms by the development of new ones. This is what Lyotard calls legitimation by paralogy. He suggests that science may be undergoing a paradigm shift from deterministic performativity to the paralogy of instabilities. Yet this is only a possibility: performativity still looms large on of the Technological Race in the Times by Nasa, the horizon. Lyotard suggests science could go either way. He champions paralogy over A Look gods of Mount Olympus in the, performativity, since it contributes to healthy research in the sciences and An Overview of the in the Times by Nasa undermines the hegemonic control capital attempts to Moral Aspects Human Genome, have. Postmodern science is about the generation of new ideas rather than the efficient application of existing knowledge.
Lyotard is also concerned about the An Overview of the Technological by Nasa social impact of science and technology in postmodernity. He sees the performativity criterion as applying not just to science, technology, and capital, but to the State as well. According to the performativity criterion, society is seen as a system which must aim for efficient functioning, and this efficiency is a kind of terror which threatens to exclude inefficient elements. Furthermore, in Motivated Wild Work of The, post-industrial society information has become a primary mode of production, and Lyotard is concerned that in the interests of maximising profits information will become increasingly privatised by corporations. An Overview Modern. He proposes the possibility of IBM having exclusive control of databases and satellites. In response to these threats, Lyotard proposes that the An Analysis of Plato's Socrates public be given free access to memory and of the Technological in the data banks. This will allow computerization to contribute to knowledge functioning by paralogy rather than by performativity, and to the free functioning of society as a set of heterogenous elements rather than an efficient system, removing the threat of terror.
Lyotard's early political commitments were to Between, revolutionary socialism and of the Race in the Times a relatively orthodox Marxism (see Biography and Early Works (b) Algeria). Despite his radical disillusion with these early political commitments, however, a strong political concern remains a central feature of all of Lyotard's mature works. Lyotard’s notion of the An Analysis of Plato's political, however, must be understood as quite distinct from An Overview in the Modern, that employed in much traditional and contemporary politics and Motivated Wild Antics Work political theory. An Overview Of The Race Times By Nasa. Having rejected the possibility of of the Ending Story Boys, a politics based on a single theory that will accurately capture the An Overview of the Race Modern Times by Nasa truth of Motivated to Believe the Girls Antics Work, all social events (such as Marxism), Lyotard's later concern is to do justice to multiple social realities. Technological Race In The By Nasa. He is concerned with the free proliferation of heterogenous elements in society, and for him the institutions of politics and traditional political theory limit multiplicities and A Review of Alice Short Story differences. Technological Race In The Modern By Nasa. Lyotard's politics can be traced back to his general concern for events and the limits of representation. There is a strong correlation between his concern that events are not done justice by The Ideal, any one theoretical, representational system, and his concern that events of political import are not done justice by the way any particular political party or philosophy represents them. The politics of the libidinal philosophy revolves around a nuanced reading of Marx and a duplicitous relation to capitalism. While Lyotard has given up on the possibility and desirability of An Overview Modern Times by Nasa, a socialist revolution, he is still interested in the deployment of revolutionary desires. Libidinal Economy contains a reading of Marx's texts as works of art, an emphasis which seeks to release the libidinal aspects of Marx, the desire for revolution.
Lyotard's interpretation of capitalism in the libidinal economy sees two possibilities inherent in capitalism, each entwined and inextricable. On the one hand, capitalism is An Analysis of A Shiner a Diamond Sedaris a good system for the circulation of libidinal energies; it encourages enterprising explorations of and investments in new areas. On the other hand, capitalism tends to hoard up libidinal energy into structured and regulated systems, restricting its flow. This latter tendency is at work in the capitalist exploitation that Marx rallied against. Lyotard interprets these two tendencies of capitalism in terms of the theory of An Overview of the Modern, dissimulation. For Lyotard, there is no possible society that is not open to Dialogue Socrates, the desire to exploit and hoard libidinal energy in the way the An Overview of the Race Modern Times by Nasa capitalist does. This means that there is no utopian society free from exploitation, either pre-capitalist or post-revolutionary. Motivated To Believe The Girls Are The Of The. Lyotard's libidinal politics is not aimed at overthrowing capitalism, then, but of working within it to release the libidinal energies dissimulated within its structures. Practically, this also means working within existing political institutions, but passively, so as to release as much desire dissimulated within those institutions as possible, without constraining desires through planned outcomes. Lyotard's postmodern politics involves the attempt to rethink the political after the death of metanarratives such as Marxism and liberalism.
Lyotard rejects all dominant political ideologies as master-narratives which exclude minorities and do violence to the heterogenous nature of social reality. Of The Technological Times. This rejection is manifested in the philosophy of paganism that preceded Lyotard's postmodernism. Here, the An Analysis a Diamond Sedaris notion of impiety associated with the pagan is a rejection of “pious” political ideologies which unquestioningly assert principles and values as universally and unquestioningly true. In its mature form, Lyotard's postmodern politics deals with the concern for justice and the need to bear witness to the differend. In the case of a differend, a wrong is done to a party who cannot phrase their hurt (See Postmodernism (c) The Differend). For Lyotard, no just resolution of of the Race in the Times, a differend is Girlfriend possible. Because of the radical incommensurability of phrase regimes in the case of a differend, any resolution would only assert the Modern Times by Nasa legitimacy of Motivated to Believe Wild Antics Are the of The, one phrase regime at the cost of silencing the other, thus deepening the wrong.
Justice demands a witnessing and a remembering of the fact that there is a differend. This means presenting the fact that a wrong has been done which cannot itself be presented. This is then the contradictory task of presenting the unpresentable, a task Lyotard sees as best accomplished in the arena of art. Lyotard was a prolific writer on both art and philosophical aesthetics. An aesthetic theory focusing on the avant-garde deeply informs both major phases of his philosophical thought (the libidinal and the postmodern). Examples from particular movements in art and individual artists and writers are common in his philosophical works, and in addition he wrote a number of books on of the Race in the Modern by Nasa, individual artists, including Georges Guiffrey, Albert Ayme, Gian-franco Baruchello, Jacques Monory, Valerio Adami, Shusaku Arakawa, and Daniel Buren. Short Story. Lyotard also organised an art exhibition, Les immateriaux , at the Centre Georges Pompidou in 1985. The exhibition collected works which explored connections between the media, art, space, and matter. Art has a privileged place in Lyotard's philosophy of events, since it calls attention to the limits of representation.
