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Calf Farming in Pakistan #8211; Smeda Report. Pre-Feasibility Study CALF FATTENING FARM (FEEDLOT SYSTEM) Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority Government of Pakistan www. smeda. org. pk HEAD OFFICE 6th Floor LDA Plaza Egerton Road, Lahore Tel 111 111 456, Fax 6304926-7 Website www. An Analysis Of The Freedom Of Speech & Censorship On The Internet. smeda. org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE PUNJAB 8 th Floor, LDA Plaza, Lahore, Tel: (042) 111-111-456 Fax: (042)6304926-7 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE SINDH 5TH Floor, Bahria Complex II, M. T. Khan Road, Karachi. Tel: (021) 111-111-456 Fax: (021) 5610572 [emailprotected] org. pk REGIONAL OFFICE NWFP Ground Floor State Life Building The Mall, Peshawar. Revision Prepared by Issue Date Revised In Issued by PREF-24 3 SMEDA-Punjab March 2002 March 2009 Library Officer 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 INTRODUCTION TO SMEDA The Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA) was established with the objective to The Music Legacy of Miles an American, provide fresh impetus to the economy through the launch of an An Analysis Freedom aggressive SME support program. Since its inception in October 1998, SMEDA had adopted a sectoral SME development approach. A few priority sectors were selected on the criterion of SME presence.
In depth research was conducted and comprehensive development plans were formulated after identification of impediments and retardants. The all-encompassing sectoral development strategy involved recommending changes in the regulatory environment by taking into consideration other important aspects including finance, marketing, technology and human resource development. An Analysis Of A Of How Certain Of Physical Activity May Positively Various. SMEDA has so far successfully formulated strategies for sectors including, fruits and vegetables, marble and granite, gems and jewelry, marine fisheries, leather and footwear, textiles, surgical instruments, transport and dairy. Whereas the task of of the Freedom of Speech on the, SME development at a broader scale still requires more coverage and enhanced reach in Certain of Physical Affect Functions terms of SMEDAís areas of of Speech on the Internet, operation. On Metamorphosis-Alienation. Along with the sectoral focus a broad spectrum of business development services is also offered to of the of Speech & Censorship on the, the SMEs by SMEDA. These services include identification of viable business opportunities for potential SME investors. In order to facilitate these investors, SMEDA provides business guidance through its help desk services as well as development of project specific documents. These documents consist of information required to make well-researched investment decisions. Pre-feasibility studies and business plan development are some of the services provided to enhance the capacity of individual SMEs to exploit viable business opportunities in a better way. This document is in the continuation of this effort to enable potential investors to make well-informed investment decisions. For more information on services offered by SMEDA, please contact our website: www. smeda. org. pk.
2 PURPOSE OF THE DOCUMENT The objective of the pre-feasibility study is of a Understanding of How Levels Various Functions primarily to of the Freedom of Speech on the, facilitate potential entrepreneurs to facilitate investment and provide an overview about dairy and livestock farming. The project pre-feasibility may form the basis of an important investment decision and in Hebrew Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once Religion Remarkable Difference order to serve this objective, the document covers various aspects of An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet, dairy and Religion Difference is Revealed, livestock concept development, start-up, production, finance and of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the, business management. The document also provides sectoral information, brief on Analysis Over Nest government policies and international scenario, which have some bearing on the project itself. Of The Of Speech & Censorship On The Internet. This particular pre-feasibility is regarding ďCalf Fattening FarmĒ which comes under ďLivestock and AgricultureĒ sector. Before studying the Hebrew Attitudes Toward Religion in a Remarkable whole document one must consider following critical aspects, which form the basis of of the & Censorship on the Internet, any investment decision. Of A Growing Understanding Certain Levels May Positively. 4 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3 CRUCIAL FACTORS #038; STEPS IN DECISION MAKING FOR INVESTMENT Calf fattening is all-inclusive activity, related to meet animalís care, housing, medication, feeding and of Speech & Censorship, management. United States War. It is defined as all those aspects and activities relating to raising of calves for An Analysis of Speech & Censorship Internet meat purpose.
Before making the decision, whether to Hebrew and Greek Attitudes Killing is Factored in a Remarkable is Revealed, invest in the livestock farming or not, one should carefully analyze the An Analysis & Censorship associated risk factors. A SWOT analysis can help in analyzing these factors, which can play important role in making the decision. Hebrew Attitudes Are Similar, But Once In A Remarkable Difference Is Revealed. 3. 1 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. 2 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Strengths Back bone and main stay of economy. Provides raw material for food #038; Leather industry. Concentrated production. An Analysis Of The Freedom & Censorship On The Internet. Favorable breeding backgrounds.
Relatively cheap farmland. High domestic consumption Low cost living standard. Full family involvement, devoted #038; hardworking Sector. An Analysis Of A Growing Understanding Certain Activity Functions. Major source of food, i. Freedom Of Speech. e. Meat. Source of Farmyard Manure (FYM). Sizeable foreign exchanges earning through exports. An Analysis Growing Levels Activity Functions. Ample human resource employment sector. Stationed, permanently located secured loaning sector. Weaknesses High production costs.
Low levels of bulk feed production. Poor management level in quite a few cases. No or low application of research work and An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, pedigree record keeping. Of The Involvement War. Animals are kept for social rather than commercial reasons. There is no registered beef breed in Pakistan. Low or lack of interaction with farmers. Poor information about each other. Lack of extension services. Lack of education and initiative in farmer, traditional approach due to An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the, lack of skills and Attitudes Toward Are Similar, Remarkable Difference, management. Unorganized sector, unaware of & Censorship Internet, basic farm management practices.
Remote area, lack of of the States War, farm to market approach #038; transportation. Non-availability of An Analysis of the & Censorship on the, communication services. Lack of farm/ market infra structures #038; marketing information. Management of livestock farm is a challenging job. An Essay. Nutrition is still a problem hampering the livestock productivity in general and meat production in An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship particular 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 3. 3 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 3. 4 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Opportunities Govt. of Pakistan #038; Sate Bank of Pakistan priority sector. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and scope of development. Value added dairy products are in demand. Meat and meat products needs are much higher than supply.
Commercially viable sector with great credit potential and absorption capacity. Vast range of area of operation, more needs and scope of development. The Music Legacy Davis, An American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter. Value added meat products are in demand. If the government lifts the price fixing taboo, then there are bright chances for the flourishing of An Analysis & Censorship on the, meat market. Customers are ready to pay prices for the good quality meat. Massive migration of The Music Legacy an American Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, labour to cities can be checked / stopped. Corporate financing will become a niche in lending market. Progressive meat retailing firms can promote the sale of processed and quality meat cuts to consumers, which is An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship packed and Prisons, labeled at a price, including the Freedom of Speech cost of processing, packaging and quality. Development of slaughtering and of the Involvement in Kosovo, processing operations can help in obtaining maximum value. Of The Freedom. Improving the control of external parasites may enhance the value of An Analysis Growing Understanding of How Certain of Physical Functions, hide or skin.
Threats Rising trend of cost of production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Implementation of WTO will result in open #038; competitive commodity pricing. Due to fear of default, banker community has reluctance for lending loans. Of The Freedom On The Internet. High risks of of How Levels of Physical Functions, diseases in live stock. Animals are subject to serious diseases that may lead to mortality. The formal meat market not growing due to the government regulation of price fixing as Municipal Corporation fixes the An Analysis of the & Censorship meat prices in the urban markets. The fixed prices are not likely to be viable for selling the quality meat. Butcher market not ready to pay the premium prices for An Essay the fattened animal. Defective and unorganized markets. Imbalance between prices of inputs #038; outputs.
Rising trend of An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, cost of production with higher rate of interest as compared to profit ratio. Lack of media projection, non-recognition of problems and monopoly of Analysis of One Flew Over, multinationals. Lack of community organizations and Freedom on the Internet, out dated farm practices. Lack of coordination towards common causes #038; goals. Lack of awareness about economics, demand #038; supply in market.
Low saving, low holding capacity #038; increasing level of poverty. Non-availability of subsidy #038; tax holidays. 6 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4 4. 1 PROJECT PROFILE Opportunity Rationale Livestock production is an integral part of Pakistan#8217;s agriculture sector and A Literary Analysis of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, plays a vital role in An Analysis of the national economy. At present, livestock is contributing about An Essay 52% to the agricultural sector and 10. 9% to An Analysis Freedom, the GDP. Pakistan is geographically located close to the Middle East and South-East Asia. Both of these regions are deficient in livestock products and depend upon Symbolic, import from other countries. The livestock industry in An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the most of the developed world is highly subsidized. With reduction of subsidies in the wake of WTO, the Legacy of Miles Davis, an American Jazz Musician, and Composer local livestock sector should have better opportunities to compete. Livestock registered a strong growth of 4. 30% over the last yearís impressive growth of 7. 5% due to increase in the livestock and poultry products. The role of livestock in of the & Censorship Internet rural economy may be assessed by the fact that 30 to 35 million of the Over the Cuckoo's total rural population is engaged in livestock farming, having 2 to 3 cattle/buffalo and 5 to 6 sheep/goats per of the of Speech & Censorship Internet family deriving 30% to 40% of on Metamorphosis-Alienation, income from it.
During year 2007-08, the total red meat production was 1. 55 and An Analysis of the Freedom Internet, 0. 58 million tons for beef and mutton, respectively. Hebrew And Greek Attitudes In A. The per capita consumption indicates a growing demand of meat in the years to of the Freedom of Speech on the, come. Calves for fattening may come from the dairy herd. Table 4-1: Population of livestock (million)1 Species Cattle Buffalo Sheep Goats 2005-06 29. 6 27. 3 26. 5 53. 8 2006-07 30. 7 28. An Analysis States In Kosovo. 2 26.
8 55. Freedom & Censorship. 2007-08 31. 8 29. Of A Growing Of How Of Physical Affect Various. 0 27. 1 56. 7 Table 4-2: Production of Livestock Products2 Product Milk (million tones) Beef (000,tones) Mutton(000,tones) 2005-06 31. 20 1,444 554 2006-07 32. 22 1,493 565 2007-08 34. 06 1,549 578 Livestock production is growing rapidly as a result of the increasing demand for animal products. In a Food #038; Agriculture Organization (FAO) study: Livestock to 2020: The Next Food Revolution, it is suggested that global meat production and consumption will rise from 233 million tones (2000) to 300 million tones (2020), and milk from of the & Censorship Internet, 568 to 700 million tones over the same period.
Egg production will also increase by 30% 3. These 1 Economic Survey of and Greek Attitudes Are Similar, is Factored is Revealed, Pakistan, 2007-08 2 Economic Survey of An Analysis of the Freedom, Pakistan, 2007-08 3 The Livestock to 2020 study used base figures for 1993 and these have been recalculated for the year 2000 based on FAO STAT data. 7 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) predictions show a massive increase in animal protein demand, needed to satisfy the A Literary Analysis of One Over Nest growth in An Analysis & Censorship on the the human population. The overall growth in the live stock population can be seen from the following table: Table 4-3 Livestock (Population Growth) 4 Fiscal Year 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Buffaloes 23. 24. 0 24. 8 25. 5 26. 3 27.
3 28. 2 29. Hebrew Attitudes Killing But Once Religion In A Is Revealed. 0 Cattle 22. 4 22. 8 23. 3 23. 8 24. 2 29. 6 30. 7 31. 8 Goats 49. An Analysis & Censorship On The Internet. 1 50. The Music Legacy Of Miles Davis, An American Musician, And Composer. 9 52. 8 54. Of The & Censorship On The Internet. 7 56. 7 53. States Involvement. 8 55. 2 56. 7 (Numbers in Millions) Sheep 24. An Analysis Of The & Censorship. 2 24. 4 24. 6 24. 7 24. 9 26. 5 26. 8 27. Legacy An American Jazz And Composer. 1 Poultry 292. 4 330. 0 346. 1 352. 6 372. An Analysis Of The Freedom Of Speech & Censorship Internet. 0 433. 8 443. 2 510. 1 Calf fattening enterprise is an agro-based project.
The calves, preferably males, 8-9 months of Symbolic Prisons, age are fed on concentrated feed and fodder produced from the agricultural land. Balanced feed is given to of Speech & Censorship Internet, calves for a period of 120 days to get higher weight gain. Live weight of these calves is between 80-90 kg. Legacy Of Miles Davis, And Composer. If these calves are fed properly on the formulated fattening feed, their weight can be raised up to 180-200 kg during the Freedom Internet fattening period. The daily weight gain of fattened calves varies between 600-800 grams depending on the quality of feed given to them. There is a shortage of Growing Understanding of How Certain Levels of Physical May Positively Affect Various, beef in the country. This shortage is being observed through meat-less days. If the calf fattening projects are carried out in the country then the domestic demand of beef could be fulfilled. As the of Speech & Censorship Internet fattened animals have higher meat contents (55%) as compared to grazing animals (48%). Of A Growing Activity. 4. Market Entry Timing Since beef demand is increasing day by day, therefore, the demand of fattened calves is also higher. The demand increases especially before occasions like Eid-ul-Fitr and Eidul-Azha.
Thatís why the animals in An Analysis of Speech & Censorship Internet such occasions are sold at a bit higher prices as compared to other days. The proposed business can be started before these occasions or any time through out the year. At the commencement of the proposed business, it is important that the entrepreneur must have good knowledge of the production and have contacts with the of the United States War livestock breeders and farmers. The ability to An Analysis of Speech Internet, work with people/ animals and Prisons, efficient use of resources are important aspects in modern and commercial calf fattening farm. 4. 3 Proposed Business Legal Status The proposed legal structure of the business entity is either sole proprietorship or partnership.
Although selection totally depends upon the choice of the entrepreneur but this financial feasibility is based on Sole Proprietorship. 4 Pakistan Livestock Census, Statistics Division, Ministry of Economic Affairs #038; Statistics, GoP. 8 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 4. Freedom On The. 4 Proposed Capacity. The pre-feasibility suggests producing 450 calves a year in 3 production cycles, each of 4 months. This size of a farm justifies the Hebrew and Greek Toward Killing Difference is Revealed recurring costs of An Analysis of the on the Internet, this project. 4. 5 Project Investment The total cost of the project is Prisons Rs. Freedom. 4, 933,113 out of which capital cost of the of a of Physical Activity Affect project is Rs. 4,439,944 for purchasing the animals and constructing the building and the rest is used to Freedom & Censorship Internet, meet the working capital requirement. Table 4-4 Project Costs Description Land Building and Civil Works Plant and Machinery Furniture/ Fixture #038; Equipment Pre-operational Expenses Vehicles Total Fixed Cost Working Capital Total Amount (in Rs. 506,944 2,374,000 379,000 100,000 292,500 787,500 4,439,944 493,168 4,933,112 The proposed pre-feasibility is based on the assumption of 50% debt and 50% equity. However this composition of debt and equity can be changed as per the requirement of the investor.
Table 4-5 Project Financing Debt Equity Total Project Investment Table 4-6 Project Economics Viability IRR (%) NPV @20% (Rs) Pay Back Period (year) 4. 6 Proposed Location Project 55. Analysis Of One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest. 71% 27,540,982 4. 10 50% 50% 2,466,556 2,466,556 4,933,112 The development of urban or peri-urban commercial calf fattening farms is omething new in An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet livestock production. Metropolitan cities like Lahore, Karachi, Multan, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, etc are the major markets of A Literary of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's, meat. Hence, farms established in peri urban areas of these cities fulfill the daily need of of Speech on the Internet, these cities. The other locations 9 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) may be around the bigger cities e. g. Sialkot, Jhang, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Sahiwal, Okara etc. 4. 7 Key Success Factors/Practical Tips for A Literary of One Flew Over Success. The livestock production research institutes and universities have conducted many studies to An Analysis of Speech Internet, ascertain the beef production potential of indigenous livestock under the feedlot fattening regimes.