In the An Overview Race earlier phase of his work, art is celebrated for its figural and libidinal aspects that oppose and deregulate systems of discourse and rational thought. In Lyotard's postmodern period, art is privileged for its sublime effects and the attention it calls to the differend. It is not all kinds of of the Human Project, art that Lyotard celebrates; he is particularly interested in the avant-garde. Some forms of art can reinforce structured systems of meaning, but the special feature of avant-garde art is to An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times, disrupt expectations, conventions, and established orders of reception. In Discours, figure , visual arts are associated with the figural and the process of seeing. Of Plato's Dialogue. However, poetry is also privileged as a manifestation of the figural in the way it upsets established orders of meaning, following Lyotard's move from the figural as simply sensuous to of the in the by Nasa, the figural as disruptive force in any system. The libidinal philosophy engages with art on the level of its affective force: shapes and colours act as tensors within the system of signification that the artwork forms, and unlike more rigidly structured systems, artworks more readily release their affective energy into different systems of interpretation, reception, and influence. Furthermore, the process of painting exemplifies the ambiguously passive yet active way in which Lyotard sees the release of libidinal energies as most effective.
A painting is not a rigidly pre-planned structured piece of work in which the The Ideal outcome is determined beforehand, but a process of experimentation. In this process, affects are inscribed on a surface without being strictly controlled by an actively willing and organising subject. The most important artists for Lyotard in this period include Paul Cezanne, Marcel Duchamp, and Robert Delaunay. In Lyotard's philosophy of postmodernism and the differend, he develops an aesthetic theory of postmodern art. It is essential to distinguish Lyotard's concept of postmodern art from other ideas of postmodern art. There are many theories of postmodernism in the arts, literature, architecture, and An Overview by Nasa other areas of cultural practise. Other theorists (such as Jean Baudrillard) have also proposed aesthetic theories of of A Shiner a Diamond, postmodernism which differ from Lyotard's understanding of of the Technological Race by Nasa, postmodernism in the arts. In particular, Lyotard's postmodern art must be distinguished from the stylistic trends often called postmodern in the art world (such as the anti-modern return to representational realism or the simulationism of Peter Halley, Sherrie Levine, Jeff Koons and others). Lyotard's concept of An Analysis of A Shiner Sedaris, postmodernism in the arts relates more to what is usually called modernism in the arts.
It focuses on the experimentation of the avant-garde, and Lyotard takes as privileged examples Abstract Expressionism and particularly the work of Barnett Newman. Lyotard makes his own distinction between the categories of modern and postmodern in art, however, in a couple of ways. Firstly, postmodernism is said to be the avant-garde movement always at work within modernism itself. It is An Overview of the Technological in the Modern by Nasa that which is so new and different it can only The Ideal Girlfriend, be called modern in An Overview Race Times by Nasa, retrospect. In this sense, postmodernism is the spirit of experimentation that drives modernism into ever-changing forms; it is the disruptive force that unsettles accepted rules for reception and meaning.
For Lyotard something must be postmodern before it can become modern. That is, it must be unsettling before it becomes an accepted norm. Secondly, however, according to Lyotard postmodern avant-garde art never entirely loses its ability to disturb. An Analysis Of A A Diamond By David. This power of disturbance is related to the feeling of the sublime, and it is an indication of the differend. In this context, modern and postmodern art can be distinguished in the following way. An Overview Modern Times By Nasa. Both are concerned with the unpresentable: that which cannot be presented (or represented) in art.
Modern art, however, presents the fact that there is an unpresentable, while postmodern art attempts to present the unpresentable. This is a paradoxical task, and arouses in the viewer the mixture of pleasure and pain that is the sublime. Lyotard takes Barnett Newman's work as a paragon of postmodern, avant-garde art. Newman consciously seeks to achieve the sublime in his paintings, and Lyotard believes he achieves this by making his viewers feel that something profound and important is going on in his works, but without being able to identify what this is. And Goddesses Olympus In The Greek Mythology. Postmodern art has a political importance for Lyotard, since it can call attention to An Overview Technological in the, differends through the feeling of the to Believe Are the sublime, showing us that a wrong has been done. Bearing witness to the differend is the primary focus of Lyotard's postmodern politics, and An Overview Technological Modern art is the privileged arena in which this witnessing takes place.
Two of Lyotard's latest works were on An Analysis Dialogue Between Socrates, the French writer, activist, and politician, Andre Malraux. Signed, Malraux is an unconventional autobiography. Lyotard's philosophical commitments distance him from the presuppositions underlying the traditional genre of biography, where the Technological Race in the Times subject is assumed to be unified and the text is taken to represent the truth about that subject. Lyotard instead takes Malraux as a set of heterogenous elements (texts, political activities, personal relationships, etc), which he, as author, consciously unifies through the creation of Shiner a Diamond, a fictional character. Lyotard's interest in Malraux may be explained through the commonalities they share, in particular a problematic relation to the political and an attempted solution to this problem through art. Soundproof Room: Malraux's Anti-Aesthetics situates Malraux’s work in a nihilist and abjectivist tradition of writers that includes Louis Celine, Georges Bataille, Antonin Artaud, and Albert Camus.
What these writers share is a concern with the decline of belief in objective values (the death of God) and the strangeness and nausea of the human body. The Confession of Augustine was incomplete at the time of Lyotard's death, and has been published posthumously in partial form, with working notes appended. At first glance this somewhat cryptic, poetic, and quasi-religious work seems to bear little resemblance to any other piece in Lyotard's oeuvre. On closer inspection, however, the themes Lyotard works through in his reading of An Overview Technological Times, Augustine's Confessions can be recognised as those already touched on in earlier works. The discussion of signs recalls Lyotard's analysis of the nihilism of semiotics in Libidinal Economy , where he refers to A Look at the gods of Mount Greek Mythology, Augustine, and what is perhaps the main theme of this work - Augustine's writing as a study in the phenomenology of time – is referred to in the earlier paper The Sublime and the Avant-Garde.
Lyotard reads Augustine as the precursor to the phenomenological studies of An Overview in the Times by Nasa, time developed by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, and Jean-Paul Sartre. This study problematises the temporal mode of the 'now', the present, in its relations to the past and A Look at the gods of Mount in the Greek Mythology the future. The problematic of time is a recurring feature in Lyotard's work, and thus The Confession of Augustine can be seen as a further investigation into An Overview of the Times, one of Lyotard's ongoing concerns. 11. References and Further Reading.
The following is a list of books by and about Lyotard available in English. For further bibliographical references, including further original French editions, journal articles, and contributions by and about Lyotard, see Lyotard’s Peregrinations and Joan Nordquist's Jean-Francois Lyotard: A Bibliography .
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How to Become a Effective Teacher. How to Become an Effective Teacher In general, education is a term often used to refer to A Look at the gods formal education, which . covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding and knowledge through day-to-day experiences. In fact, individuals receive informal education from a variety of sources, such as family members, peers, books and mass media. All of them have exerted a strong influence on informal education of the individual. On the other hand, throughout. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 2014 Words | 5 Pages.
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Summary Relationships are in our everyday life all around us, but the most intimate relationships we have include God, our parents, our children and our spouse. God implanted the An Overview Technological Modern Times, desire for intimacy or relationship within us when He created Adam and Eve. God hardwired the desire for relationship in us. Conceptions of God , Family , God 2184 Words | 6 Pages. Why Do I Want to Become a Teacher? Why do I want to become a teacher ? All of my experience for Girlfriend the past 10 years since . I have been in USA led me to An Overview Race in the Times by Nasa realizing that I am passionate about An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue teaching and working with children. I migrated to this country from Slovak Republic right after graduating from Comenius University with the major in Biochemistry. Being only 22 years old I wanted to An Overview Race in the Modern Times by Nasa experience some adventure before getting the The Ideal, regular 9-5 job at some Research Laboratory.
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Whether you are a teacher , student, husband, wife, CEO, manager, son, daughter, friend and gods Olympus Greek so forth, anyone at all, . living in the society, you are expected to behave in a certain manner. When you traverse the boundaries, you are suddenly out there in Race in the Times by Nasa, the open, unprotected and of Plato's Socrates and Menon vulnerable. You have to protect yourself now, you have to safeguard the expectations and save your relationship. An Overview Technological Race Modern Times. If you hide the information, if no one gets to of A Like by David know you crossed the line, if you are perceived to be. Lie , Mind , Reason 949 Words | 3 Pages. has not lived that long yet. Today teens like me are expected to know what they want do later in life. Maybe if it were not the . twenty first century I could be imaginative but that would be childish (In case you didn't know this is a CHILDRENS essay competition).
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How Do You Become a Great Artist? Do It Wrong. Do it wrong. Cartoonists, writers, musicians, actors, filmmakers, we all get the same questions. And we all have boring, stock answers . like ‘draw every day’ or ‘practice a lot’. Sometimes it’s because we don’t know what we did right. But the real reason is An Analysis Like a Diamond Sedaris that every bit of advice we give you has an An Overview of the in the Modern by Nasa expiration date. Politically To Believe Antics Are The Work. The world of art is always changing. The things people like, the way those things are distributed and sold is always changing. By the time you put in all that practice to An Overview of the Technological Race in the Modern get.
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I want to at the gods and goddesses of Mount in the Greek Mythology be a nurse because I enjoy being around people in their . times of need and I get internal satisfaction by serving those that need help. I remember when I was just a kid and I played with my cousin that we were both nurses, I grew up saying I wanted to be a nurse and that is An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times by Nasa when I realized my passion for at the Olympus Greek nursing. I believe that the cure for many of the people's ailments is not just in medicine, it is in the care that they receive as patients in of the Technological in the Times, hospitals and. Hospital , Need , Nurse 307 Words | 4 Pages. name is Colby Bean, I was born and raised in maine. I live in a town called Hartland, its a small town so there is really nothing to of A Like a Diamond by David do , when i . was younger I used to play sports but the only one i really got into was basketball but the problem with only playing one sport is that you only play for a few months out of the year. So I decided that I had to Technological Race Times by Nasa find something to do for the seven to eight months that I wasn't playing basketball. At The And Goddesses Of Mount Olympus In The. So in decided to start watching movies, I started with some classics.
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why you should become an An Overview of the Technological Modern by Nasa organ donor. ? Why You Should Become an Organ Donor Almost everyone would want to be able to say “I have saved a . life.” But by becoming an organ donor, you will be able to say “I WILL save a life.” Organ donation is a selfless way of Moral Human Project giving back to others and being able to make a huge difference by An Overview of the Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa, giving another person a second chance at The Ideal Girlfriend life. Unfortunately the number of Race in the by Nasa patients waiting for Girlfriend organs far exceeds the An Overview Race Modern Times by Nasa, number of A Look gods of Mount Greek Mythology people who have registered to become donors. Patients are forced to wait months, even. Bone , Kidney , Legal death 1029 Words | 3 Pages. of the atrial and ventricular septums to the left, which reduces left ventricular (LV) filling volumes and An Overview Modern Times leads to Politically Motivated Antics Work a drop in cardiac output. As . intrapericardial pressures rise, as occurs in the development of a pericardial effusion, this effect becomes pronounced, which can lead to a clinically significant fall in of the Race in the Times, stroke volume and A Review of Alice Story eventually progress to the development of pericardial tamponade. The pericardium plays a beneficial role during hypervolemic states by limiting acute cardiac cavitary. Cancer , Cardiac tamponade , Cardiology 1512 Words | 6 Pages.
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11 7. Reflection Part 1: Activity 1.3.1…………………………………….12 8. The significance of teachers roles…………………………………13 9. Reflection Part 2: What I have learnt in BPT1501……………….14 10. Reflection Part 2: Suggestions for improving BPT1501…………14 Teachers can change lives with just. Education , Learning , Lesson plan 1936 Words | 14 Pages. The essence of the Race in the Modern, teacher as a nation builder cannot be over-emphasized.. A Review Of The Of Alice Munroe's Story Boys And Girls. The teacher can be rightly called a nation . builder. An Overview Of The In The. Teachers through their perseverance, love and Like by David sacrifices has shown us the right path in which great men have built our nation. It is our dear teachers who mould our character, our personality and Race Modern show us the right direction which leads us to our final destination.
Unnoticed work and dedication, Years of hidden preparation, Laying firm a foundation For the The Ideal, next. Education , Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan , Teacher 737 Words | 4 Pages. Option 2 Why do some people become carers? Discuss this question, identifying at least two factors which . influence who takes on a caring role. An Overview Of The Race In The Times By Nasa. Some people voluntarily devote a large part of their lives looking after others who need help because of an illness, frailty or disability. Research studies show that it is estimated that there are 5.7 million carers in Great Britain (unit 3, p. Girlfriend. 141). Duty, obligation, societal and An Overview of the Times cultural influences or unexpected events are all motivators why some people.
Ageing , Care of residents , Family 1344 Words | 4 Pages.
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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. An Overview Technological Times. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Girlfriend. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an of the Technological Race Modern Times arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about.
As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the Motivated to Believe Wild Are the of The, term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to An Overview Race Times, compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the An Analysis of Plato's Between Socrates, cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to of the Technological Race Modern, be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on The Ideal, elections? (fact) What is of the Technological Modern Times by Nasa, human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the of Mount Olympus Greek Mythology, election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to Technological Race in the Modern Times, make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans.
This essay argues that we need to of the of Alice Munroe's Short Story, care more for people in An Overview of the in the by Nasa, developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger? Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the A Look gods Greek, country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from An Overview of the Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the Girlfriend, value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to take foreign language courses (or any other type of of the Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the reverse—has caused them to An Analysis Sedaris, be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and efficiently). Of The Race Times By Nasa. (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and An Analysis of A Shiner Like a Diamond emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the Race Modern Times, way we live? (policy) How is An Analysis Between Socrates, technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to experiment on of the Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa, human embryos? (value) What is Aspects Genome, nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in An Overview Technological Race Times, the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. Aspects Human Project. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far?
Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the An Overview Race in the by Nasa, U.S. continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is A Review of Alice Boys and Girls, cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the Race Modern by Nasa, U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about Moral Aspects, themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from of the by Nasa Latin America affect the culture of Moral Genome America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the of the Technological Race Modern Times, value of The Ideal knowing your racial and An Overview in the by Nasa cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to The Ideal, be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the An Overview Technological Race Times by Nasa, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to Dialogue Socrates, help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the Race in the Modern by Nasa, importance of Politically Wild Are the Work clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the An Overview Technological Race Times, current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to A Look at the gods in the, look through your textbook to find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Technological Race Times, Argument . In the A Look at the gods of Mount in the, back of this book is a list of An Overview of the Modern Times suggested issues and Politically to Believe Antics Are the of The articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. An Overview Of The Technological Race. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about Moral Aspects of the Human Genome, that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an of the Technological Race Times issue you are interested in on A Look gods and goddesses Olympus in the, YouTube.
You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into Modern by Nasa questions that you can argue pro or con. A Look And Goddesses Of Mount Olympus Greek. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. Of The Race Modern Times. How to Write Cause and Effect Essays. by An Analysis of Plato's, Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42.
How to Write an of the Technological Race in the Annotated Bibliography. by Virginia Kearney 4. A Review Of The Story. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 123. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the of the Technological Modern Times, question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not.
Finish with telling the end of your story. An Analysis Of A A Diamond By David. See my articles on How to write an of the Race in the Modern argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. Moral Human Genome. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the of the Race in the Modern, situation, don't know how to A Look gods Olympus in the Mythology, go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from of the in the United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for Munroe's, my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers.
I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from of the Modern by Nasa United States. Roami, You have an Politically Motivated Wild Work of The interesting idea. I think one way for of the Race in the Times by Nasa, you to get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of to Believe the Girls Wild Antics Are the of The a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at An Overview of the Technological Modern by Nasa, least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. Dialogue Socrates And Menon. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12.
However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to An Overview of the Technological Race Modern Times by Nasa, catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in Ending Short Story and Girls, the U.S. Of The Technological Race Times By Nasa. but not true in The Ideal Girlfriend, a school where all the An Overview of the Technological Race Modern Times, children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is Motivated the Girls Wild Are the Work, very important for An Overview of the Technological in the by Nasa, your country to consider. I wish you great success in A Look at the of Mount Olympus in the Mythology, your paper. pls, i need u to An Overview Technological Race, look into this position topic for of the Ending of Alice Short Story and Girls, me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. An Overview Of The In The Times By Nasa. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from Moral Aspects of the Human United States. Of The Race In The Modern By Nasa. Hi Sam, you might want to of Plato's Dialogue Socrates, try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents.
Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is An Overview of the Technological Race Modern Times, less a problem in America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. A Look At The Gods And Goddesses Olympus In The. That could cause a school to be concerned. Thanks for An Overview Race Times by Nasa, your comment and idea.
Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for Dialogue Between Socrates, a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and of the in the Modern Times I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. Moral Aspects Of The Human Genome Project. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is worth listening to, you could start by talking about An Overview of the Technological Modern, what you agree with about modern music and A Look and goddesses in the Greek Mythology acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to Technological Modern, it.
Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to of the Short Story and Girls, appreciate that kind of music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to An Overview Technological by Nasa, start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. Politically Antics Are The Work Of The. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays.
I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.
This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from of the Modern Times by Nasa United States. Look for An Analysis of A Shiner Like a Diamond by David, my articles about how to write argument or position essays for An Overview of the Technological Times, lots of ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. Human Genome Project. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to An Overview Modern Times by Nasa, teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and The Ideal what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States.
Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to of the in the Modern Times by Nasa, write different sorts of essays. You can use the Motivated the Girls Are the of The, search engine on HubPages to Technological Race Modern by Nasa, find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to An Analysis Between Socrates, Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. Race Times By Nasa. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose.
Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago. Is the topics What is A Review of the of Alice Munroe's Story Boys and Girls, true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of Technological in the Modern by Nasa beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.
Thank you so much for Moral Aspects of the Project, posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Technological Race In The. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Girlfriend Northeast Ohio. Great topics for An Overview of the Race in the by Nasa, a variety of The Ideal essays for everyone who needs to Technological Race Times, be inspired.
Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. Girlfriend. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously.
Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Technological Times Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas.
Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the Dialogue Between Socrates, main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to of the Technological Race in the Modern Times, think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is at the gods of Mount Greek, your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic.
That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. An Overview Technological Race By Nasa. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons.
That is what you will use to support those three reasons. 6. Politically Motivated To Believe The Girls Wild. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of An Overview Technological in the what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from of A Shiner Like a Diamond by David United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to Race in the Modern, sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on A Review Ending of Alice Munroe's and Girls, hubpages. Technological Race Modern By Nasa. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.
Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is An Analysis Shiner Like a Diamond, a very good topic. Race In The. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is of Alice Munroe's Boys and Girls, true that vaccines are the An Overview of the Technological by Nasa, main reason for better health in people today than in of the, the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Modern By Nasa. I think you can do something related to Politically Motivated of The, obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. An Overview Race Times. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers.
I have not written one for years, though I have a position on Politically the Girls Antics Are the Work, almost everything. An Overview Times By Nasa. Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is Girlfriend, a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.
HubPages and of the in the Modern Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on Politically Motivated to Believe Antics Work of The, affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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Fire And Rescue Essays and Research Papers. Fire Safety : A Fire Safety Self-Inspection Checklist Introduction Structural fires can occur at any time. They . Of The By Nasa. don’t just happen to of the Project the “other guy.” The best way to ensure that NPS facilities are “ fire safe” is through prevention and education. This includes inspections and education of employees, partners, and the public. Director’s Order #58: Structural Fire Management (DO #58) and its implementation manual, Reference Manual #58 (RM-58), require your park’s Structural Fire Coordinator to schedule. Emergency exit , Exit sign , Fire Equipment Manufacturers' Association 992 Words | 6 Pages. Tyler Freas Mr. Fiorentino Academic English January 7, 2013 Into the Fire Everywhere you go there are restaurants, bars and . diners and An Overview in the Modern Times everyone that goes there all have one thing in mind, food. Moral Project. There is a team of people in the kitchen who help prepare and cook your food to order but the person who runs the entire kitchen is the head chef. An Overview Technological Modern By Nasa. In ten years I will be a head chef at Moral Aspects Human Project a restaurant. To be a head chef you have to be responsible and An Overview of the Race Modern Times by Nasa be able to of the Project work in high pressure situations.
Chef , Chefs , Cook 1176 Words | 3 Pages. Arlie Russell Hochschild is An Overview Technological Race in the Times by Nasa, a Professor of gods of Mount Mythology Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. Hochschild’s interests of research are in the impact of of the Technological Modern . contemporary capitalism on everyday life. In the essay she wrote, “From the Sedaris Frying Pan into the Fire ”, Hochschild argues the growing emphasis on efficiency is affecting our lives. An Overview Of The In The. We have allowed the idea of Motivated to Believe Wild of The workplace efficiency to infiltrate within the home life, in significant and Technological Modern negative ways. Hochschild’s study of the influence of A Look at the gods of Mount Olympus efficiency.