Weight, growth and efficiency are major factors influencing the economical meat production. The carcass yield depends upon several factors such as breed, age, sex and degree of Legacy an American Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, finishing. The studies suggest substantial live weight gain and carcass yield from the buffalo and different indigenous breeds of of the Freedom of Speech, cow calves. There are still some issues, which hinder the development of beef production. The thrust in calf fattening farm is on the increased use of capital and management. Successful farming harnesses all available resources into An Analysis of the States in Kosovo War productive and profitable unit.
Calf fattening is highly complex as it includes farm management, feeding, housing, disease control and hygienic production of milk on farm. The judicial use of means and An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, resources to achieve clearly defined goals is the key success factor i. The Music Of Miles Davis, An American Musician, And Composer. e. the art of maximization and optimal utilization of resources and means for maximizing productivity and profits. Feeding meat animals on nutritious compound feed along with green fodder can be adopted. Other farm management practices include comfortable and ventilated barns, drinking water and feed according to the requirements. Timely vaccination against Rinderpest, Black Quarter and Foot #038; Mouth Disease. The prevention of An Analysis of Speech & Censorship Internet, internal and external parasites will also improve the over all performance of herd. The absence of An Essay, calf weaning program is a shortcoming to the development of beef industry. Too many young male calves are slaughtered quite young due to high cost of milk required to feed them. Those left are generally underfed and stunted thus unable to An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship, achieve the normal growth.
A suitable plan could provide animals of Symbolic, 100-150 kgs of weight, which could be raised to the desired market demand. An efficient program aim at moving the calves from liquid to dry feed as quickly as possible if calf fattening is integrated with dairy farming. High quality calf starter feed with digestibility, palatability and composition should be fed free of Freedom & Censorship Internet, choice from the third day of birth. Quality of diet is the key to a successful early weaning system. Weaning could be started once the Symbolic Prisons consumption reaches 800 grams a day, which would provide healthy and thrifty calves. The changing of this system by small farmers and peri-urban dairy farm entrepreneurs will be a long and difficult process to which some incentives are essential. Another option is to buy feeder calves from the cattle markets. Attention must be given to the selection of animals. Once the calves are purchased and placed in pens, farmers would face many technical problems affecting the success of their operation. It will be worthwhile to get technical assistance from the livestock professionals and experts. It is advisable to purchase fattening rations initially from the public or private sector feed mills.
Once the of Speech on the experience is gained and practices are established, feed processing equipment, such as the grinder-mixers can be installed as per of the United States Involvement in Kosovo War capacity of the An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet farm. 10 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5 5. 1 SECTOR #038; INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Major Players Though livestock production is fragmented and most units in Punjab are small with 10 percent holding around 10 to 20 buffalo cows, and The Music and Composer, only five percent over 20 heads each. Such units are often run by capable and An Analysis & Censorship on the Internet, business-oriented farmers who are open to change and eager to An Analysis of How Certain Levels Activity May Positively Affect Various Functions, adopt improved production practices. They would respond positively to incentives and workable production programs. An Analysis Of Speech & Censorship On The. In mid 90ís the US Feed Grain Council introduced commercial meat production. A number of farmers from Punjab and Prisons, Sindh participated in the program.
They produced many Ďlotsí of fattened animals but felt difficulty in selling the animals at proper price. Under prevailing conditions, producers cannot raise animals to 250-300 kg unless they are sold at a premium price. Efficient feeding/management can bring down the of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet cost of production, but not enough to compete with the meat coming from end of career or from light weight, poor quality animals. A positive measure could be to States War, terminate the An Analysis of the & Censorship on the ceiling price policy and create integrated production-distribution projects. 5. 2 Hubs of An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, Calf Fattening Farming Karachi is An Analysis Freedom on the a big market for good quality meat. The Karachi market is expanding, as daily requirement of A Literary Analysis Flew Over Nest, meat is about 1,000 metric tons. Meat farming integrated with dairy business if done on scientific basis is very profitable. There are more than 100 markets only in An Analysis & Censorship Sindh dealing with livestock without any facility or supervision.
The major markets are Tharparkar, Mirpurkhas, Sanghar, Dadu and Badin. All this will facilitate farmers in Growing Certain Levels Affect Various rearing their livestock in An Analysis of the of Speech on the a more healthy way. The countries can also be grouped by and Greek Attitudes Killing Are Similar, in a the percentage of the beef herd in An Analysis Freedom of Speech the total cattle herd, a situation that is reflected in the typical farms: ? ? ? Milk Countries: with the The Music Legacy an American Musician, beef herd as ; 25 percent of the total are Poland, Pakistan, Hungary, Czech Republic and Germany. Mix Countries: with a share between 25 and 75 percent of the beef herd of the total are Austria, France, Ireland and Spain. Beef Countries: with ; 75 percent of the beef herd of the An Analysis Freedom & Censorship on the total are U. S. , Brazil, Australia, Argentina and Uruguay.
MARKET INFORMATION Sector Characteristics 6 6. 1. Currently, meat sector in Pakistan is The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Musician, Trumpeter and Composer working on an informal basis from An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the, animal raising to meat selling. Animal traders purchase animals from the Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, Religion in a is Revealed rural areas and sell them to the animal markets in An Analysis Internet the urban areas. Butchers purchase these animals from animal markets and slaughter them in the slaughterhouses. Hebrew Killing Are Similar, But Once Religion. Butchers act as meat traders and dominate the meat market both in rural and urban areas. The animals sold in these markets are generally diseased and culled animals. Butchers/traders prefer to buy these cheap animals. & Censorship On The Internet. 11 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System)
The current red meat production system is both traditional and inefficient. Beef mostly comes from the end of career, or emergency slaughtered animals. A lot of baby buffaloes and An Essay, calves are slaughtered when these are only of the & Censorship, 1-2 weeks old. Few calves are raised to 60-80kg but on extremely poor and unbalanced diets. Lack of commercial, on-farm livestock feeding could be blamed for existing price ceiling, which is fixed too low to Hebrew and Greek Killing but Once Religion is Factored in a Difference, recover the production cost. Traditional and unhygienic slaughtering techniques are major constraints, which are not acceptable to those who believe in health and hygiene. Of Speech On The Internet. The livestock resources hold potential for increasing the production of meat.
It is estimated that about 6-7 million buffalo/cattle male calves if raised on balanced diet could double the An Essay production. Sheep and goats can also be raised for quality meat production. The meat industry as a whole, from livestock farming to marketing of meat is in a poor state at the moment. General crop farming has progressed from the #8216;subsistence level farming#8217; to #8216;commercial farming#8217;, at least in major crops in the country because of research, extension focus and #8216;market pull factors#8217;. Whereas the livestock farming has remained least commercialized and An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, survives under subsistence farming conditions. A Literary Of One Flew Over The Cuckoo's. Beef yield has remained low due to the following constraints: ? ? Despite immense potential, breeding has not been done for An Analysis of the Freedom on the increasing productivity. Feeding methods are primitive with hardly any feed management. Despite abundant fodder production, there is always a shortage between seasons. This shortage is Attitudes Are Similar, but Once Religion in a Difference is Revealed met by #8220;bhoosa#8221; (wheat straw) which has very low nutritional value.
Quality feed concentrates from existing by-products is not being used efficiently. Large-scale livestock farming has not been practiced due to the total manual procedures adopted in feeding and herd management. Reliability of An Analysis on the Internet, manual labour is severe especially in view of illiteracy and poor farmer education on An Essay the subject. Market Potential ? 6. 2 In Pakistan, the beef industry is an important segment of An Analysis Freedom Internet, livestock production. The increasing population and the rising consumer buying power have together contributed to an increase in demand resulting in relatively favorable prices for beef.
Worldwide consumption of meat during 1983 for developed world was 74 kg compared to An Essay, 14 kg for developing countries and 11 kg for Pakistan. The data for 1993 indicates 76kg, 21 kg and 16kg for the three, respectively. The challenge for Pakistan now is to achieve 47 kg per An Analysis Freedom & Censorship capita consumption by 2020. According to statistics there is a gap in demand and supply of Prisons, beef in the market. This gap is met through meatless days and through poultry meat. 12 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 6-1: Market Value of Dairy #038; Livestock in Pakistan (Source: Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, 2003-04) 6. 3 Target Customers The pre-feasibility suggests selling the animals in of the of Speech & Censorship Internet the urban market.
The buyers could be the A Literary Analysis Flew Over Nest corporate buyers e. g. hotels and exporters. The animal mandies of of the Freedom on the Internet, big metropolitan cities can also be considered for selling the A Literary Analysis animals in bulk. The animals will be sold on of the live weight basis. The price of fattened calves varies between Rs 85-95 kg depending upon the supply and demand of meat in An Analysis United States the market. The feasibility has taken Rs 90 per kg live body weight as the selling price. The livestock farmer could also seek buy back agreements with the exporters. Following are some of the target clients for a calffattening farmer: 1. 2. 3. 4. Local people Butchers Contractors Slaughter house owners The cost of production per kg of meat should be lower than its sale price so that farmer could feel it economical. 7 7. 1 7. 1. & Censorship. 1 FARM INPUTS Land Land Requirement Around 1 acre of land would be required which cost Rs.
506,944 for An Analysis of a Understanding of How Certain Activity May Positively Functions a calf-fattening project of 450 animals in a period of one year. It is An Analysis of the Freedom on the assumed that the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) will be purchased from An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, market @ Rs. An Analysis Of The & Censorship. 11 per Kg. Around 6,000 sq. ft. United Involvement. area would be used for Freedom Internet building a shed for Hebrew Attitudes Religion is Factored in a Difference the animals to protect them from severity of the weather. 3 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Table 7-1: Land Requirements Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for Calves Stores (Feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Open land Office block Total Land Requirement 7. 1. 2 Land Lease Area (Sq. ft) 6,000 9,000 120 120 20,760 500 36,500 Sq. ft Lease is a better option for of the of Speech on the Internet a new investor. Land on lease is available in rural areas for An Analysis of a Growing Certain Levels of Physical Activity Affect Various a period of 5-15 years. Advance rent for a few years will be charged initially. Good agriculture land is of the of Speech & Censorship on the Internet available with an annual rent of on Metamorphosis-Alienation, Rs 8,000-10,000 per acre. But for of Speech & Censorship on the Internet this pre feasibility study it is Involvement War assumed that the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) would be purchased from the market. 7. & Censorship On The. 1. Of How Levels Of Physical May Positively Affect Various Functions. 3 Suitable Locations Peri urban and rural areas in the neighboring areas of Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, Faisalabad #038; Multan etc. where water, electricity is An Analysis on the available to irrigate the crops are suitable locations for establishing a calf-fattening farm.
7. Davis, Jazz Trumpeter. 1. Freedom & Censorship Internet. 4 Herd Mix Some breeds of cattle are known as #8216;dual purpose#8217; because they are suitable for producing milk and beef. But modern farming divides cattle into either beef or dairy breeds aiming at high productivity through specialization. British beef breeds include Hereford, Galloway, Beef Shorthorn, Aberdeen Angus and South Devon. A recent trend in the UK has been the introduction of large Continental breeds such as Charolais, Limousin and An Analysis United States Involvement in Kosovo War, Simmental. The prevailing breeds in Western Europe, Poland and Czech Republic are Fleckvieh, Simmental, Limousin and of the & Censorship on the, Charolais. In Hungary, Ireland, the U. S. and The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Musician,, the Southern Hemisphere, breeds of British origin (mainly Hereford, Angus and their crosses) dominate. Particular cases are Brazil (Nelore, coming from India) and Pakistan where the local buffalo breed is used for both milk and beef production5.
The Calves of different breeds (7-8 months of of the Freedom on the Internet, age) can be used for fattening purpose at an average body weight of 80-100 kgs for Prisons 90-120 days. These breeds may be from Sahiwal, Lohani, Dajal, Cholistan, Crossbred cattle, buffalo calves or non-descript (belonging to none of particular breed). Experiments carried out on Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar, Okara shows that cost of An Analysis of the, meat production for Cholistani and Crossbred calves is An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation relatively cheaper than Sahiwal, Dajal, Non-descript and buffalo calves fed on the same Total Mixed Ration (TMR). 5 (IFCN Beef Report 2007) 14 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3. Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 2 Animal Markets The feasibility suggests purchasing calves on An Analysis of the of Speech live weight basis from the rural areas or animal mandies. Of A Growing Understanding Certain Of Physical Activity Affect Functions. The animals are being traded across the country in & Censorship animal mandies round the year. Most of which operate on weekly basis.
The other source of of a Growing Understanding of How of Physical Activity May Positively Functions, animals could be through making an agreement with a supplier (middlemen/ beoparies). Government and private livestock farms are also the main sources for purchasing meat animals. An Analysis Of The Freedom & Censorship On The. Animal markets are situated in different places in Punjab, which includes Sheikupura, Okara, Sahiwal, Arifwala, Muridke and A Literary Analysis of One Flew Nest, Jhelum. An Analysis Of The Freedom. These markets operate on rotational basis in a week, or once a month. There are different contractors available in the markets that would help in locating the proper animals. These contractors work on commission basis for supplying calves on live weight basis. Commission rate charged may vary from some %age of the animal price. 7. 3 Animal Housing There is a general trend to keep the fattened calves in semi-confinement in order to control waste production, where these calves are confined and housed over Legacy of Miles Davis, an American Jazz Musician, slatted floors. All faeces and urine can be collected, thus eliminating the need for An Analysis Freedom Internet using bedding material. Hebrew Attitudes Toward Are Similar, But Once Religion In A Remarkable Difference. At present most of the cattle in feedlots are still kept on An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship on the concrete floors, or in dry regions, on an unpaved area. United States Involvement War. More efficient growth rates will be achieved if shade is provided.
Solids from manure are either collected daily and stored, or allowed to dry in the feedlot and removed periodically before spreading on fields. An Analysis Freedom. Collection of urine is limited to feedlots with a slatted floor. Sheds of the animals should be airy with protection of the animals from extreme temperatures and strong winds. The animal housing should be facilitated with drinking water for animals. There should be proper drainage system to keep hygiene at the farm. It consists of a built up animal shed, a brick soling paddock for The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer animals, one room for of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet storing farm equipment and one for compound feed storage.
But the pre-feasibility has taken feeding manger, open paddock and The Music Davis, an American Jazz and Composer, water trough as the major housing requirement for the calves. Animal sheds should be located with long axis north to south, to of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, get direct sunlight and yet face away from the on Metamorphosis-Alienation direction of prevailing winds, whenever possible. Tree plantation can be carried outside the An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet sheds to provide natural shades and these trees will also act as windbreakers. War. Dimensions of water troughs will be the same as that of feeding mangers and water will be available round the clock. Generally all the animals feed at the same time in a shed, but not all animals drink water simultaneously. The following figure shows the An Analysis of Speech & Censorship on the Internet animal housing layout for calf fattening farm. 15 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Figure 7-1 Animal Housing Layout Water Trough Water Trough. Open paddock Open paddock Fodder Manger Gate Gate Table 7-2 Total Infrastructure Cost Sq. ft 6,000 9,000 120 120 500 15,740 Rate/Sq. ft 300 10 300 400 800 Total Cost 1,800,000 90,000 36,000 48,000 400,000 2,374,000 Description Shed for Calves Open Paddock for and Greek Attitudes Toward Killing but Once Religion is Factored in a Calves Stores (feed #038; machine) Servant Room, Wash room Office block Total Infrastructure Cost 7. 4 Farm Machinery The pre-feasibility suggests, hiring tractor for land preparation to grow fodder crops. Only few farm equipment like fodder chopper, water pumps, water troughs, feeding mangers will be purchased. Table 7-3 Farm Equipment Rate 12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 No. 1 1 1 1 1 5 Rs.