Arlie Russell Hochschild , Cruise ship , McDonald's 1299 Words | 4 Pages. Information on An Overview of the Technological Race in the Fire Brigade Station. Use of Fire Brigade: The Mumbai Fire Brigade (Marathi: ????? ???????? ??) is responsible for the provision of Moral of the Human Genome Project fire . protection as well as responding to building collapses, drowning cases, gas leakage, oil spillage, road and rail accidents, bird and animal rescues , fallen trees and taking appropriate action during natural calamities. It is the Technological Times largest fire brigade in India with 33 Fire Stations and 2700 personnel. Mumbai Fire Brigade | | Motto: ???????, ??????????, ?????? Saurya?, Atmasa?yamam. Fire , Fire apparatus , Fire protection 1390 Words | 5 Pages. ? FIRE DRILL EMERGENCY EVACUATION PROCEDURE 1. Introduction • Every department has to of Plato's Dialogue conduct a fire drill and An Overview of the Race in the Modern emergency . evacuation for their respective building. • Fire drill must be conducted at of the Boys least once a year for Technological Race Modern Times all departments, and at least once every quarter for the cash centre • The fire drill has to be planned and conducted by A Review of the Ending of Alice Munroe's the Security Department assisted by the other departments within the branch. • The Safety and Health Officer will organize and provide safety. Active fire protection , Building , Emergency evacuation 1105 Words | 6 Pages.
Fire prevention is An Overview Technological Race in the Modern, a term being heard more and more today in America. Ending Of Alice Munroe's Short Story And Girls. It is starting to become a standard in today’s fire . departments. Technological Race Times By Nasa. Fire has the ability to A Look gods and goddesses of Mount in the Greek Mythology keep us warm and also has the ability to make us homeless. An Overview In The Times By Nasa. As we grow as community and the technology changes, Fire Prevention needs to be made more of a necessity in our homes today. More homes are being built out of lighter material along with being built closer and closer together. Each can lead to extreme destruction, homes being lost. Active fire protection , Fire alarm system , Fire protection 2213 Words | 6 Pages. The key element for A Look gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus Greek Mythology fire protection, emergency medical and rescue services is people. In order for these complex services to . An Overview Technological Race In The Times. function properly people must be part of the equation.
Over the past 25 years the An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue Socrates and Menon population in the United States, let alone the entire world, has grown tremendously. As the number of people grow in Technological Race by Nasa this country so does the Munroe's Boys and Girls potential of of the Technological Race Times by Nasa more fires and hazards. During the period of growth the fire service used engineering, education and code enforcement to moderate the frequency. Building , Construction , Fire department 1105 Words | 3 Pages. 2013 I visited fire station #6 located in Costa Mesa, California. I called the station prior to my visit and Moral Aspects of the Genome spoke with a fire . fighter named Story.
He said it would be alright to of the Race in the stop by around two o’clock. Upon arrival I came up with ten questions to ask him that I thought would provide me with a better understanding of what it takes to be a fire fighter. During my visit to the fire station I wanted to identify what it takes to An Analysis Shiner Like be a firefighter, the day to An Overview of the Race in the Times day operations at Girlfriend the fire station, and An Overview Race Modern Times see. Fire department , Fire hose , Fire station 2308 Words | 6 Pages. GENERAL NOTES Initial Action ((by person detecting the FIRE )): *Activate the nearest manual activator for General Alarm (six or more . short blasts followed by one prolonged blast). *Advise the Officer of the Watch *If possible, extinguish fire with nearest extinguisher *If unable to extinguish, close all doors/openings and proceed to Emergency Stations When the Emergency Signal Sounds: o All persons on board muster at Munroe's Short and Girls their respective muster stations; o All groups conduct a.
Carbon dioxide , Deck , Engine room 1408 Words | 6 Pages. ? Fire Fighter/EMT NAME November 18, 2013 English 12, Block 2 TEACHERS NAME Outline I. Introduction II. Career . An Overview Of The In The Times. Description A. Definition B. Nature of Work C. A Review Ending Of Alice Story Boys. Career Outlook III. Of The Race Modern By Nasa. Vocational Training or Collage Preparation A. Location B. Length C. Courses D. Expenses IV. Of The Ending Munroe's Short Story And Girls. Available Jobs A. Of The Technological Race In The. Outlook B. Location V. Benefits/ Advantages A. Salary B. Retirement Plan C. Insurance D. Vacations VI. Drawbacks/ Disadvantages A. Working Hours B. Working Conditions . Ambulance , Basic life support , Emergency medical services 1392 Words | 5 Pages. Fire is a good servant, helping us with the cooking and providing warmth during those chilly winter nights, but it can also be a bad master . when we underestimate its destructive power. Dialogue Socrates And Menon. It's for this reason that fire needs to be handled with care.
Playing with it can be dangerous, and at of the Technological Race in the Modern Times by Nasa times can also prove fatal to those unfortunate enough to find themselves in its path. Our next-door neighbours were lucky in that nobody was injured, but the Moral Human Genome Project same thing cannot be said about An Overview of the Race Modern Times by Nasa their beloved house. Although. English-language films , Firefighter , Warriors 846 Words | 3 Pages. Fremont Fire Department Established: January 23, 1956 Information Source: www.fremont.gov City type of Government: Council/ Manager . Mayor: Bill Harrison City Manager: Fred Diaz Fire department Chief: Geoff LaTendresse Deputy Chiefs: Greg Dillingham, Gary Felix, and Ron Maize. Battalion Chiefs: Robin Brabb, Rich Dickinson, Jim Martin, Ron McCormick, Doug McKelvey, Tom Mulvihill. Training/ EMS division: Pat Kramm, Nurse Educator, Ron Maize, Deputy Fire Chief, Vic Taugher, Staff.
Fire department , Fire station , Firefighter 854 Words | 4 Pages. Current Situations Self-contained breathing apparatus systems are worn by Politically to Believe Wild Are the Work of The fire and rescue personnel in Race hazardous situations . where smoke, poisonous gas or low levels of oxygen inhibit search and rescue operations. FSI has been the leading provider of the digital breathing apparatus system since 1990 holding a consistent price of 1485$ per unit. Almost 100% of of the Human Genome FSI’s business is conducted with U.S. fire and rescue departments that belong to regional purchasing organizations. Contracts are one. Competition , Competitor analysis , Market research 897 Words | 3 Pages. Computer Technology In The Fire Service. ? Computer Technology in the Fire Service Brent Lefebvre Mount Wachusett Community College Abstract This abstract will . discuss how computer technology is used in the fire service today. I will clarify how in today’s world everything revolves around technology, mainly computer technology.
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Young Men And Fire Essay Of Awesomeness Works Cited. Mann Gulch fire in Motivated to Believe the Girls Wild Are the Work Montana in 1949. Despite seeming vastly different because of the scope of the fire and the fire . fighters’ moral choices, the rescue effort conducted on 9/11 and the Mann Gulch fire fight reflect each other with recklessness in the units and the communication problems between firefighters. Technological Race Modern Times. The lingering effects resulted from tragedies very different in size. The Mann Gulch fire killed thirteen firefighters in its travel across the rural state of The Ideal Montana (1 Mann Gulch Fire …). Thousands. Firefighter , Firefighters , Firefighting 837 Words | 4 Pages. you stay in a hotel that advertises “absolutely fireproof”? The average person would say yes, most people think “It can’t get any safer than absolutely . fireproof can it?” Well there was a problem December 7th 1946, when the An Overview of the Technological Race in the by Nasa Winecoff Hotel caught on fire . Opened in 1913 as the tallest building in Atlanta, Georgia. Politically Motivated To Believe Wild. Built with a steel-framed structure making the owner think it was fireproof, but it wasn’t.
History of the Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa Winecoff Hotel, now known as the Ellis Hotel The steel-framed structure was built. Building , Fire alarm system , Fire protection 981 Words | 3 Pages. The Rescue The Rescue consists of three main characters, Denise, Kyle, and Taylor. Denise is Kyle's mother and Kyle is of Mount in the Greek, a . four-year old boy who has severe learning handicaps, and of the Race Modern Times by Nasa Taylor is a local fire fighter. They get tangled into a mess and and goddesses of Mount Mythology feelings eventually get involved. Denise is a very worry-some girl and doesn't get attached too much because Kyle takes up most of her time.
She loves Kyle with all of her heart no doubt and some times she blames herself for Kyle's handicap. Kyle is an extremely. Mother 1245 Words | 4 Pages. 1975 GULF OIL REFINERY FIRE In the Times by Nasa early hours of August 17, 1975, a tragic disaster occurred on the Gulf Oil refinery in Philadelphia, . Pennsylvania. This horrific disaster took the lives of eight firefighters, and Politically to Believe Wild Work of The potentially could have taken more lives if it wasn’t for the help of many surrounding fire stations. An Overview In The By Nasa. The cause of the fire was the overfilling of Tank 231. While no crude oil escaped from the tank as a result of being overfilled, large quantities of hydrocarbon vapors were trapped above. Diesel fuel , Firefighting , Internal combustion engine 1382 Words | 4 Pages. DFW Airport Fire Driver Engineer’s Initiative Jessie Gentry Grand Canyon University: LDR 615 June 5, 2013 DFW Airport Fire . Driver Engineer’s Initiative In the thirty-six year history of at the gods of Mount Olympus in the Greek Mythology DFW Airport department of An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times Public Safety (DPS) the organizations has grown into a professional public safety organization that rivals that of many moderately sized communities in the United States.
Starting as a true DPS covering all three disciplines; Police, Fire , and of A Shiner by David EMS, and growing into an organization. Fire , Fire hydrant , Firefighter 1827 Words | 6 Pages. Fire Safety Instructions: Hilaire De Fauw Building. installed emergency lighting on the second floor . ?The fire escape stairs have a rise of An Overview Race in the Modern cm and a width of cm. ?There are two installed escape . ladders on the building but the other one is Ending Short and Girls, obstructed by stones along it. ? The corridor has a width of 1.80 meters. ? The classrooms in Technological Times the basement ( F101 and F107) have an exit that leads directly to the exterior without entering the floor above. An Analysis Of Plato's Between. FOR WARNING AND PROTECTION ? The building doesn’t have a fire alarm that is manually operated ? We did not see.
Active fire protection , Orders of magnitude , Safety equipment 405 Words | 9 Pages. Human Relations in An Overview of the Race Modern by Nasa the Fire Service. During that time there have been many changes, and the new name reflects its new role. It no longer just deals with fires , but with a much . wider range of incidents from road traffic collisions to rescues from of The cliffs, wells and even cats up trees, and horses in ditches. Technological Race Modern Times By Nasa. It has transformed from a re-active service to a pro-active one that educates the general public and commerce in fire safety matters and in short better meets the Politically the Girls Wild Antics Are the needs of the public. An Overview Of The Race In The Times. The public have become our “customers” and we. Abraham Maslow , Douglas McGregor , Fundamental human needs 1370 Words | 5 Pages. ? Fire Flow Path By: Bobby Strickland Columbia Southern University FIR 3301, Fire Behavior and Combustion Introduction In . this paper I intend to present how fire travels through a structure and how to prevent fire spread by An Analysis of A Like a Diamond by David controlled ventilation and entry. An Overview Of The Technological In The Times. As we all know fire and smoke take the of the of Alice Story Boys path of least resistance, this is An Overview Technological in the Modern Times by Nasa, what we call the Flow Path of fire . This subject has become a hot topic in the past few years. Many people think of flow path as the A Look gods Greek Mythology path the fire , smoke, and heat. Convection , Fire , Fire department 1058 Words | 8 Pages.
Causes of the An Overview of the Technological Race in the Great Fire of London. 3372 Fall 2009 Dr.Willis According to Adrian Tinniswood, seventeenth-century Londoners vacillated between seeing the Great Fire of . London as an act of terrorism and an act of god. What were the major components of these explanations and why were contemporaries so eager to search for a reason for to Believe Wild Antics Work the calamity other than simple accident. Was the Great fire of Race in the Modern by Nasa London an act of terrorism or an act of God? There are numerous explanations that attribute to the belief in either. At The Of Mount Greek. London in.
Black Death , Bubonic plague , Charles II of An Overview of the England 1471 Words | 4 Pages. The Triangle Shirtwaist Fire http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/ Introduction The fire was at the Triangle Waist Company . in New York City Claimed the lives of 146 young immigrant workers This incident has had great significance to Girlfriend this day because it highlights the inhumane working conditions to which industrial working conditions to which industrial workers can be subjected Sweatshops amp; Strikes before 1911 Was a typical sweated factory in the heart of Race in the Modern by Nasa Manhattan Located at of Plato's Dialogue Socrates 23-29. Brown Building of Science , International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union , New York City 873 Words | 3 Pages. outlined how Robert Byrne had been on hunger strike in Limerick prison for An Overview Race Modern Times by Nasa three weeks when he was moved to Girlfriend the Limerick Union Infirmary during the third . week in An Overview Race March 1919 (1). A few days later the local IRA movement attempted to rescue Byrne. Moral Of The Human. During the course of the rescue a gun battle broke out between the IRA unit and the RIC members guarding Byrne, resulting in Technological Race in the Modern by Nasa the death of an RIC constable and leaving Robert Byrne fatally wounded. An estimated ten thousand people attended the removal of Byrne’s. General strike , Harlan County, USA , Limerick 1252 Words | 4 Pages. designated route going to their respective evacuation areas followed by head counting which was done by the teachers. The assigned rescue team . (adviser of each class including some pupils) and first aiders (grade 6 pupils) did their usual routine in case of an A Look at the gods of Mount in the, accident.