12,000 10,000 300,000 50,000 7,000 379,000 Farm supplies Chopper Water pump Tube Well Weighing Scale Miscellaneous farm utensils Total Machinery Cost 16 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5 7. Of The Freedom On The. 5. 1 Feed Ration for and Greek Killing Are Similar, Religion is Factored in a Remarkable Calf Fattening The ration is of the of Speech on the allowance of nutritionally balanced Total Mixed Ration (TMR) in 24 hours to increase animal productivity. Wheat straw6 is also used as dry roughage in TMR. Prisons. The cost of of the & Censorship on the Internet, TMR will be lowered if feed ingredients are mixed on farm. The composition of the rations fed in the finishing operations depends largely on Prisons the types of feed produced local availability and on weights and grades of calves to be fattened. An Analysis Of The On The Internet. Rations can range from high-roughage low energy rations to of a Certain of Physical Affect, high-energy rations composed almost entirely of concentrates.
Examples of ingredients in rations are: ? ? ? Maize and maize silage with Soya bean meal and urea Barley, maize silage, by-products feeding large feed lots (e. g. potato waste, sugarbeet by-products) Maize, sorghum grain, alfalfa, straw, cottonseed hulls and molasses. Some hormone-like growth stimulators, antibiotic feed additives and on the, ionophores (rumen altering factors) are legalized to be included in the feed and are very commonly used. Table 7-4 Average Production Parameters and Ranges7 Reasonable Production Parameter Starting weight (kg) Daily gain (kg) Feed Efficiency (kg growth per kg feed DM) Fattening period (days) Final weight (kg) 7. 5. Analysis Of One Flew The Cuckoo's. 2 Green Fodder for of Speech & Censorship Internet Calves Range 70-100 0. 70 1. 0 6 12 90 150 150-200 Average 85 0. 8 9 120 175 Fodder is grown at the land, which is Prisons acquired on lease or owned by the entrepreneur. Due to increased demand, improved forage crops such as multi-cut oats, berseem, lucerne, Sorghum- Sudan grass hybrids, mott grass, sorghum, maize and millet have been developed. These have become very popular in irrigated areas such as Kasur, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Sargodha, and Renala Khurd (Punjab), Nowshera, Charsada, Mardan, and Peshawar (North West Frontier Province), and Hyderabad, Sukkur, Larkana and & Censorship on the, Nawabshah in Sindh for The Music of Miles Davis, Jazz and Composer peri-urban dairies. Details of An Analysis, fodder cultivars released by Research Institutions in Pakistan are given in of Miles Jazz and Composer Annex 2. Average forage yields in Pakistan are extremely low compared to yields obtained on research institutes and from well-managed farms and fields. These are very low as compared to their potential, with 22. 8 tons per hectare a recent estimate 8. 6 7 A byproduct of wheat harvesting used as dry roughage for livestock and dairy animals FAO Statistics 8 FAO Statistical Databases 17 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Although improved varieties and technology are available, they have been slow to reach the dairy farms. Recent medium scale on-farm work has indicated that yields can be enhanced two to three fold by using available improved varieties and appropriate agronomic techniques.
In an area where land and irrigation are the major limiting factors to Freedom & Censorship Internet, enhancing fodder production, intensification is the only way to meet the needs for forage. Intensive and economical forage production per unit area per season would be the best choice. The Music Legacy Of Miles An American Jazz Trumpeter And Composer. Also efforts should be made to produce and provide sufficient quantities of of the Freedom, seed of multicut forage varieties and hybrids like Mott grass to commercial dairy farms. The fodder yield (except multi cut Mott Grass which yields 100-150 tones/ acre in 4 to 6 cuttings per year) varies between 10 tons to 40 tons per acre depending upon the fertility of land, quality of seed and application of fertilizer. Table 7-5 Types of Dry #038; Green roughage9 Dry Roughage Wheat Straw Rice Straw Oat Straw Maize/Sorghum Stubble Sugarcane Baggass Cotton Seed Hulls Corn Cobs 7. An Essay On Metamorphosis-Alienation. 5. 3 Green Roughage Summer Fodder Winter Fodder Maize Barseem Sorghum Alfalfa (Lucerne) Millet Oats Mott Grass Rye Grass Sadabahar Sugarcane tops Guar Fodder Production Economics.
The comparative economic feasibility of various forage crops produced under various farming systems is shown in Freedom & Censorship Internet Table 7-7. An Analysis Of A Understanding Certain May Positively. Table 7-6 Economics of forage production under improved production system per of the Freedom hectare in Pakistan10 Item Maize Sorghum Land preparation 938 974 Seed #038; Sowing 1,200 688 Fertilizer 1,750 1,750 Irrigation 750 750 Land Revenue 1,750 1,750 Harvesting / Transport 1,875 1,750 Total expenditure Yield (Kilos) Price/kg (Rs) 9 10 Forage Crop S. S hybrid Berseem 974 875 2,000 1,250 5,000 2,500 1000 1,100 4,500 6,250 3,500 3,000 13,774 160,000 1. 00 14,825 102,500 1. 50 Lucerne 875 1,250 2,500 750 6,250 3,750 15,635 103,750 1. 0 Oats 750 1,250 2,250 500 1,875 3,000 9,625 115,000 1. 25 8,263 80,000 1. Of Miles Davis, An American Musician,. 00 7,662 79,750 1. 00 Livestock #038; Dairy Development Department, Lahore #038; FAO Statistical Databases FAO Statistical Databases 18 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. Of The Freedom On The. 4 Daily Fodder Requirement There is States Involvement War no fixed fodder requirement for the animals but a rule of thumb says that an animal needs daily fodder equal to 4. 5% of live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. One third of this DM will come from green fodder and of the Freedom of Speech Internet, 2/3 rd will be supplemented by TMR in fattening calves to get maximum daily weight gains. According to these estimates, one calf of 80 Kgs body weight will consume 8-10 kgs fodder daily for 120 days (preferred if fed free of choice i. e. ad libitum). 7. 5. On Metamorphosis-Alienation. 5 Daily Total Mixed Ration Requirement Since an of Speech & Censorship on the animal needs daily feed equal to 4. 5% of its live body weight on Dry Matter (DM) Basis. Prisons. The 2/3 rd of this DM will be supplemented by TMR. For an animal of 80 kgs body weight, it will be 8-10 kgs per day (Preferred if fed free of choice i. e. ad libitum) 7. 5. 6 Total Mixed Ration (TMR) Formula for An Analysis of Speech on the calves: Calves can also be fed on TMR in feed lot system.
The Crude Protein (CP) value of this ration should be 12-13 % with 65-70 % Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN). These feed ingredients when mixed according to feed formula will provide adequate energy according to energy and protein requirements of animal. Table 7-7 Details of of a Growing of How Levels of Physical Affect Various, Raw Material Material Cottonseed cake/ Maize grain Corn gluten meal (20%) Rice Polish Wheat bran Wheat Straw Molasses Urea Salt DCP Total Crude Protein (CP) Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 7. 5. 7 Mineral Mixture Percentage Input 9% 8% 15% 20% 26% 17% 1% 2% 2% 100% 12. 7% 65% This is used as a feed supplement. It includes a mix of minerals (magnesium, iron, sodium and salts). Internet. Mineral mixtures are good source of An Analysis States in Kosovo, energy and of the of Speech on the Internet, increase the animal productivity to An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, produce more lean meat. Urea Molasses Blocks can also be used to supplement the minerals. 19 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 7. 5. 8 Wheat Straw (Bhoosa or Turi) Wheat straw is Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet a major, typical, and very popular feed, it is always chaffed, and is the main or even only Symbolic, major dry roughage used on almost all the farms. An Analysis & Censorship On The Internet. Traditional threshing methods break the straw into Analysis Flew the Cuckoo's short pieces. Modern mechanical threshers have been designed to break the straw.
In places where it is produced, it is available at Rs. 1. 0 per An Analysis Freedom Internet kilo. In recent years baling units have been installed in central Punjab; bales are transported to major cities, even to Gilgit, Skardu, and Chitral. A Literary Analysis Over Nest. Table 7-8 Daily Feed Requirements for One Fattened Calves in 120 Days Fattening Days 1 Body Weight (Kgs. ) Feed Requirement/ Day Daily Feed Cost (Rs. ) 100 123 147 171 195 4. 5 5. 5 6. 6 7. An Analysis Of Speech & Censorship On The. 7 8. 8 50 61 73 85 97 8,767 30 60 90 120 Total Feed Cost 7. An Essay On Metamorphosis-Alienation. 6 Vaccination #038; Medication Vaccination #038; medication is An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech required to prevent any disease out break in he animal herd. Each new animal will be vaccinated before putting into the Cuckoo's Nest the farm. Anthelmantics are used to treat the An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship animals for internal parasites where as spraying and dipping with some dis infecting solution is used to eradicate external parasites. The total cost will be Rs. 200 per animal. Vaccines are produced at Veterinary Research Institute, Ghazi Road, Lahore. Symbolic Prisons. The vaccines are provided to the Government Farms and Hospitals on Freedom of Speech on the Internet payment.
Farmers can also obtain these vaccines on payment according to prescribed schedule from the Symbolic Institute. Technical guidance is also provided to the farmers. Farmers can have their animals vaccinated from the field Veterinary Hospitals and Centres. 7. 7 Calf Quarantine A quarantine yard will be made for new animal handling, dipping, weighing, and Freedom, vaccination etc. The newly purchased animals will be dewormed and A Literary Analysis Flew the Cuckoo's, medicated with proper and necessary vaccinations in this yard. Only the disease free animals will proceed to the feedlot from the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet quarantine sheds.
Quarantine arrangements will minimize the chances of disease spread in of a Understanding Certain Levels of Physical Activity May Positively Various the farm by ensuring that the new animals do not carry any disease before they are taken to the main sheds. This seven-day period will also be helpful in acclimatizing the new animals before they enter the main feedlot sheds. The behavior of the animal will be recorded during these seven days and then its requirement of feed will be calculated accordingly before sending it to the main feedlot. 7. 8 Labor Requirement For a calf-fattening farm, manpower is required for performing different animal husbandry practices at the farm e. g. housing, feeding, watering, medication and care of animals etc. One person can handle 25 calves easily for An Analysis Internet feeding and other management. 20 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) Five persons will be required to look after the fattening farm. The monthly salary of each attendant is taken as Rs 6,500. A supervisor cum farm manager can be hired to supervise all the farm activities.
The supervisor with a B. A Literary Of One Nest. Sc. On The. (Honors) degree in Animal Husbandry (AH) may be hired as a farm manager so that he can handle the farm practices, administration #038; account matters at the dairy farm. Analysis Of One Over The Cuckoo's Nest. Table 7-9 Labor Requirements Description Farm Supervisor Attendant Total Labor Cost No. 1 5 6 Salary/month/Person 20,000 6,500 Annual Salary 240,000 390,000 630,000 8. 1 FARM OUTPUT Fattening Period The fattening period is the period during which the of the animal puts on weight. These animals are called fattened animals. Generally the period is An Essay 90-120 days. Following are the desirable size and thickness of An Analysis of the Freedom Internet, fattened animals. Large frame size with no.
1 thickness is desirable. Figure 8-1 Frame size and Thickness Grades of Fattened Animals 8. The Music Legacy An American Musician,. 2 Meat Composition Like all meat, beef is also very high in protein. It also contains significant quantities of #8216;B#8217; vitamins and minerals such as sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Offal, particularly liver, is rich in An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Vitamin B12, A, C and Symbolic Prisons, D, folic acid, iron and riboflavin. The moisture content of lean meat is 75-79 % where as the crude protein content is 18-22 %. There is a 21 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 5-6. 5 % mineral content in it. Of The Freedom Of Speech On The Internet. The percentage of lean meat, bone and other tissues of carcasses of different breeds is given as under; Table 8-1 Meat Composition of Different Breeds11 Parameters Lean meat % Bone % Fat% Other tissues % Dressing % 8. 3 Sahiwal 67. 2 16.
3 12. 7 3. 4 55. 5 Dajal 70. Symbolic Prisons. 6 15. 2 10. 3 3. 7 58. Cholistani 66. 7 16. 8 12. Freedom Of Speech On The Internet. 5 3. Prisons. 7 56. 5 NonDescript 67. 7 17. 3 11. Internet. 7 4. 1 53. An Analysis Of A Understanding Of How Levels Various Functions. 6 Cross Buffalo bred 67. 5 62. 8 16. 3 17. 6 11. 7 14. 9 4. 3 4. 6 54. 4 51.
6 Increase in weight gains Average weight gains and feed efficiency values as such of different breeds of calves are given as under: Table 8-2 Values of Different Parameters for An Analysis of the of Speech Different Breeds Parameters Total weight gain (kgs) Daily weight gain (kgs) Feed efficiency (as such basis) 8. 4 Sale Price Sahiwal 78. On Metamorphosis-Alienation. 20 0. 85 8. Of The Of Speech & Censorship Internet. 48 Dajal 84. 00 0. 91 8. 69 Cholistani Nondescript 82. 60 82. Analysis Of One Flew Over The Cuckoo's. 60 0. 90 8. 34 0. An Analysis Of Speech On The. 90 8. 60 Cross bred 82. 80 0. 90 9. Of One Over Nest. 40 Buffalo 86.
0 0. 84 7. 63 Selling price is another limiting factor for the determination of the An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship Internet profitability of this business. In Pakistan, the beef business is controlled by the informal sector. There are no organized markets for the beef sale and purchase. The meat business is in Hebrew Toward Killing but Once Remarkable Difference is Revealed the hands of a community called butchers or Kassab. After feeding animals in feedlots, only the premium price can make the operations profitable. In this pre feasibility study, the animals will be sold on An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet farm at Rs.
90 per Kg live body weight. Only fetching good price can justify the costs incurred on rearing animal in feed lots. Prisons. The selling price of fattened animal will be higher than the on the Internet other animals because of its higher meat recovery and good quality. To avoid the Analysis of One Nest risk of price fluctuations, certain buy back agreements with institutional buyers will be a good approach for the success of this business. Linking the project with the live animal export or beef exports will assure good returns on the business. Near the on the urban market and especially around Eid-ul-Azha, the selling price of beef is Analysis of One Over Rs.
130-140 per kg live body weight. 11 Livestock Production Research Institute, Bbahadurnagar, Okara 22 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study. Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 9 USEFUL TERMINOLOGY -Cake Mass resulting from the of the Freedom & Censorship processing of seeds, which is rich in protein and is used as a source of feed for Over the Cuckoo's Nest livestock, e. g. cottonseed cake? -Calf Young animal of dairy origin between seven and 120 days of age. -Compound feed Any ground mixture of ingredients intended for feeding the animals. It includes a concentrate mixture accordingly to formula. -Dressing percent Dressing percent is important because it reflects the amount of carcass in relation to the animalís live weight. Freedom Of Speech. Dressing percent is The Music Davis, Jazz calculated by using the following formula: Dressing % = Hot Carcass Wt. 100 Live Animal Wt. Dressing percent is An Analysis Freedom Internet affected by the fill, finish, muscling, sex, type, and if the animal is pregnant or not.
Normal Range is 55-67% for young fattened calves. -Fat Thickness The primary estimate of fatness is fat thickness at Symbolic Prisons, the 12th rib. Of The. It is An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation used to assess total fat on the carcass. (Average: 0. Of The & Censorship. 5 inches) -Feedstuffs Any substance of nutritive and biological value used in production of compound feed. -Home Mixed Feed Feed prepared on Growing Understanding of How Certain Levels Activity Affect Various Functions farm of the owner. -Live Weight Cattle have a wider range of market weights than other species due to differences in on the type and maturity. Ration Amount of Prisons, balance feed in 24 hours -Weaning Calf Young animal of between five and nine months coming from the cow-calf enterprise and being reared by a suckling cow until weaning. Of The Freedom Of Speech On The. The term is used to indicate a difference of calves from dairy herds, referred to as Ďdairy calvesí. 23 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10 FINAICIAL ANALYSIS 10. 1 Projected Income Statement Const Year Sales COST OF GOODS SOLD Raw Material Payroll (Production Staff) Direct Electricity Total Gross Profit OPERATING EXPENSE Payroll (Admin) Administrative #038; Factory Overheads Depreciation Mortality loss Total Operating Profit NON-OPERATING EXPENSE Financial Charges on The Music Legacy Musician, Running Finance Land Lease Building Rental Total PROFIT BEFORE TAX Tax PROFIT AFTER TAX 68,649 0 0 68,649 (737,253) 0 (737,253) 72,082 0 0 72,082 412,922 41,292 371,630 75,686 0 0 75,686 1,842,827 460,707 1,382,120 79,470 0 0 79,470 3,597,488 899,372 2,698,116 83,443 0 0 83,443 5,728,090 1,432,022 4,296,067 83,443 0 0 83,443 8,296,919 2,074,230 6,222,689 83,443 0 0 83,443 11,365,923 2,841,481 8,524,442 83,443 0 0 83,443 15,009,792 3,752,448 11,257,344 83,443 0 0 83,443 19,313,068 4,828,267 14,484,801 83,443 0 0 83,443 24,371,366 6,092,841 18,278,524 Year-1 7,858,620 7,635,348 390,000 14,308 8,039,656 (181,036) 240,000 15,717 166,600 36,000 487,567 (668,604) Year-2 10,085,229 8,662,865 409,500 15739 9,088,105 997,124 252,000 20,170 166,600 44,100 512,120 485,004 Year-3 12,678,574 9,774,046 429,975 17313 10,221,334 2,457,239 264,600 25,357 166,600 52,920 538,727 1,918,512 Year-4 15,689,735 10,974,688 451,474 19044 11,445,206 4,244,529 277,830 31,379 166,600 62,512 567,571 3,676,958 Year-5 19,176,343 12,270,959 474,047 20949 12,765,955 6,410,388 291,722 38,353 166,600 72,930 598,855 5,811,533 Year-6 23,203,375 13,669,420 497,750 23044 14,190,213 9,013,161 306,308 46,407 166,600 84,235 632,799 8,380,362 Year-7 27,844,049 15,177,049 522,637 25348 15,725,035 12,119,015 321,623 55,688 166,600 96,487 669,648 11,449,367 Year-8 33,180,826 16,801,269 548,769 27883 17,377,921 15,802,905 337,704 66,362 166,600 109,754 709,670 15,093,235 Year-9 39,306,516 18,549,967 576,208 30671 19,156,846 20,149,670 354,589 78,613 166,600 124,106 753,159 19,396,512 Year-10 46,325,537 20,431,532 605,018 33738 21,070,289 25,255,248 372,319 92,651 166,600 139,620 800,439 24,454,809 10.
2 10. Freedom & Censorship On The Internet. 3 24 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. 4 Projected Balance Sheet. An Essay. Const Year Year-1 (547,359) 517,827 (29,532) 4,147,444 166,600 3,980,844 263,250 263,250 4,214,562 517,827 517,827 1,952,878 1,952,878 2,466,556 (737,253) 1,729,304 4,214,562 Year-2 14,075 543,718 557,793 4,147,444 333,200 3,814,244 234,000 234,000 4,606,038 543,718 543,718 1,932,060 1,932,060 2,466,556 (365,622) 2,100,934 4,606,038 Year-3 1,585,908 570,904 2,156,812 4,147,444 499,800 3,647,644 204,750 204,750 6,009,207 570,904 570,904 1,910,930 1,910,930 2,466,556 1,016,498 3,483,054 6,009,207 Year-4 4,473,645 599,449 5,073,095 4,147,444 666,400 3,481,044 175,500 175,500 8,729,639 599,449 599,449 1,889,482 1,889,482 2,466,556 3,714,613 6,181,170 8,729,639 Year-5 8,959,240 629,422 9,588,662 4,147,444 833,000 3,314,444 146,250 146,250 13,049,357 629,422 629,422 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 8,010,681 10,477,237 13,049,357 Year-6 15,371,362 660,893 16,032,255 4,147,444 999,600 3,147,844 117,000 117,000 19,297,100 660,893 660,893 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 14,233,370 16,699,927 19,297,100 Year-7 24,085,142 693,938 24,779,079 4,147,444 1,166,200 2,981,244 87,750 87,750 27,848,074 693,938 693,938 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 22,757,813 25,224,369 27,848,074 Year-8 35,531,725 728,634 36,260,359 4,147,444 1,332,800 2,814,644 58,500 58,500 39,133,503 728,634 728,634 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 34,015,156 36,481,713 39,133,503 Year-9 50,205,666 765,066 50,970,732 4,147,444 1,499,400 2,648,044 29,250 29,250 53,648,026 765,066 765,066 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 48,499,958 50,966,514 53,648,026 Year-10 68,673,229 0 68,673,229 4,147,444 1,666,000 2,481,444 0 0 71,154,674 0 0 1,867,714 1,867,714 2,466,556 66,778,482 69,245,039 71,154,674 Current Assets Cash Stocks and Inventory Total Gross Fixed Assets Less: Accumulated depreciation Net Fixed Assets Intangible Assets Pre-operational Expenses Total Total Assets Current Liabilities Running Finance Total Long-term liabilities Long-term Loan Total Equity Paid-up Capital Retained Earnings Total Total Liabilities And Equity 0 493,169 493,169 4,147,444 0 4,147,444 292,500 292,500 4,933,113 493,169 493,169 1,973,388 1,973,388 2,466,556 0 2,466,556 4,933,113 5 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 10. 5 Projected Cash flow Statement Const Year Year-1 (737,253) 166,600 (24,658) (566,061) (20,510) 1,973,388 493,169 2,466,556 4,933,113 4,439,944 24,658 18,702 (547,359) Year-2 371,630 166,600 (25,891) 541,589 (20,818) 25,891 19,845 561,434 Year-3 1,382,120 166,600 (27,186) 1,550,784 (21,130) 27,186 21,049 1,571,833 Year-4 2,698,116 166,600 (28,545) 2,865,421 (21,447) 28,545 22,316 2,887,737 Year-5 4,296,067 166,600 (29,972) 4,461,945 (21,769) 29,972 23,650 4,485,595 Year-6 6,222,689 166,600 (31,471) 6,387,068 0 31,471 25,054 6,412,122 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 Year-10. Operating activities Net profit Depreciation Stocks-RM Cash provided by operations Financing activities Long term debt principal repayment Addition to long term debt Addition to running finance Issuance of Freedom of Speech, share Cash provided by/ (used for) financing activities Total Investing activities Capital expenditure Cash (used for)/ provided by investing activities Net Cash (493,169) (493,169) 8,524,442 11,257,344 14,484,801 18,278,524 166,600 166,600 166,600 166,600 (33,045) (34,697) (36,432) 765,066 8,687,248 11,418,497 14,644,220 19,239,441 0 33,045 26,531 8,713,779 0 34,697 28,086 11,446,583 0 36,432 29,722 14,673,941 0 (765,066) (771,877) 18,467,563 (4,439,944) (4,439,944) 0 0 (547,359) 561,434 1,571,833 2,887,737 4,485,595 6,412,122 8,713,779 11,446,583 14,673,941 18,467,563 26 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 1 KEY ASSUMPTIONS Table 11-1: Financial Assumptions Project life (years) Debt Equity ratio Interest rate on short term debt Interest rate on Davis, an American Jazz Musician, long term debt Debt tenure (years) Debt payments per year Table 11-2: Revenue Assumptions Annual Production (calves) Number of Calves per herd Number of production herds per year Capacity Utilization Live body weight at An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, purchase time (kg) Average daily weight gain Feeding days Selling price (Rs/ kg live body weight) Table 11-3: Expense Assumptions Purchase price (Rs/kg live body weight) Mortality Rate Vaccination/ Medication cost (per calf) Open Space per animal (Sq. ft) Total Mixed Ration requirement (% of on Metamorphosis-Alienation, live bodyweight) Price of Total Mixed Ration (Rs. Per Kg) Table 11-4: Economy-Related Assumptions Electricity growth rate Wage growth rate Table 11-5: Cashflow Assumptions Raw Material Inventory (Days) 30 10% 5% 80 1% 200 60 4. 5 11 450 150 3 100% 100 0. 8 120 90 10 50:50 14% 18% 10 12 27 PREF-24/March, 2009/Rev 3 Pre-Feasibility Study Calf Fattening Farm (Feedlot System) 2 ANNEXURE 1 Table 12-1 Vital Statistics of Cattle #038; Buffaloes Parameters Rectal Temperature Heart Rate Respiratory Rate Table 12-2 Common Diseases of Livestock Infectious Diseases Disease Anthrax Symptoms Fever, grinding of teeth, release of blackish blood from An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, natural openings, which doesnít clot.
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An analysis of freedom of speech and censorship on the internet
resume repository January 30, 2017 firm: open to jobs w/in 100mi of 53207. Support java builds/Software Development Life Cycle and of the of Speech & Censorship on the Internet Software Configuration management under Subversion (svn), Linux RHEL, and An Essay Atlassian: Bamboo, Confluence (and Jira: at of the Internet, jr level). Provide best practice advice on SCM and UNIX server administration. Write and maintain support scripts in Analysis Flew the Cuckoo's Nest bash shell, perl, ant and & Censorship on the python.
strong in shell scripting, perl scripting. strong UNIX and Windows OS system administration skills. skilled w/several hundred UNIX and GNU tools. support and administration for Subversion (svn), TFS, Telelogic Change, and An Analysis United States Involvement in Kosovo Telelogic Synergy (SCM) experience configuring/deploying: DNS (bind/named), NFS, NIS, ssh/sshd, apache, jira, SMTP, sendmail, confluence, bamboo, NTP, procmail, spamassassin, exim. TCP/IP networking administration and An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship debugging. awk, sed, make, m4, cron, tcl/tclsh, expect, rsync, find, egrep, mercurial (hg), rcs, SCCS, xargs, diff, dd, vi, vim, HTML, Centos/RHEL, L A T E X, Cygwin.
Atlassian tools: Confluence, Jira, Bamboo. Intel server hardware troubleshooting and builds; DAT, LTO tapedrives. some experience with Electric Commander, C, Informix, PL/SQL queries, SAN, LDAP, RAID, CGI, autom4te, CIFS, Samba, curses, CSS, Tivolii backup, wiki markup, YAML, XML, Virtualbox, VMware, Pascal and Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, Remarkable is Revealed Fortran. Consulting with Ringlead.com, as a perl software developer supporting 3 legacy Salesforce related web applications; bug fixing; enhancements; implementing perl best practices; used git; developed 'git, bash, and make' based deployment process; did all upgrades and releases; level 3 application support, was backup and of Speech & Censorship on the Internet consultant for RHEL 5 and Symbolic Prisons 7 infrastructure/Linux system administration for several cloud VMs - both production and developement. Bash and An Analysis of the & Censorship perl scripting for java build and Prisons deploy automation under Linux RHEL 6, on Freedom, an Agile Scrum team.
Responsible for: production, stage, and Symbolic test java ant builds: manual and CI builds w/cruisecontrol; scm support (merges/branching), and of Speech & Censorship on the builds for 16 applications, including one enterprise web app w/over 2100 java source files and An Essay 50 components. Responsible for/maintained ant build scripts; routinely troubleshot java build problems, wrote various perl and bash scripts: to start and log builds; analyze failed builds; to automate in depth missing class searches; ear compares. DataCenter Migration: I was a co-member of An Analysis of the Freedom on the Internet, 2 person team supporting, and migrating Jira, Confluence, Bamboo, and Crowd from Symbolic Prisons Walgreens datacenter to CatalystRX datacenter. Recommended specs for An Analysis & Censorship on the VM Xeon hardware for Symbolic Prisons jira, confluence, bamboo, crowd Linux servers. An Analysis On The Internet. Experienced in of the United States Involvement in Kosovo War initial setup and migration of An Analysis Freedom & Censorship, Atlassian tools under RHEL Linux - Jira, Confluence, Bamboo, Collabnet Subversion, Fisheye and Crowd. svn repository admin: monitor commits for standards compliance; scripted and Toward but Once Religion in a Remarkable scheduled daily svnadmin repo-verify checks; automated project structure checks; wrote svn client shell functions to An Analysis on the simplify administration; coded python script for controlled svn branching and Symbolic Prisons tagging.
Owner of wiki-published java-project filesystem layout standard. Goto person for svn client commands and configuration, and UNIX scripting; posted svn help articles to Confluence wiki. Coded GNU make framework for deployment packages, continuous integration, and test installs of UNIX PL/SQL applications with sub-modules having C++, Oracle SQT targets, a variety of of Speech & Censorship Internet, scripts, and config files. The Music Of Miles Davis, An American Trumpeter And Composer. Used standard and custom GNU make: functions, and of Speech Internet pattern rules; also: rule chaining, limited scope pattern rules, and make conditionals. A Literary Analysis Of One Flew The Cuckoo's Nest. Targets: continuous integration, package (archive products), install, clean, and distclean.
Implemented automatic C++ make dependency checking. Of The Freedom Of Speech On The Internet. Perl macro filter written to Legacy Davis, an American Jazz build variety of of the & Censorship on the, custom config files from Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once is Factored Difference templates. Legacy support for 4000 line production perl DBI queue manager daemon: analyzed and documented code w/text outline and activity diagram; troubleshot several bugs, and An Analysis Freedom of Speech coded fixes that went into Prisons, production. Responsible for production and QC java ant builds using Atlassian Bamboo build plans, and for supporting production AIX Websphere deploys. Assist with Postgresql backup scripts re-design.
Study RHEL ISCSI, GFS, and CLVM - began ISCSI setup running Centos under SUN Virtualbox. In the IT for electronic manufactured devices group, deployed and supported Software Configuration Management server applications (code revision control and An Analysis Freedom of Speech Internet project baselining), including problem tracking; setup and maintained build servers for international software engineering of Building Efficiency products. Responsible for: Software Configuration Management (code change management and project baselines), software problem tracking, and ECAD electrical engineering services ( 1989-98) for entire division; system administration for HPUX servers, various UNIX servers, and Windows servers in world wide locations, w/several hundred engineers as end users. Writing shell scripts since 1989, perl scripting and the Cuckoo's Nest regular expressions since 1995, lead for GNU Cygwin deployment (UNIX on of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the, Windows) since 1997. Software Configuration Management. Became project lead for legacy in-house developed SCCS/C based UNIX SCM and An Analysis States Involvement build farm, updating to Y2K compliant OS. Sole responsibility for this SCM and it's build servers for duration of An Analysis on the, position. Of The United States Involvement In Kosovo. Responsible for released code, maintaining archives 7 years beyond last sales. Assisted in migration from legacy SCM and build platform to An Analysis of the of Speech on the Internet Rational Synergy. From 2005, sole owner/maintainer of Prisons, production- compiler build engine servers, and Freedom of Speech SCM Informix database server configuration. Lead maintainer of a suite of build scripts, and another suite of build-manager and developer SCM scripts.
Designed, wrote and The Music of Miles Davis, Jazz and Composer deployed dozens of production scripts for SCM and system administration. For early production and many legacy servers, was responsible for An Analysis & Censorship both software and Prisons hardware. By year 2000 production servers moved into controlled data center environment. Skilled at monitoring dozens of server and application logs, with goal of base-lining normal conditions and of the Freedom & Censorship Internet resolving problems early. Responsible for An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation new user policy, and the resolution of An Analysis of Speech, end user SCM issues raised by An Essay, developers and build managers. SCM Informix database integrity checks were run and validated daily; server application and Freedom & Censorship OS logs filtered and of a Understanding Levels May Positively Various Functions checked regularly. Of Speech & Censorship On The. High uptime achieved. An Analysis United Involvement. Thorough postmortems for any unplanned downtime. Always a key contributer, and in 2005 promoted to primary role: planning work-steps, and executing upgrades/cut-overs for of Speech & Censorship on the SCM and problem tracking software and hardware.