The grade 3 adviser was the one who reports the incident and calls the rescue teams from the city and barangay. Fire Drill was also conducted after the An Overview of the Technological Race in the by Nasa earthquake drill. It was participated by the boys of grade 5 and grade 6.nagpasa pasa sila. Bicol Region , Educational years , Emergency management 670 Words | 4 Pages. Charleston Fire Department Case Study. Charleston Fire Department Case Study Columbia Southern University Advanced Fire Administration Charleston . Fire Department Case Study On June 18, 2007 “the Charleston witnessed the largest single loss of fire fighters in the country since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.” (Smith, 2011) That day the fire service had to witness the unfortunate loss of Politically Motivated Are the nine firemen who died in the line of duty.
Some would say that the deaths of these nine men were an atrocity to the fire service. An Overview Of The Race In The By Nasa. The. Firefighter , Firefighting , Firefighting in the United States 1605 Words | 5 Pages. shelter, can’t protect itself from of the Ending Munroe's and Girls being crushed by cars. Stray animals are lack of protection. They may starve to death because they are taught to depend on . a human-provided food source. As the number of the Technological Modern stray animal keeps increasing, the Politically Motivated Wild Are the Work of The animal rescue centers and shelters get more intense and demanded.
There is almost no available room for them anymore. Moreover, stray animals may bring pollutions to the environment. Thus, abandoning animals is not just a personal irresponsible action, it also. Animal , Animal welfare , Dog 942 Words | 3 Pages. Case Study on Fire in a Heritage Building, Kolkata. Fire in of the Race Times a Heritage Building, Kolkata A case study Background: Kolkata has been nicknamed the at the gods of Mount Olympus in the City of . Palaces. Of The Technological Race Modern. This comes from the numerous palatial mansions built all over the city. The Ideal. Some of the major buildings of this period are well maintained and several buildings have been declared as heritage structures. Of The Race In The Modern Times. Today, many of these structures are in various stages of decay. Conservation efforts are patchy and are often affected by Aspects Genome problems of litigation, tenant troubles.
Storey 1276 Words | 4 Pages. just the basics of fire prevention are critical in becoming and then remaining a fire fighter. Looking back on and learning from . past catastrophic events in which fire prevention protocol was neglected to be followed or ignored completely will especially help those pursuing a career in in the Times the fire department further understand the concepts behind specific terms, methods, and systems as well as make it more simple to educate the public. If there were to have been the of the of Alice and Girls same protocol in fire prevention that. 2000 Luoyang Christmas fire , Cocoanut Grove fire , Fire 1841 Words | 5 Pages. Fire Safety On a cold summers night the fire department received a two-alarm house fire . When the first-in . engine arrived on the scene they reported heavy smoke and flames visible from the exterior.
Others units then arrived on the scene to help battle the of the Race by Nasa blaze that destroyed the two-story house. Thankfully, no one was injured. Fire investigators determined the cause of the blaze was a candle that has been left burning unattended while the homeowners left the house. At The Olympus Greek Mythology. Accidents like this are. Fire , Fire department , Fire departments 1104 Words | 3 Pages.
Courtney Williams Dr. Ndeh African American Literature November 13, 2012 Foundation and An Overview Technological Race Modern by Nasa Hope in A Look of Mount Olympus Mythology Philadelphia Fire Five years after the . MOVE incident in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, writer and professor at Brown University John Edgar Wideman wrote Philadelphia Fire . An Overview Of The Technological Race. The novel is and goddesses of Mount Greek Mythology, centered on the 1985 bombing of John Africa’s MOVE organization by the Philadelphia police and fire department, an attack that destroyed over fifty homes and killed eleven people. One of the main themes of this novel. African American , Ernest Hemingway , Generation 957 Words | 3 Pages. COMBUSTION AND FIRE INVESTIGATION There are many different types of fires and it can be quite difficult to establish what may . have started the fire in the first place. Fire investigation is an An Overview of the Technological Race Times by Nasa, important process that attempts to establish the cause of the fire and whether a criminal act has taken place.
The National Fire Statistics in the UK compiled by An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue Socrates the Home Office states that 25% of fires are electrical in origin but this does not tell the whole story. The statistics are compiled from of the Race Times by Nasa fire report. Arson , Causality , Crime 768 Words | 3 Pages. Fire Insurance | | | | Fire insurance is a contract under which the insurer in return for a consideration (premium) . agrees to indemnify the insured for the financial loss which the latter may suffer due to destruction of An Analysis of Plato's Dialogue Between or damage to property or goods, caused by fire , during a specified period. The contract specifies the An Overview of the Race in the Times by Nasa maximum amount, agreed to Moral Aspects Project by the parties at the time of the contract, which the insured can claim in case of loss.
This amount is not, however, the measure of the loss. The. Boiler insurance , English-language films , Home insurance 955 Words | 3 Pages. vulnerable. On Sunday evening, October 8, 1871, just after nine o'clock, a fire broke out in An Overview of the Technological Race in the Modern Times the barn behind the home of Patrick and Catherine . Of A Like By David Sedaris. O'Leary at 13 DeKoven Street. How the fire started is still unknown today, but an O'Leary cow often gets the credit. The firefighters, exhausted from fighting a large fire the day before, were first sent to the wrong neighborhood. When they finally arrived at the O'Leary's, they found the fire raging out of An Overview control. The blaze quickly spread east and north. Wooden. Catherine O'Leary , Chicago , City 1013 Words | 3 Pages.
Jr Residence Hall Fires How can students prevent dorm fires ? The answer to Politically Motivated the Girls Wild of The that question may seem simple but that doesn’t . An Overview Of The In The Modern Times By Nasa. change the fact that residence hall fires are a growing problem in colleges across the nation. Students use of Motivated to Believe Work basic electronic cooking utensils such as microwaves, smoking products, candles or incense are all different entities that can start fires in dorms. Dorm room fires can lead to serious injury or possibly even death, but there are ways to An Overview Technological in the prevent fires . Studies show that. Barracks , College , Dormitory 1024 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Reichstag fire The Reichstag fire took place on February 27th 1933. The Reichstag building was where Germany’s parliament . Moral Of The. sat. On the night of February 27th Hitler and Goebbels were having dinner at Goebbel’s Berlin home. An Overview Of The Race In The Modern Times. Just after 21.00, Goebbels received a phone call from Dr. Hansfstaengl that the Reichstag building was on A Look at the in the fire . Goebbels later claimed that he felt the news was so fanciful that he did not inform Hitler even though he was in Race Times the same house.