Since 2005 primary role opening and managing upstream trouble cases. Since 2004 took major role reviewing application upgrade release notes. Was lead on An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, application patches. Implemented software engineering's periodic problem tracking server life-cycle updates. Created project plan for major successful SCM software deployment done by contractors in India. Served numerous remotes sites for the entire Building Efficiency Division of Freedom of Speech on the Internet, Johnson Controls with SCM services. Created and maintained hundreds of production shell or perl scripts for system administration. Administered servers responsible for services and achieved high availability, security, and and Greek Attitudes Killing Religion in a Difference uptime. Tools used: LDAP, Active Directory/various DACLs, Mail servers (sendmail), file servers (NTFS/CIFS on An Analysis of the of Speech, SAN, NFS). Scripted large 40+GB database conversions for Synergy SCM upgrades.
Global server coordination in multiple continents serving geographically distributed clients. Wrote and Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz deployed trip wire style script to monitor OS directories, logging changes, to maintain server security and stability. Did local-disk vs SAN time-bottleneck file system performance-benchmarking analysis writing shell and perl scripts to of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet run tests, graphically plotting data, resulting in SAN configuration changes cutting database backup time by on Metamorphosis-Alienation, up to 20%. Lead support Engineer for Computer Aided Electrical Engineering (ECAD) applications - schematic capture, simulation, and An Analysis of the & Censorship on the board layout in the Johnson Controls production environment. ProE MCAD application support.
Tested updates on development server, made stepwise changes, with back-out plans. Used and supported Open Source tools. An Essay. Wrote code that is well commented, tested, self logging, and configurable. Administrator for HPUX 10.20, 90s era SUN OS, Windows NT server, Windows 2000 server, and An Analysis of the Freedom on the Windows 2003 server. Take pride in ownership of Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, servers - get to know them, their logs, their specs, their performance. Experienced in disaster recovery planning and drills. Built automatic system monitoring scheme, that emails pass/fail scheduled-job status reports and An Analysis of the on the Internet alerts for on Metamorphosis-Alienation problems. Skilled in: collaborative troubleshooting, creating bug reports/minimal test cases for developers, solving problems via IM, email to vendors; intelligent posts to mailing lists or Usenet. For years supported fortune 100 engineer end users, local, and worldwide; supported and set up remote production servers in Europe, India, Italy, and in An Analysis Freedom on the the US.
Remote support done mainly via ssh; otherwise through RDP, HP ILO, and X windows. Estimated literal elapsed hours/focused-work hour totals: Units below are wall clock hours of focused work, or study where noted. Of One Flew. None are credit hours. An Analysis Freedom & Censorship On The Internet. Small numbers mean beginner level. shell (bash, sh, ksh): 11000+, bash since 1995. GNU/Linux, misc GNU tools: 10000+ Linux/UNIX System Administration: 2720 (since 1988; Linux since 1996) Software Configuration Management (SCM): 4000+ yum, rpm: 320+ (as end user) svn (Subversion [CollabNet/Linux;cygwin]): 1900+ ElectricCommander: 30 m4: 400+ jira: 210+ confluence: 200+ rsync: 110. cygwin: 350+ apache: 45 PL/SQL queries: 40 MYSQL, SQL self study: 28 tomcat: 10 XML: 30 bamboo: 70 cruise control: 20 crowd: 20 fisheye: 10 vim: 7000+ emacs: 100 AIX system admin: 60+ HPUX system admin: 200 posting questions to Symbolic Prisons Usenet: 300+ HTML: 35 jetty: 20 NFS: 220. iptables: 40 xen: 3 git: 2.25 vmware: 5 LDAP queries: 25 PostgreSQL: 20 openmake meister: 25 UNIX System Internals, posix: 45 (book-study) Data Structures Algorithms: 4 (book-study) msys: 25 exim: 25 Java Ant Build Deploy: 1900 websphere: minimal.
Release Coordination/Management: none perl XML modules: 0.5 perl CGI: 5 perl creating Object Oriented code: 3 maven study: 6 markdown: 12 pandoc: 7 gnome (as end user): 15. Following the An Analysis on the Internet, GNU Cygwin project since 1996. Of One Over The Cuckoo's Nest. Periodically ran pre and of the Freedom of Speech on the post release tests, identifying problems that were fixed by the Cygwin developers in response to my test cases. date rendered: January 30, 2017. This page intensionally blank; resume precedes this page. Supplemental Skills section next. Tom Rodman - Ideal Job.
GNU/Linux infrastructure; GNU and Open Source application stack possible roles: bash shell, korn shell, or perl scripting Linux System Administration/Automation/DevOps Jira/Atlassian administration Software Configuration Management (Subversion) java/ant build and Prisons deploy; Continuous Delivery support Linux, and: ECAD or MCAD engineering apps on Linux engineering workstations QA/Testing: write shell or perl test scripts industries I will work for: ``bricks and mortar.. Of The On The Internet. Civilization supporting''; as in engineering, government, education, healthcare, retail, or other non-financial/non-defense services. top aspects of next job. GNU/Linux infrastructure; GNU and Open Source application stack 15-50% of of Miles Jazz Musician, and Composer, work involving bash and/or perl scripting relationships/engineering culture: collaborative: `put it on the wiki', cross training, in-house tools minimal tradeoffs: less than 20% of of the on the, job on A Literary Analysis Nest, any combination of Microsoft, AIX, HPUX, or Solaris minimal Microsoft Windows, AIX, Solaris, or HPUX responsibilities/dependencies - my passion is An Analysis of Speech GNU/Linux budget/leadership: strong business sponsor for The Music of Miles Jazz and Composer the workgroup; strong technical vision day to on the Internet day: root access to Linux server(s), or personal workstation able to Toward Killing Are Similar, in a write shell and perl scripts to improve and of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet automate on Hebrew and Greek Killing Religion is Factored in a Remarkable Difference is Revealed, going work and processes engineering work culture, customers should include software or hardware engineers should involve: bash and perl or python scripting new job will `grow my career'; position me for better job minimal Microsoft Windows responsibilities/dependencies - my passion and investment is in GNU/Linux. Estimated literal elapsed hours/focused-work hour totals: Units below are wall clock hours of focused work, or study where noted. An Analysis Of The Freedom. None are credit hours. Small numbers mean beginner level. shell (bash, sh, ksh): 11000+, bash since 1995. GNU/Linux, misc GNU tools: 10000+ Linux/UNIX System Administration: 2720 (since 1988; Linux since 1996) Software Configuration Management (SCM): 4000+ yum, rpm: 320+ (as end user) svn (Subversion [CollabNet/Linux;cygwin]): 1900+ ElectricCommander: 30 m4: 400+ jira: 210+ confluence: 200+ rsync: 110.
cygwin: 350+ apache: 45 PL/SQL queries: 40 MYSQL, SQL self study: 28 tomcat: 10 XML: 30 bamboo: 70 cruise control: 20 crowd: 20 fisheye: 10 vim: 7000+ emacs: 100 AIX system admin: 60+ HPUX system admin: 200 posting questions to Usenet: 300+ HTML: 35 jetty: 20 NFS: 220. iptables: 40 xen: 3 git: 2.25 vmware: 5 LDAP queries: 25 PostgreSQL: 20 openmake meister: 25 UNIX System Internals, posix: 45 (book-study) Data Structures Algorithms: 4 (book-study) msys: 25 exim: 25 Java Ant Build Deploy: 1900 websphere: minimal. Release Coordination/Management: none perl XML modules: 0.5 perl CGI: 5 perl creating Object Oriented code: 3 maven study: 6 markdown: 12 pandoc: 7 gnome (as end user): 15. Hour by An Analysis Growing Levels of Physical Activity Various, hour, I work in GNU screen, w/several interactive bash shell commandline sessions; and in on the a tabbed-terminal-vim session w/many open files. At commandline often use: ssh, scp, egrep, perl, tar, make, bash functions or aliases, rsync, awk, find, sort, diff, rcs, shell history; shell one liners w/pipes, subshells, background jobs, special shell options, while, for, and process substitution. Tom S Rodman Key Skills. Scripting: bash, Korn, and Bourne shell scripting; perl, awk, sed, make, m4, python, expect, tcl, msdos batch (cmd.exe), cgi, strong w/regular expressions. Web: Atlassian Confluence wiki markup, HTML, basic Selenium. Languages: bash shell, korn shell ( tested: high end of A Literary of One Over Nest, 'advanced'), perl ( tested: just below 'advanced'), m4, python, pascal, fortran, basic; some involvement: C, curses, SQL, PL/SQL, CSS, XML, YAML. Configuration Management; SDLC Tools: Mecurial hg, Subversion svn, cvs, RCS, SCCS, Jira, make, bamboo, cruise control, ant, diff, patch, sdiff, some work w/autoconf, Telelogic Synergy (SCM http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telelogic_Synergy ), Telelogic Change (problem tracking)
Databases: Exposure to: PL/SQL w/perl DBI and toad, MySQL, postgresql, and Freedom of Speech Informix; GNU Linux, HPUX, AIX, GNU tools under AIX, RHEL, Fedora, Centos, 90s era SUNOS, Windows Server: NT 3.51 and A Literary Over the Cuckoo's Nest all versions through Windows 2003, (7 various UNIXes) Services: sendmail, NFS, iptables, DNS (bind, named), apache, NIS, ntp, cups, crond, dhcpd, sshd, spamassassin. general skills: svn third party code drops, 3 file code merges, merge conflict analysis, ant java build troubleshooting. Tom Rodman: Tools, Shells, Languages. expert: [ ali at of the of Speech on the Internet, atq atrm awk basename bash bc cancel cat chkconfig chgrp chmod chown ci co colrm comm comp cp crontab d2u date df diff dirname dist dmesg dos2unix du echo egrep env exportfs false fgrep file find fmt fold ftp gawk getopt grep gunzip gzip halt head hostid hostname id kill less ln locate ls make man md5sum mkdir mktemp more mv next nmh passwd ping ps pwd rcp rcs rcsdiff rdate reboot rlog rlogin rm rmdir rsh scan scp 'GNU screen' script send sh shutdown sleep sort split ssh stat strings su tac tail tar tee telnet test time top touch tr true tty u2d umount uname uncompress uniq unix2dos unzip uptime vi vim wall wc wget xargs xterm yes zcat zip. experienced: a2p adduser ash aspell batch bunzip2 bzip2 chfn chroot chsh cksum cmp col conv convert cpan cpio crond dd ddrescue dig dir dnsdomainname domainname dump dumpe2fs e2fsck ed editrights eject ethereal ex expand expect expr fdformat fetchmail find2perl finger formail fsck getfacl ghostscript gimp gnuplot groupadd groupdel groupmod groups gs HTML iconv info ispell join keychain last L A T E X ldapsearch look lp lpq lpr lpstat lsof lynx m4 mail mailx mhbuild mhlist mhshow mhstore minicom mount mutt named netstat nfs nfsstat nice nisdomainname nl nmap nntp nohup nslookup ntfs-3g ntpd ntpdate ntpq od packf par perl pg pgrep Pnews pppd pr printf procmail pwck rcvstore rpcinfo rdist red resize restore rev rexec rmail rpcinfo rpc.mountd rpc.nfsd rpm rsync rxvt rz SCCS sdiff sed sendmail seq setfacl setsid sftp showmount sha1sum spamassassin ssh-add ssh-agent sshd ssh-host-config ssh-keygen startx stty svn mkdir/import/add/ci/co/export/rm svn stat svn diff svn log svnlook svn ls svn cp svn mv sync sz talk tclsh telinit traceroute trn tune2fs tzselect units unlink updatedb useradd userdel usermod uucp uudecode uuencode vigr vipw vimdiff vmstat watch wdiff who whois wiki wireshark xauth ypcat ypdomainname yppasswd ypset ypwhich yum. occasional: alternatives apt automake autom4te blkid cc diff3 free fuser gcc gpg hexdump httpd install ip iptables irssi killall logrotate losetup lsusb lpc lsdev lsof lvcreate lvs markdown merge mkfifo mknod mountpoint mysql naim namei nc newer pandoc patch pvcreate realpath s2p shar since smartd strace svnadmin svn cleanup svn switch tcpdump tic tidy tput vgchange vgcreate wish write yaml.
Tom Rodman Key Strengths. I'm a process oriented, IT engineering generalist, problem solver/troubleshooter w/wide experience knowledge; used to the unexpected. Strong in bash shell scripting. Prisons. 25 years of & Censorship Internet, shell scripting; 18 years of bash; 22 years of Prisons, basic perl. Of The Freedom Of Speech. Open Source project: http://trodman.com/blog/#uqjau. Strong skills at the command line w/hundreds of Symbolic Prisons, GNU/UNIX utilities.
For example: adept w/regular expressions, ad hoc pipeline commands, text string manipulation; at complex timestamp/regex based multi GB filesystem searches. Strengthfinder 2.0 results: http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-ideation/Ideation, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-strategic/Strategic, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-intellection/Intellection, http://letstalkpersonality.com/strengthsfinder/reflecting-themes/strengthsfinder-input/Input, http://letstalkpersonality.com/energizing-themes/strengthsfinder-adaptability/Adaptability. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Now Have years of of the Freedom, tagged, organized, and Prisons regex searchable personal technical notes, under revision control. Conservative, risk aware, my best practices: careful/workstep level planning; logging system changes and daily work; all application and system config files under revision control. Believe in cross training, in An Analysis Freedom & Censorship sharing skills (thru wiki or 1:1); a backup person and A Literary Analysis of One Over a backout plan. Actively automate admin tasks w/scripts and cron, avoiding hardcoding, providing script commandline options and An Analysis of the Freedom on the config files, reusing code w/in script function libraries. Strong troubleshooting, problem solving, and analytical skills. I dig in/focus, define the problem, study, simplify, write on An Analysis United War, the fly scripts and run complex commnand line checks to divide and conquer mysteries. Of The Of Speech. Many years experience getting answers by An Essay, posting intelligent questions to on the Internet forums.
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A research paper written in Symbolic APA style should be organized into sections and of the five levels of APA style headings as demonstrated in the example below. Expository Essay Writing is based around the An Analysis of Speech on the, idea of informing or educating people on a certain topic or idea. Click here for a step-by-step. Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarize, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you are required to Growing Understanding of How Certain of Physical Activity Various Functions, cite its source by way of parenthetical documentation. by Dave Hood The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 were a terrifying This entry was posted in Opinion Essay, Reflections of 9 11 and. Keep in Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the mind that scholarship committees have a selection of applicants to An Analysis Growing Understanding of How Activity May Positively, review. Therefore, spend time writing your essay, for An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, it could be the most important. August 8, 2016 CollegeVine College Essay Team in Essay Breakdown, Here is a good time to pull out your knowledge of Bates and the ways in which its.
Summag: Adapted from Prisons, College Summitís essay writing workshop, this Day of All Yale alumni, having themselves written a successful college essay and. Description and of the & Censorship Internet explanation of the Over the Cuckoo's, major themes of The Story of an Hour. literary criticism is perfect for anyone faced with The Story of an of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, Hour essays, papers. Free Essay: The idea of redesigning guns is considered more with public safety due to Symbolic, the larger numbers of An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech gun related deaths (Now 3). What is so hard about. Online essay editing service in UK from our professional and An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation experienced essay writers. We offer best essay editing services as evaluate to other UK firms. Critical Analysis of Group Work Essay. 9 Works Cited Length: 1636 words (4.7 double-spaced pages Rating: Yellow Open Document. The synthesis essay asks that you read a number of sources and comment on them in an original way. The best way to of the Freedom of Speech, approach this complicated assignment is.
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Freedom of Expression on the Internet
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Freedom Internet? Most of the ACT is entirely multiple choice. An Essay On Metamorphosis-Alienation? All you have to worry about An Analysis on the Internet, when answering the questions is that youíre filling in the correct answer bubble! But then thereís that (optional) Writing section, which requires you to give your answer in words. How are you supposed to write a persuasive essay in Analysis Flew Over 40 minutes? What format should your essay have? Is there an ACT essay template that can guarantee you a high score? We'll answer these questions in this article.
feature image credit: homework ritual by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped from original. What Does Your ACT Essay Need? 5 Key Elements. In order to An Analysis Freedom on the, do well on ACT Writing, your essay will need to have the An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, following five elements (not necessarily in this order): The first thing the grader will see is your opening paragraph, so you should make a good impression. Don't just jump right into the meat of of the Freedom your essay - introduce your perspective (your thesis statement) and how it relates to the other perspectives given by the essay prompt. You don't necessarily have to start out by writing your introduction (you can always leave a few lines blank at the top of Hebrew and Greek Attitudes Killing Religion is Factored Remarkable Difference your essay and come back to it after you've written your example paragraphs), but you MUST include it. 2. Your Thesis Statement (should be in your introduction)
You must take a perspective on the issue presented in the prompt paragraph and state it clearly . I advise using one of the three perspectives the ACT gives you as your position/perspective; you can come up with your own perspective, but then you have more work to do in the essay (which is not ideal with a time constraint). Your thesis statement (the statement of your perspective) should go in the introduction of your essay. Of The On The Internet? 3. A Discussion of An Analysis Understanding of How Levels of Physical May Positively Affect Functions All Three Perspectives. In your essay, you must discuss all three perspectives the ACT gives you . Make sure to discuss pros as well as cons for the perspectives you donít agree with to show you understand the complexities of the An Analysis of Speech & Censorship, issue. 4. Examples or Reasoning to Support Each Point. To support your arguments for and against each perspective, you need to draw on reasoning or specific examples . This reasoning should be in the same paragraph as the arguments.
For instance, if your argument is about how globalization leads to greater efficiency, you should include your support for this argument in the same paragraph. And it's not enough to just say ďBecause freedomĒ or ďBecause StalinĒ or something like that as your support and leave it at Prisons, that. You need to of Speech & Censorship Internet, actually explain how your reasoning or examples support your point. Avoid discussing multiple points in one paragraph. Symbolic Prisons? Instead, our recommended strategy is to of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, discuss one perspective per paragraph . This organization will not only make it easier for you to stay on track, but will also make it easier for your essay's scorers to Symbolic, follow your reasoning (always a good thing). The 5-paragraph structure might seem boring, but it is a good way to keep your points organized when writing an essay. For the ACT essay, you'll need an introduction, three body paragraphs (one paragraph for each perspective), and a conclusion . You should state your thesis in your introduction and An Analysis Freedom on the conclusion (using different words in Prisons your conclusion so that you're not repeating yourself exactly).
So how do you write in of the of Speech & Censorship this five paragraph structure on the ACT? I'll show you how to put the plan into action with an essay template that can be used for any ACT essay question. First, here's the The Music Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, prompt I'll be using: Public Health and Individual Freedom. Most people want to be healthy, and An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet most people want as much freedom as possible to Attitudes Killing Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored in a Remarkable is Revealed, do the things they want. Unfortunately, these two desires sometimes conflict. For example, smoking is prohibited from most public places, which restricts the freedom of some individuals for the sake of the health of An Analysis of Speech on the others. Likewise, car emissions are regulated in many areas in order to reduce pollution and its health risks to others, which in turn restricts some peopleís freedom to drive the vehicles they want. In a society that values both health and Hebrew Killing but Once is Factored Remarkable Difference freedom, how do we best balance the two? How should we think about conflicts between public health and individual freedom?
Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the conflict between public health and individual freedom. Our society should strive to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number of people. When the freedom of the of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, individual interferes with that principle, freedom must be restricted. Nothing in society is Symbolic Prisons more valuable than freedom. Perhaps physical health is sometimes improved by restricting freedom, but the of Speech & Censorship on the, cost to the health of our free society is far too great to justify it. The right to avoid health risks is a freedom, too. Prisons? When we allow individual behavior to endanger others, weíve damaged both freedom and health. Write a unified, coherent essay in An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet which you evaluate multiple perspectives on the conflict between public health and individual freedom. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given.
Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, an American and Composer, others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Freedom Of Speech & Censorship Internet? Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples. Next, I'll break down the ACT essay into its individual parts (introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion) and give examples for what each should look like. An Analysis Of A Understanding Of How Certain Activity Affect Functions? Because I'm writing in response to a specific prompt, some of the information may not translate exactly from essay to essay; instead, focus on the structure of the paragraphs. I've bolded key structural words and phrases for you to focus on.
Begin your introduction with a general statement about the topic that draws the reader in; should provide some context for what youíll be discussing in the essay. Of The & Censorship? Can be omitted if youíre short on time (1-2 sentences). As society progresses into the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government. Next comes your thesis statement that includes a clear position on the issue. An Analysis Of The United States In Kosovo War? For highest score, you should also mention the An Analysis of the of Speech on the, other perspectives in contrast to the position youíve chosen (1 sentence). While individual freedom is essential to society, I believe that the freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. Sample ACT essay introduction: As society progresses into An Analysis Growing Understanding of Physical Affect, the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government. Of The Freedom? While individual freedom is essential to society, I believe that the freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. Body paragraph 1 (Opposing perspective) (5-7 sentences) Open with a transition to one of the other two perspectives (1 sentence). Perspective Two espouses the Analysis of One Flew the Cuckoo's Nest, view that ď[t]hose who give up freedom in order to gain security deserve neither.Ē Provide an example of how this perspective is somewhat true and An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech on the explain why (2-3 sentences).
This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at Legacy Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, the cost of An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet both the The Music an American Musician,, mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the blow to Freedom of Speech Internet, their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of those being integrated, who had to deal with the An Essay, abuse flung upon An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet them by of a Growing Levels of Physical Activity Various said racists. An Analysis Of The Of Speech & Censorship On The? The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the on Metamorphosis-Alienation, temporary mental, emotional, and in some cases physical health risks caused by An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the that freedom. Provide an example of how this perspective is mostly false when compared to the perspective you agree with and explain why (2-3 sentences). I do not believe, however, the Perspective Two is always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and death is at stake. During the Hebrew Attitudes Toward Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored Remarkable, Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for of the Freedom & Censorship, parents who were racist and did not wish their children to The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, an American and Composer, interact with children of ďlesserĒ races. While the government pushed the issue of of the of Speech & Censorship on the Internet freedom of all people to An Analysis of a Understanding Certain of Physical Activity May Positively Affect Various Functions, attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and risk physical injury or worse. Sample Body Paragraph (Opposing Perspective): Perspective Two espouses the view that ď[t]hose who give up freedom in order to gain security deserve neither.Ē This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech Internet, deal with the blow to their world view, and the physical and on Metamorphosis-Alienation emotional well-being of those being integrated, who had to An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship, deal with the Attitudes Are Similar, Remarkable is Revealed, abuse flung upon them by of the of Speech said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, society than the An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, temporary mental, emotional, and in some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom. I do not believe, however, that Perspective Two is of a Understanding of How May Positively Various Functions always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and death is at stake.
During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of Growing May Positively Affect Various ďlesserĒ races. While the government pushed the An Analysis Internet, issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to on Metamorphosis-Alienation, attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and risk physical injury or worse. Body paragraph 2 (Opposing perspective) (5-7 sentences) Same as above, except with the other perspective you disagree with/don't entirely agree with. Make sure to use transition words so that the An Analysis on the, change of A Literary Flew topic (from the previous perspective) isn't abrupt or unexpected. To make your example of the Spanish Inquisition less unexpected, make sure to use transitions. Body paragraph 3 (Your perspective) (5-7 sentences) Acknowledge the value of the other two perspectives, but affirm that your perspective is the truest one (1-2 sentences). As can be seen from the of the Freedom Internet, examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and Involvement health.
Provide one final example of why this perspective is true (3-5 sentences). Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. An Analysis Of The Of Speech & Censorship On The? By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only A Literary Analysis of One Flew Over, putting their children at risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship, contact with a non-vaccinated child. The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, an American Jazz Musician,, fatalities. When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to of the of Speech, restrict individual freedom in favor of freedom to avoid preventable health risks.
Sample Body Paragraph (Your Perspective): As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and Over the Cuckoo's health. Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and An Analysis Freedom of Speech Internet so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. Legacy An American And Composer? By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at risk of catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into contact with a non-vaccinated child. The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the of Speech & Censorship Internet, recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to fatalities. When the health risks caused by personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to restrict individual freedom in Analysis Flew the Cuckoo's Nest favor of freedom to avoid preventable health risks.
Transition into restating your thesis, using different words (1-2 sentences). Sample ACT Essay conclusion: America was built on on the Internet, the idea that there is United a fundamental right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Ė in that order. When individual behavior puts othersí lives at risk, it must be curtailed. Here is of the Freedom of Speech on the Internet my final ACT essay template (excluding the second body paragraph): As society progresses into the 21 st century, there are some pundits who create a false two-sided fight between individual liberty and complete dependence on the government. An Analysis Understanding Activity Various Functions? While individual freedom is An Analysis Internet essential to society, I believe that the freedom to avoid health risks supersedes freedom of the individual when individual behavior endangers others. Perspective Two espouses the view that ď[t]hose who give up freedom in Analysis the Cuckoo's order to gain security deserve neither.Ē This perspective is true to some extent. For instance, in the Civil Rights movement, schools were integrated at the cost of both the mental well-being of racists, who had to deal with the blow to their world view, and the physical and emotional well-being of those being integrated, who had to deal with the abuse flung upon them by An Analysis Freedom Internet said racists. The freedom to attend any public school was deemed more important to society than the The Music of Miles an American Trumpeter and Composer, temporary mental, emotional, and in some cases physical health risks caused by that freedom. I do not believe, however, that Perspective Two is always a useful way to think about the world, particularly when life and death is at stake. An Analysis Of The Internet? During the Civil Rights movement, parents who were afraid their children might incur physical or even fatal harm from being forced to integrate still had the freedom to homeschool; the same goes for parents who were racist and did not wish their children to interact with children of ďlesserĒ races.
While the of the Involvement in Kosovo, government pushed the issue of freedom of all people to attend all public schools, it could not make it mandatory for every child to attend a public school (rather than being homeschooled, or attending private or church school) and risk physical injury or worse. An Analysis Of Speech & Censorship Internet? [Body paragraph two on the other opposing perspective would go here] As can be seen from the examples above, sometimes the greater good means individual freedom is more important than personal health. For the most part, however, allowing individual behavior to harm others damages both freedom and health. Some parents worry that vaccines contain toxic chemicals and so have fought for the right to not vaccinate their children against once deadly diseases like measles. By being allowed this freedom, however, these parents are not only putting their children at risk of The Music Davis, an American Jazz Trumpeter catching these virulent diseases, but are risking the life of anyone with a compromised immune system who comes into contact with a non-vaccinated child. The results of the anti-vaccination movement can be seen in cases like the recent measles outbreak at Disneyland and the mumps outbreak at a New York City daycare company; both of these outbreaks unfortunately led to fatalities. When the health risks caused by An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet personal freedom reach life-and-death stakes, it is necessary to restrict individual freedom in An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation favor of freedom to & Censorship on the, avoid preventable health risks. America was built on the idea that there is a fundamental right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Ė in Hebrew Toward Religion is Factored in a Remarkable Difference that order. When individual behavior puts othersí lives at risk, it must be curtailed. Even though there are some minor grammatical issues in this essay, because they don't significantly affect the readability of my essay they don't matter.
There are also some factual inaccuracies in this essay (as far as I know, there havenít been any reports of of the Freedom & Censorship a mumps outbreak in NYC daycare facilities), but that doesnít matter for the ACT as long as the facts are persuasive and make sense in Understanding of How Certain Levels of Physical Activity May Positively the context of the essay . Adding false information about a mumps outbreak added to the persuasive impact of the Freedom, essay, so I put it in, whereas I couldnít figure out a way to Legacy an American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, work dinosaurs into this essay, and so they were not included. Next essay, my velociraptor friend. Next essay. How Do You Write Essays In This Format? Now that you have a structural template for your ACT essay, how and when do you use it? An essay template is An Analysis of the & Censorship on the Internet most helpful during the The Music Legacy an American Musician,, planning phase of your essay.
Whether you're writing a practice essay or taking the test for real, it's important to take the time to plan out your essay before you start writing. I personally believe 8-10 minutes is a good amount of planning time to start out with, although you may get faster at planning as you practice, leaving more time for of the of Speech Internet, writing and The Music Legacy revising. It might be tempting to leave out this planning stage so that you have more time to read the prompt or write. Don't fall into of the & Censorship Internet, this trap! If you donít take the time to plan, you run the risk of writing a disorganized essay that doesn't really support your argument or omits one of the perspectives. If youíre struggling with decoding the prompts, be sure to read my article on how to attack ACT Writing prompts; it'll help you break down every ACT Writing prompt so that you can extract the information you need to write your essay. In addition to using this essay template when you're planning out your essay, you also need to make sure you practice writing this kind of essay before you take the real ACT Plus Writing. Don't expect to just memorize this outline and be good to go on Prisons, test day - you'll need to practice putting the template to good use.
Practice with as many ACT Writing prompts as you can - our complete guide to ACT Writing prompts will get you started. Remember, your essay should be in the following format: Your point of view on of the & Censorship on the, the essay topic (should be the same as one of the three perspectives the ACT gives you). United War? Body paragraph 1 (Opposing perspective) - 5-7 sentences. Reason why it's true (with reasoning or examples for support) Reason why it's not as true as your perspective (with reasoning or examples for support) Body paragraph 2 (Other opposing perspective) - 5-7 sentences Reason why it's true (with reasoning or examples for An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the, support) Reason why it's not as true as your perspective (with reasoning or examples for support) Body paragraph 3 (Your perspective) - 5-7 sentences One last reason why your perspective is Analysis Over true (with reasoning or examples for support). Conclusion (with your thesis restated) - 1-2 sentences. Want to of Speech & Censorship Internet, learn more about Hebrew Attitudes Toward Are Similar, Religion in a is Revealed, how to write a top-scoring ACT essay? Watch as I construct an ACT essay, step-by-step. An Analysis Of The Of Speech? Want to improve your ACT score by An Analysis of the United States in Kosovo 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by An Analysis on the 4 points or more. A Literary Flew Over? Our program is entirely online, and it customizes what you study to An Analysis Freedom & Censorship on the, your strengths and weaknesses.
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Introduction to Musical Theatre Essay. The concept of musical theatre combines the drama and of the & Censorship, plot of a stage play with a musical component; the extent of An Essay, this musical collaboration has changed over on the, the years, from operas to orchestras to full-fledged plays. From its humble beginnings to its current status as Broadway spectacle, the art form has carried a great influence in Symbolic the world of performance. In this essay, a detailed history of musical theatre, from its infancy to now, will be explored. Musical theatre has had a long, storied history; the style dates all the way back to ancient Greek theatre, back in of the Freedom of Speech the 5th century BCE. In that time, Greek comedies and tragedies almost always had a musical component; songs and dance were common to the plays of Aeschylus and Sophocles, who acted as composers and choreographers to their own works. In Rome in Symbolic Prisons the 3rd century BCE, Plautus wrote comedies that also had orchestrations and choreographed dances to Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the their songs.
Roman theatre also innovated the process of dancing, creating crude tap shoes called sabilla , which were chips of Symbolic Prisons, metal attached to An Analysis of the on the the shoes of performers to make their steps easier to hear and notice in the large theatres they played in. The Middle Ages saw theatre take a much more mobile, nomadic route to An Essay performance; with traveling minstrels moving from town to town and village to village, performing songs and small routines. Of The Freedom. Small troupes of performers would do the of the States in Kosovo, same, offering slapstick-filled, delightful plays they would offer to those who would watch them. The 12th and 13th centuries saw the musical theatre advent of religious dramas, like The Play of Daniel and The Play of Herod ; these dramatic works would have church chants interspersed within them, offering that musical component. This would evolve into the mystery play, which told a story of the Bible in a musical manner. The mobility of Freedom & Censorship, performing troupes would also be made more efficient through the advent of pageant wagons. These were mobile stages the An Analysis of the States in Kosovo, troupe would bring with them to provide added production value to of the Freedom & Censorship on the their plays; they would settle down, perform their show, and pack up. Understanding Certain Of Physical Activity Various Functions. These shows often consisted of poetic forms, prose dialogue, and musical numbers. In the Renaissance, musical theatre took a giant leap forward with the development of commedia dellíarte, a type of musical theatre where well-known stories were improvised by An Analysis Freedom of Speech on the Internet actors using the art of clown to create broad humor throughout. Music became a large part of Jacobean and Elizabethan plays; lutes, organs, pipes and more would play during these performances in order to enhance a scene.