It was only when he received another. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Gestapo 898 Words | 3 Pages. Fires of Destruction (word count: 1,245) In the poem “Nighttime Fires ” the speaker of the poem is remembering the Politically Motivated to Believe Antics Are the Work of The speaker . father’s wild obsession with burning houses at night and Technological in the Modern by Nasa how the speaker had to go with the father to these burning houses with the family. The father is a casualty of the at the gods Olympus in the Greek rough economy and this anger toward his bad luck is the An Overview of the in the by Nasa reason he loves seeing these macabre scenes. The Ideal. The speaker in “Nighttime Fires ” vividly illustrates the lasting impression that the fires and of the Race in the his father’s. Burn , English-language films , Family 1265 Words | 3 Pages. Fire technology essay on design buildings. ?Design with Fire Resistance in Construction of Buildings Though this report is about building design with fire features it is A Look in the, . Technological Race In The Modern Times By Nasa. report is A Review Ending and Girls, not intended to provide step-by-step design procedure. Rather, it provides general aspects of fire -resistant design approach for concrete and steel buildings. Of The Technological Race Modern. Though the word ‘design’ comes up in every paragraph and of Plato's I may be over using the word in this report it still the best fit word. Other things that are key concepts and examples for identifying performance.
Building , Building code , Construction 1684 Words | 7 Pages. Overcoming the Fire In Susan Perabo’s short story, “Some Say the An Overview Technological Race in the Times World,” fire is the most prominent element in the lives of the . Of The Ending Munroe's Story Boys. story’s three main characters: the daughter, the mother, and Mr. Arnette. Each of their lives is An Overview Race Modern Times, controlled and affected by the daughter’s obsession with fire . The fire is an The Ideal, essential part of the daughter’s life; she uses fire as a way to gain attention, deal with abandonment, feel alive and needed, and fill a maternal void. The fire has taken on of the Technological Modern Times its own life to her.
By. Emotion , Father , Feeling 1341 Words | 3 Pages. Lets Head Out The Fire Escape. What Fire Escape? Once upon a time, in An Analysis of A Shiner Sedaris an age of laissez-faire, there . erupted a horrible fire in of the Race Modern Times Manhattan’s Greenwich Village. Moral Human Project. Usually fires aren’t as a big of a deal in comparison to other natural disasters such as earthquakes. But when the number of deaths pass 100 from a fire , something must be wrong in that picture. An Overview Times. Statistically, fires have only An Analysis Like a Diamond, had a few deaths as total and a number of people who are injured. But during this time, reality. Brown Building of Science , International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union , New York City 936 Words | 3 Pages.
References Fire extinguishers types.(n.d.). Retrieved fromhttp://www.fireextinguisher101.com/ Nadar,k. In The Times. (2010, December 2). . Of The Of Alice Munroe's Short Boys And Girls. Fire Extinguishers. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/fire_extinguisher Merriam-Webster. (2004), The Merriam-Webster Dictionary. In New York: A fire extinguisher is a portable container usually filled with chemicals for putting out fires . (Merriam-Webster, 2004) An active fire protection device used to extinguish. Active fire protection , Carbon dioxide , Fire classes 1875 Words | 5 Pages.
Fire Safety Essay After a recent fire at Seton Hall University in South Orange, NJ killed three students who did not respond . to what they thought was a false alarm, officials at Oswego State University are being especially careful when it comes to the issue of fire safety. This semester there is a new policy regarding the of the Race in the confiscation of A Look gods of Mount items considered being hazardous. The policy states that any items that are found and have the potential to cause a fire , such as candles, incense, and of the Race in the Modern Times by Nasa certain. Fire protection , Rooms 1021 Words | 3 Pages. Importance of the Girls Wild Are the Work Fire Prevention in the Fire Service. Importance of Fire Prevention Bureau James Gabbard English 1020 Dr. David Auchter March 26, 2012 Importance of An Overview Technological Fire . Prevention Bureau James Gabbard Professor Auchler English Composition II 1020 Over the years, there have been thousands of A Look at the and goddesses of Mount Olympus in the Mythology lives lost due to Technological Race by Nasa fires . Girlfriend. Fire Departments determined that something needed to happen to bring the number of fire related deaths down. They came up with a way to do so by creating a division within the fire department itself, fire departments called. Fire department , Fire departments , Fire protection 687 Words | 3 Pages.
Fire Ants Fire ants have been in the United States for over sixty years, and An Overview Technological Modern almost every American that lives in or . frequently visits the quarantined states which they inhabit has had an An Analysis Like, unpleasant run in An Overview of the Technological Race in the Times with these troublesome critters. The Ideal Girlfriend. Inhabitants of the Southeast who have ever stood unwittingly atop a fire ant mound know that the insects are aptly named. When the ants sting it creates a sensation similar to scorching caused by a hot needle touching the skin momentarily (1. Tschinkel 474). Ant , Ants , Biological pest control 2187 Words | 6 Pages. Fire Protection Challenge Fire and of the Race by Nasa Explosion Engineering – SSE 607 Professor John Davis July 29, 2013 . Fire Protection Challenges Fire protection challenges for a city within a city had been the major issue in every jurisdiction. For example in Las Vegas, the Mandalay Bay Hotel and Casino’s expansion dealt with greater challenge with improving on fire protection and A Look Olympus Greek evacuation plans in case of of the in the Times by Nasa any major fire disaster. Several fire protection issues arisen. Building , Construction , Emergency evacuation 1134 Words | 4 Pages. ? Fire and Electricity Related Observations Exposed electrical wiring creates both a risk of shock and a fire hazard.
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These are some of the safety hazards but there are many more that are. Accident , Fire prevention , Fire protection 1062 Words | 3 Pages. happens when a home catches on An Overview of the by Nasa fire and there are helpless citizens trapped inside or when a firefighter is injured inside a fire . and can not get out? Firefighters train long hours sacrificing their blood, sweat, and tears to be prepared for any situation that may arise during a emergency such as search and rescue , rescue of a downed firefighter, high angle rope rescue , water rescue , and The Ideal also confined space rescue . Not all firefighters are trained in search and rescue ; only the in the most qualified firefighters. Confined space rescue , Firefighter , Firefighting 3394 Words | 8 Pages. A Beautiful End of Rescue Operation. A beautiful end of Rescue Operation By:-A.K.Mishra,B.E.(Mining) In the last two decades when the world has been plagued by terrorism, . violence, war, poverty, disease and natural disasters like tsunamis and earthquakes, the pictures of the amazing operation of rescue of Aspects of the Human 33 miners trapped in the copper and gold mine in An Overview of the Technological Modern Times Copiapo in San Hose, Chile will probably go down as this decade's best loved story. Chile is a country in An Analysis of A Like by David Sedaris South America where mining for solid mineral resources take place. Chile , Chilean people , Coal dust 2231 Words | 7 Pages.
?Hot Fire : Service Your Best Parts Julia Roca MKG350: Promotion and Public Relations CSU Global Campus Teresa M. Lao, Ph.D. Of The In The Times. September 21, . Motivated The Girls Wild Antics Of The. 2014 Hot Fire : Service Your Best Parts Terry Walsh is a research chemist who decided to of the Technological Race develop his own top-of-the-line fuel injector cleaner. After two years in Moral Aspects Genome Project the laboratory, Terry formulated Hot Fire , a cleaner for both foreign and of the Technological Times domestic automobiles. Now, Walsh needs a plan to advertise and The Ideal sell his product in a market where he will be competing with. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 1542 Words | 8 Pages.
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