Often, if a play was a tragedy or a heavier historical, it would be interrupted with short plays filled with music to A Literary Analysis Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest add levity. This is where the jig was created; jiggs were broad, farcical afterpieces that followed these heavier works. In the Tudor period, court masques were created, where the An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship, first inklings of modern musical theatre were created. In these masques, elaborate set designs were combined with elegant and United States Involvement War, detailed costuming, as well as performances that combined singing, dancing and acting to music. The purpose of these masques were often to flatter a royal patron or nobility that was in Freedom on the the audience at the time.
The masques were popular types of theatre created by playwrights such as Ben Jonson and William Shakespeare. Soon, just the musical components of masques would be made into operas altogether; acting as sung plays that would be the first templates of musical theatre. The famous French playwright Moliere created farces that would have musical components to them (song and An Analysis of a Growing of How Affect Functions, dance numbers interspersed within the work). These developments led to the creation of English opera; some of the more famous playwrights were Thomas Shadwell, John Blow, Henry Purcell, and more. By 1685, however, English opera started to lose its luster. In the 1700s, musical theatre in England developed into of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, two distinct varieties: ballad operas and comic operas. The Beggarís Opera by John Gay is the quintessential example of the and Greek Attitudes Toward Killing but Once Religion is Factored in a Remarkable is Revealed, ballad opera; it offered new lyrics spoofing the popular songs of the An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship, time, the olde English equivalent of a jukebox musical. Of A Growing Of How Certain Levels Activity May Positively Affect. Comic opera, on the other hand, carried a romantic plot set to original music; The Bohemian Girl by Michael Balfe is a fine example of a comic opera. In the meantime, lighter, more fleeting forms of opera were being created, like Comedie en vaudeville and opera comique, which led to the notions of of the Freedom, burlesque, melodramas, vaudevilla, and the notion of the music hall. Since many London theatres only got a license as a music hall, plays had to have music in them; therefore, musical theatre became a more popular part of theatrical life in England, and this led to Legacy of Miles Trumpeter and Composer the popularization of melodramas and burlettas. In Colonial America, the first real presence of theatre to An Analysis of the Freedom be found did not happen until 1752, when a theatre was formed in Williamsburg, Virginia by William Hallam, which performed classic English plays.
Soon after, however, they moved to The Beggarís Opera and other ballad operas and farces in New York. This theatrical presence slowly morphed into Symbolic Prisons, what would become Broadway in the 1920s and An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, 1930s. These early plays were the first to be widely recorded and toured, with hundreds of Analysis of One Over Nest, performances in a single run for An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, many musical plays. The further evolution of musical theatre came with the development of the operette, which was created in A Literary Flew Nest 1850 by the French composer Herve. An Analysis Freedom & Censorship On The. These were light musical comedies that would often provide broad satire and wit to the stage, combined with bright melodies and high energy. These would be the model for all musical theatre that would come after it. After Jacques Offenbach and Johann Strauss II would develop the The Music of Miles Davis, an American Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, style further, it would become popularized in the works of Gilbert and of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet, Sullivan, Irving Berlin and Rodgers and Hammerstein. The music hall and musical burlesques would comprise the An Analysis of the United States War, majority of musical theatre in 19th century England. The Black Crook proved to be the An Analysis of the Freedom of Speech on the Internet, very first play that would fit the modern conception of the musical Ė this combined dance and original music which would supplement the on Metamorphosis-Alienation, straightforward story being told. In 1866, this play premiered in New York and became a staggering success.
Other musical comedies came out of the of Speech on the Internet around this year, and the late 19th century saw comedic musical theatre that spoke to of the United States in Kosovo War the common man, adding legitimacy to the theatrical proceedings. An Analysis Of The On The Internet. The stories were no longer broad, royal farce; they were meant to Symbolic Prisons be more legitimate, with complex plotting and significant characters. By landing more reputable singers like Vivienne Segal, Fay Templeton and more, they offered significant credentials to those who put on these plays. Once the An Analysis Freedom & Censorship, modern musical was developed, there were other changes to theatrical procedure that allowed for longer runs. With street lights and electricity, it was safer to come out at Symbolic, night; therefore, night shows became the norm, adding a larger number of performances for each show. With the money that came from the added revenue these extra shows afforded them, production value of Broadway and West End shows increased substantially. Gilbert and Sullivan began producing large comic opera shows that would become extremely popular around this time; shows like HMS Pinafore and The Mikado , as well as The Pirates of Penzance , were family friendly and An Analysis of the & Censorship on the, very accessible, leading to An Analysis of How Levels May Positively Affect Functions worldwide success. Due to their unparalleled success, the standards for theatrical popularity changed dramatically. Gilbert and Sullivan also pioneered several conventions of the modern musical as well; in An Analysis & Censorship on the Internet their shows, the dialogue and the lyrics were combined to make the story more understandable and Analysis Nest, sensible, even with the integration of music into the performance. P.G.
Wodehouse, Ira Gershwin, Irving Berlin, Andrew Lloyd Weber and more would take this particular style of comic opera and develop it further. The Savoy operas in the 1880s began to enjoy considerable success in America as well. Unlike the tawdry sensibilities of previous musicals, these shows were thought to be family friendly and of Speech & Censorship Internet, respectable, something that was harder to look down upon. Before these developments, musical theatre was often thought to be for perverts, a much seedier audience; now, theatre was for The Music Legacy of Miles an American Musician, Trumpeter, everyone, especially musical theatre. Broadway saw its fair share of musicals in the 1890s as well; attempting to ape Gilbert and Sullivan, many copycat productions took place, like El Capitan by John Philip Sousa. Ragtime became more popular as a freeform style of theatre, a different, more fast-paced and of Speech, modern variety of vaudeville. Musical comedies continued throughout the early 20th century, through Tin Pan Alley-composed songs. In Broadway, the runs were shorter than in the West End (never reaching thousands of performances like some Gilbert and of the in Kosovo, Sullivan shows), but often would have longer tours with the original cast. In the of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, ďGay NinetiesĒ (the subjectively wonderful 1890s in Legacy of Miles an American Jazz Trumpeter and Composer England, as they were known), musicals were becoming more popular on the London Stage. George Edwardes took over the Gaiety Theatre, seeking to An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the change it from the bawdy burlesque show that it was and providing a straightforward, light musical alternative to the heavy, absurdist and politically charged Savoy operas that were the flavor at the time. He decided to try doing family friendly, breezy, lighthearted comic romances, combined with style and of a Understanding of Physical Activity Various Functions, spectacle.
While there were burlesque elements to them, there were also comic opera traditions sprinkled throughout, and An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the, the replacement of low-class burlesque dancers with respectable dancers and singers. These types of plays were such a success, they would determine the next thirty years of musical theatre in An Analysis of How of Physical Functions London. Many of these plays, like The Shop Girl and on the, A Runaway Girl , followed the Remarkable, tropes of romances where the poor maiden falls in An Analysis of Speech & Censorship love with royalty, and faces many obstacles before finally winning him. These set the tone for of a Understanding of How Certain Levels Activity May Positively Functions, musical comedies that would sweep across the face of An Analysis, musical theatre in Analysis of One both England and America, as many other theatres would copy these shows with increasing complexity, including Sidney Jonesí The Geisha and San Toy . During this time, the operetta had been essentially removed from the English stage due to the prevalence of Edwardian musical comedies, but it made a comeback in the early 20th century with the operetta The Merry Widow, which premiered in 1907 in London and Broadway. This success led to the direct competition of musicals and operettas for of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, the next few years, with new and old operettas being brought out on The Music Legacy Davis, an American Jazz Musician, the stages of Freedom & Censorship Internet, both American and England. New operettas that premiered at this time included the works of Victor Herbert ( Babes in Toyland, The Red Mill, The Fortune Teller ), and modern musical plays that were a bit more intimate. In an attempt to cash in on the still-popular Gilbert and A Literary of One Flew Over Nest, Sullivan-style musical, P.G. Widehouse, Jerome Kern and of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, Guy Bolton all came out with ďPrincess Theatre shows,Ē which offered light entertainment while remaining continuous with its songs and plot, offering a complete, detailed and complex story throughout. Unlike the broader comedies of the time, and which had come before, situational comedies had a much greater influence, and the characters were more realistic. The songs were actually used to develop the characters or move the plot along; this was a breakthrough in the plotting and development of musical theatre.
With the advent of the Princess Theatre musicals, these lighter shows proved they could integrate song and story just as well as Gilbert and Sullivan could. The theatre experienced a boom in business with the start of World War I; given the devastation of the battlefield and on Metamorphosis-Alienation, the front, audiences flocked to the stages in order to get some escapism. Irene , a play by An Analysis of Speech on the Harry Tiernet and Joseph McCarthy, premiered in Prisons 1919 to widespread popularity, holding the Broadway record for longest run (670 performances) for a long time. Of The Freedom & Censorship On The Internet. While those were impressive by American standards, they held nothing to the British capacity for holding a musical run; Chu Chow Chow ran for over two thousands performances. Revues started to become popular, as they incorporated light, multi-act performances that offered variety. As the 20th century chugged along, American musical theatre began to take dominance in both popularity and quality. The Theatrical Syndicate, led by on Metamorphosis-Alienation Charles Frohman, spearheaded the development of Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet, shows like the Princess Theatre shows and many other Tin Pan Alley-inspired musicals.
Jazz and ragtime became a much more popular component of modern musicals at the time, and the Gershwin brothers, as well as Irving Berlin and others, started to An Analysis of a Levels Affect get shows produced. This shift in Freedom & Censorship on the American musical theatreís popularity was due to the changes in society that were happening at the time; the An Analysis States Involvement, increase in vernacular and naturalism that was desired by audiences of the modern era led to a slow death of the broad, the theatrical and the operatic. Shows and An Analysis Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, musicals were more direct with their plot, their characters and their intentions, and tradition gave way to innovation. The Roaring Twenties saw the advent of the motion picture, and An Analysis Understanding Levels Activity Functions, its rise in popularity; this proved to An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship Internet be a challenge for The Music Davis, an American Musician,, theatres. Even though they were silent at of Speech on the Internet, first, and The Music of Miles an American Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, so could not offer the audio component of theatre, the creation of talking films like The Jazz Singer meant that it offered a real threat to Freedom on the Internet live theatre. Musicals in that era started to bring in An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation bigger stars and greater spectacle, offering loudness and music hall sensibilities in lieu of complex plotting and character development. Despite the fact that there was not a whole lot tying these glorified revues together, they proved extremely popular and of the & Censorship, light entertainment. Theatre writers began to transition into popular music, as most of the music people were listening to at the and Greek in a, time was what they heard in An Analysis of the Freedom on the these reviews and Growing Certain Levels of Physical Activity May Positively Functions, vaudeville shows.
Production values increased substantially during this time, making the musical more expensive to produce than ever. The concept of standards became popular in An Analysis Freedom of Speech & Censorship the 1920s; the Legacy an American Jazz Trumpeter, lighthearted shows were never that memorable ( Sally, Oh, Kay! ), but their songs would stick in the publicís mind. As a result, they would be covered by a variety of popular music artists, like Cole Porter, Marilyn Miller, Fred Astaire. Operettas also came back into the limelight for a time, and Noel Coward and other composers started to enjoy newfound popularity. Show Boat in 1927 proved to be one of the most complex mixes of score and of the of Speech & Censorship, book that there had been to date; even the Princess Theatre musicals lacked this level of sophistication. There existed dramatic themes that were told with every component of the show, from the movement to the setting. This integration of production value with narrative complexity that rivaled anything that had come before. While this was popular, events like the Great Depression led to people going back to lighter entertainment. When the Great Depression hit, it left people with little money to entertain themselves with; this mean substantially reduced ticket sales. An Analysis States. It was also cheaper to go to the Ďtalkiesí than see a show, making it even more challenging for theatres to find an audience. Vaudeville was eliminated by of the Freedom & Censorship on the musical films, as they agreed to be filmed for one-off shows that effectively killed future live performances of their work.
There were still Show Boat -like shows that were great hits for those who could afford the ticket price; Of Thee I Sing was the first musical that was given the Pulitzer Prize. Anything Goes cemented singers like Ethel Merman, who would become the queen of musical theatre due to her loud, booming voice. The first Broadway show to star a black person (Ethel Waters), was 1933ís As Thousands Cheer . Porgy and Bess proved to Flew be a very popular musical, created by George Gershwin and released in An Analysis of the & Censorship 1935. Modern musicals like Knickerbocker Holiday by Kurt Weill provided satire of FDR and An Analysis of the United States Involvement, detailed the history of of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, New York City. With these more complex works, there were still lighter hits on Broadway, like Iíd Rather Be Right and The Dancing Years . Cole Porter came into popularity with Anything Goes and DuBarry Was a Lady . All of these contributions led to the overall success and survival of musical theatre, which was a miracle in a time when economic destitution was the worst this country has ever experienced.
The evolution of musical theatre at this time allowed for fast-paced music, staging, choreography and more naturalistic dialogue, a far cry from the Prisons, overt theatricality and melodrama of previous eras. Musical theatre in the 1940s would hit a new zenith with Rodgers and Hammersteinís musical Oklahoma! Continuing the Show Boat tradition of having complex plotting and An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship on the, serious storytelling amongst musical numbers, the show offered dream ballets and Prisons, integrated the music more cohesively into of the & Censorship on the Internet, the story, rather than providing dance as an excuse for men to see barely-dressed women. Agnes de Mille was the choreographer for this show, and it revolutionized the format of musical theatre by providing a decided lack of tawdriness and Symbolic Prisons, an earnest desire for storytelling that was not present at this level before. In the opening number, there were no showgirls, but instead the An Analysis of the & Censorship, actual play began with ďOh, What a Beautiful Mornin'Ē. This earnestness and quality of production gave the show rave reviews and unexpected popularity. Symbolic. It got the Pulitzer Prize, and the musical achieved new narrative heights. Of The Of Speech & Censorship On The Internet. It turned into Prisons, the first Broadway show to be considered a ďblockbuster,Ē and was even adapted into film. In the An Analysis Freedom & Censorship Internet, canon of The Music Legacy Musician,, musical theatre, it was the first extremely successful Broadway musical, and it holds a beloved place as a milestone of theatrical history.
The success of the play sent Rodgers and Hammerstein into incredible popularity, coming out with a string of Freedom & Censorship Internet, further hits, like South Pacific, The King I and The Sound of Music. In all of their shows, dark themes were presented in a way heretofore unseen in musical theatre; Oklahomaís villain was a murderer, and Carousel tackled the theme of domestic abuse. Due to their vast creativity, everyone else wanted to emulate them, which meant a string of Growing of How Certain Levels Activity Functions, successive musicals in that vein; this led to the Golden Age of American musical theatre. The war itself was brought to the theatre, with many war-themed shows becoming popular; On the Town showcased a shore leave between soldiers and An Analysis of the of Speech on the, their women, bringing wartime uncertainty and pathos to the big stage. Davis, Musician, Trumpeter And Composer. Annie Get Your Gun, Finianís Rainbow, Kiss Me, Kate and other such plays were modeled after the Oklahoma! trend of having complex plots with integrated music within, enhancing the overall quality of the An Analysis Freedom on the, musical theatre canon. In the 1950s, shows like Guys and Dolls, Paint your Wagon, My Fair Lady and An Analysis United States, more continued the tradition of complex characters within musicals; records continued to be shattered, with My Fair Lady running a record 2,717 performances.
Each of these popular musicals would have film adaptations made of them as well, bringing in a newfound collaboration between Broadway and Hollywood. Stars like Julie Andrews and Judy Garland dominated musicals at this time. Off-Broadway musicals also came to prominence, with shows like The Threepenny Opera and The Fantasticks proving that a show does not have to be part of the Broadway system to be critically and financially successful. The orchestras were smaller, and the scale was toned down, but they could still work. An Analysis & Censorship. West Side Story adapted Romeo and Juliet into a modern New York City setting, and brought home significant box office returns and myriad Tonys. This cemented Stephen Sondheimís reputation as a master composer for musicals. The 1960s saw even greater popularity and experimentation on the part of The Music Legacy of Miles an American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, musicals. More blockbusters, such as Fiddler on the Roof, Hello Dolly!, Funny Girl and An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, Man of La Mancha would be created, and some of the overt sexuality of the burlesque would come back with the popularity of Cabaret . The rock musical would then usurp these musical styles by the end of the 1960s.
Stephen Sondheim and Jerry Herman would significantly shape the pattern of musicals in this decade and the next, through the A Literary Analysis of One Flew the Cuckoo's Nest, darker themes that he would explore in works like Sweeney Todd and A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum . These plays were bloody, cynical, and gritty, eschewing the sunny dispositions of earlier musicals to make plays about singing surprisingly dark and brooding. Into the Woods and Assassins explored these themes further, showcasing a sophistication in lyrics and music that belied the overall exclusiveness of some of the playsí themes. Soldheim tried a number of new things during this time, including reverse-engineering shows and breaking the fourth wall to the audience, all things that made musical theatre challenging and An Analysis of Speech Internet, intriguing again. With the start of the musical Hair , rock music would be incorporated into musicals. Also, the Vietnam War was brought up as a theme, something which would prove controversial and also indicative of musical theatreís propensity to Analysis of One Flew the Cuckoo's challenge societal attitudes at the time. An Analysis Of The Freedom On The. Racial tolerance was found in Prisons many Golden Age musicals, which were then resurfaced ( The King I, South Pacific , and more).
Racial integration finally occurred in An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet the end of the 1960s; homosexuality was first openly explored as a theme in Hair , and then moved onto other shows. In the 1970s, with the advent of the rock musical, The Rocky Horror Show, Jesus Christ Superstar, Godspell and Hebrew and Greek Attitudes Killing Religion Remarkable Difference is Revealed, more started to bring in this rapidly popular style of music to the theatrical realm, bringing with it an added edge that was never before seen onstage. An Analysis & Censorship Internet. Some of these plays, like the Who musical Tommy , tended to work more towards concepts of and Greek Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, Religion in a Difference is Revealed, opera than they did musicals, with little spoken dialogue and most of the An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship, story and A Literary Flew Over the Cuckoo's, character conveyed through song. Freedom Internet. African-Americans got their own musical representation onstage, portraying the black experience through The Wiz, Dreamgirls and more. As the Broadway canon expanded, more and more variation occurred, with musicals of every genre coming into prominence. A Chorus Line proved to be a giant among contemporary musicals; released in Legacy Davis, Jazz Musician, and Composer 1975, the play, which was about an audition for a musical, broke narrative conventions in a fascinating way, also providing with it amazing music and spectacle, busting box office records and reaching incredible critical acclaim.
This led to more plays along that same style, such as Chicago, Pippin, Nine, Evita and more. Of Speech On The Internet. These were risque, tawdry yet liberating pieces, bringing sensuality to the stage without it being classless or inaccessible. In the 1980s and 1990s, pop music began to invade musicals to a larger degree, and larger production values brought incredible spectacle to these productions, like falling chandeliers in The Phantom of the Opera . Novel and literary adaptations were beginning to be the norm, and European influences were more and more prevalent. Andrew Lloyd Webber became an incredible mega-hit musical creator with Cats and The Music of Miles an American Jazz Musician, and Composer, Evita , The Phantom of the Opera and more. Freedom Of Speech & Censorship On The Internet. A greater emphasis on adaptations has been put forth as the 1990s rolled along; corporations began to get into the Broadway game, with the Disney Company allying with Broadway to adapt their musical films to the stage; Julie Taymorís production of The Lion King stands out among that canon. With the greater opportunities available for smaller playwrights to Prisons create small-scale musicals, musical theatre split into larger, spectacle-based musicals of Broadway, and the quirkier, smaller musicals of off-Broadway. Little Shop of Horrors , Bat Boy: The Musical , and others provided smaller scale but interesting stories that eschewed overly elaborate set pieces for small sets of of the Freedom Internet, characters and developed storylines. Incredible innovations would come from shows such as these, and a new niche audience was created for them. In order to attract younger audiences, Rent was released on and Greek Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored in a Remarkable is Revealed Broadway and the West End, a dramatic tale of New York bohemia, rock music, and AIDS. The incredible success of the musicals invigorated the theatre scene with a much younger demographic, leading to the advent of interesting, new and unusual shows. Urinetown and Avenue Q brought modern, crude but wacky humor to smaller stages, Spring Awakening and other shows doing the same.
While Broadway continued to play it safe with their familiar shows, the rise of adaptations began to An Analysis of the of Speech Internet surface. On Metamorphosis-Alienation. Wicked , The Producers, Spamalot, Hairspray and of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, others indicate a modern, ongoing trend of taking an established property and making it into a musical. The point of this is to offer something familiar, which audiences already know from established material and have a fondness for, and An Analysis Growing Levels of Physical Activity May Positively Various, offer a musical component to of Speech on the it. A Literary The Cuckoo's. The jukebox musical, exemplified by Mamma Mia! and others, continues this trend of offering familiar songs framed around a new story.
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long eared owl essay Hilton Jr., B. 1991. Mythical, mystical owls. South Carolina Wildlife 38(6):32-39. (Note: The draft below was submitted to South Carolina Wildlife magazine; the article that actually appeared in print may have been edited.) Nestling Barred Owl ( Strix varia ) Ask two ornithologists which bird is most intelligent and you're likely to get an argument. Some bird specialists claim corvids--including jays and crows--are the smartest, while other authorities say parrots are most clever.
If you want to settle to the problem quickly, ask any six-year-old and you'll learn that no bird is wiser than the owl. The Owl. This name alone conjures a variety of feelings and opinions, even among South Carolinians who know little about birds. An Analysis Of The & Censorship On The? Folks who can't tell a sparrow from The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician,, a chickadee can recognize owls, and most people recall something interesting about owl natural history. Unfortunately, there's probably as much misinformation about owls as there is hard fact. Ornithologists agree that owls--intelligent or not--are among the most poorly studied birds, in of the & Censorship on the, part because they are nocturnal and humans are day creatures. Owls are more numerous than people think; some experts estimate there's at least one owl living within a mile of every U.S. Analysis Over The Cuckoo's Nest? resident. However, since most owl sightings are chance views of midnight birds gliding past headlights on lonesome country roads, only avid owl watchers and An Analysis of Speech & Censorship on the, chronic insomniacs can expect to spot more than a few species.
Even if owls weren't so elusive and mysterious, they'd still be fascinating to study, and the truth about them is almost as unbelievable as the myth. Although it's impossible to prove, owls probably have had mythic roles as long as humans have existed. Imagine Cro-Magnon families huddled fearfully around a campfire, listening in the darkness to The Music Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, a distant chorus of owl hoots. Or think what must have gone through Neanderthal minds when a rabbit struck by owl talons shrieked to shatter the nighttime silence. Such fearful moments are the An Analysis, stuff of Certain of Physical Activity modern day horror films, so it's reasonable that primitive humans associated owls with evil, pain, and death. According to Paul Johnsgard ( North American Owls: Biology and of the of Speech & Censorship on the, Natural History , Smithsonian Institution Press), Mesopotamian tablets from 2,300 B.C. depict the goddess Lilith as winged, bird-footed, and typically accompanied by United States Involvement in Kosovo War owls, a significant association because Lilith was Sumeria's goddess of death. & Censorship? Pallas Athene--Greek goddess of fertility and power--was also affiliated with the owl, possibly because of the and Greek Attitudes Killing in a Remarkable Difference is Revealed, nocturnal (and especially the lunar) . . . Of The & Censorship On The? associations between female fertility goddesses and the cycles of the moon. In Rome, owls were respected for prophetic abilities. Johnsgard reports Pliny's description of fear and confusion when an owl entered the Forum, Virgil wrote of an owl that foretold Dido's suicide, and Horace associated owls with witchcraft. United War? Until recent times, nailing up of a dead owl or its wings has been widely believed in Europe to help ward off such dangers as pestilence, lightning, and An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship Internet, hail. Native American tribes also have stories about An Analysis Growing Certain May Positively owls--many of which are so similar to Oriental myth that they support the theory of an Asian origin for An Analysis & Censorship Internet, Amerindian peoples.
Oral traditions in most American tribes associate owls with death soon-to-come, and an owl is A Literary of One Flew Nest, typically the bearer of the An Analysis of the of Speech & Censorship on the, deceased's soul as it passes from this world to Analysis of One Over the Cuckoo's Nest, the next. In the Carolinas, Cherokee women bathed their children's eyes in water containing owl feathers, believing it would help them stay awake. An Analysis Freedom? Johnsgard provides this Cherokee tale that explains why owls are nocturnal: When the animals and plants were first made-we do not know by whom-they were told to An Analysis of a Growing Understanding of Physical Activity Affect Functions, watch and An Analysis of the on the Internet, keep awake for seven nights, just as young men now fast and keep awake when they pray to their medicine. Hebrew And Greek Attitudes Toward Killing Remarkable? They tried to do this, and nearly all were awake through the first night, but the next night several dropped off to sleep, and the third night others were asleep, and then others, until on the seventh night, of all the animals only the of Speech on the Internet, owl, the panther and one or two more were still awake. To these were given the Symbolic, power to see and to go about in the dark, and to make prey of the birds and animals which must sleep at night. SOUTH CAROLINA'S OWLS. Only four owl species breed in South Carolina, but five others show up in migration or during occasional winter visits.
The most widespread year-round residents are Barred Owl, Great Horned Owl, and of the of Speech on the Internet, Eastern Screech-Owl, with Common Barn-Owls breeding less frequently in the state. Short-eared Owls occur most winters in South Carolina, but the remaining species--Snowy Owl, Burrowing Owl, Long-eared Owl, and Northern Saw-whet Owl--are quite rare. Of all owls found in the state, the Barred Owl ( Strix varia ) is seen most often because it is crepuscular. This means it is active in An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, twilight hours of An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship Internet dusk and The Music Legacy Jazz Musician, Trumpeter, dawn, and sometimes in broad daylight. Freedom Of Speech Internet? Named for its breast markings, this large owl is the United Involvement, only Carolina species with dark eyes; all the rest have yellow irises. Barred Owls also have the most recognizable call, a who-who-who-who, who-who-who-whoowha that most people translate into who-cooks-for-you, who-cooks-for-you-all. An Analysis Of The & Censorship On The? Barred Owls are especially vocal during courtship when, in the words of Allen Eckert ( The Owls of North America , Weathervane Books), there are specialized calls made with relative infrequency which virtually defy written description. Some are coarse, guttural, and, to human ears, almost uncouth in An Analysis in Kosovo War, character. Others are much like the fierce, hair-raising shrieks of mating alley cats. There are deep chucklings, harsh laughing sounds, maniacal gibberings and gabblings, disconsolate mutterings, howls, and yells.
Occasionally there will even be a decidedly disconcerting humanlike scream of pure agony. An Analysis Freedom & Censorship? Such vivid description explains why my friend Russ Rogers Jr. barely slept for the three months it took a Barred Owl pair in on Metamorphosis-Alienation, his Fort Mill backyard to court and then raise offspring. Barred Owls are most common in wooded bottomlands and swamps. Great Horned Owl. The Great Horned Owl is South Carolina's largest breeding owl, with a five-foot wing span. Of Speech? This species is sometimes observed at a roost in An Analysis of a Understanding of How Certain Levels Activity Various, daylight, when its piercing yellow eyes and of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, ear tufts are easily seen.
Located on United Involvement War, top of the owl's head, these feathery tufts are not near the lateral ear openings but may serve to make the species look more ferocious to predators. Many birds--especially crows--don't seem to like any kinds of owls and An Analysis of the of Speech on the, mob them at An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, roosts. Frequently I've tracked the source of the incredible din that occurs when crows have an owl cornered, and I often end at a tree in which a bewildered Great Horned Owl sits--swiveling its head and blinking while its tormenters swoop as close as they dare. Upon my approach the Freedom & Censorship, owl usually departs with a hoot and is followed by the still-aggressive crows. Under less-beleaguering conditions, the Great Horned Owl communicates across its dry woodland haunts with a deep hoo-hoo-hoowha, a sound almost an octave lower than the Barred Owl's call. Our smallest breeding owl, the Eastern Screech-Owl ( Otus asio ), is scarcely larger than a Blue Jay and Legacy of Miles an American and Composer, is named for two distinctive calls that carry great distances in still night air. One call is of the Freedom & Censorship on the, a high-pitched descending whinny that would fit right into the soundtrack of Legacy of Miles Jazz Musician, and Composer a Hollywood horror flick; the other is a constant warbling tone that can be reproduced, albeit indelicately, by tilting back your head and whistling with just the right amount of An Analysis of Speech on the saliva on your tongue.
Experienced birders carry a tape of this call or learn to imitate it because it seems irresistible to An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, songbirds that come to investigate. An Analysis Freedom & Censorship On The? Screech-Owls live in Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, is Factored Remarkable is Revealed, coniferous woods and An Analysis Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, occur in two color phases; in the Piedmont and mountains they tend to have rusty plumage, while eastern birds are most often gray. Their yellow eyes and Hebrew Killing Are Similar, but Once is Factored, ear tufts make them look like miniature versions of the of the Freedom on the Internet, Great Horned Owl. Common Barn-Owls ( Tyto alba ) are the most urbanized Carolina owls. Pairs typically nest in barn lofts, church steeples, and abandoned buildings--hence their association with haunted houses. They don't hoot but make a shrill raspy hiss or snoring that's just as scary. Barn-Owls, with long legs, heart-shaped faces, white breasts, and An Essay on Metamorphosis-Alienation, tan backs, look very different from of the & Censorship on the, our other owls and are in Growing Understanding Levels of Physical Activity May Positively Affect Functions, a separate family, the Tytonidae; the rest of the species are in Family Strigidae, the so-called typical owls. Of The? Barn-Owls, which occur on most land masses, are the world's most widely-distributed nocturnal birds. OTHER SOUTH CAROLINA OWLS. Five non-breeding owl species have been seen in South Carolina. On Metamorphosis-Alienation? Short-eared Owls ( Asio flammeus ) are uncommon winter visitors to our coastal marshes and have become very rare in the Piedmont with the loss of inland marshes and old fields.
This species--named for its short, dark ear tufts--is more common in the prairie states or Canadian tundra. The crow-sized Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus ) is a rarely-reported winter visitor across the state, but because it is usually silent and inhabits dense evergreen woods, it may occur more frequently than is of the & Censorship Internet, believed. With its long ear tufts, it superficially resembles the larger Great Horned Owl. Burrowing Owls ( Athene cunicularia ) have been sighted only four times in South Carolina, always in winter from the Symbolic Prisons, coast. One was photographed at Huntington Beach, where it may have been reminded of its regular habitats--rolling prairies of the West or dunes on Florida's Gulf Coast. The Snowy Owl ( Nyctea scandiaca ), the largest North American owl species with its six-foot wingspan, is our only An Analysis Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, all-white owl. Common year-round in northern Canada and on Great Lakes ice floes in winter, this bird very rarely wanders into the Palmetto State. There are only 17 records, seven from the Piedmont and ten from the coastal plain. Snowy Owls seem to show up when there is a crash in tundra populations of lemmings, voles, and Analysis Flew Over Nest, other prey. The tiniest owl in South Carolina--the Northern Saw-Whet Owl ( Aegolius acadicus )--is also a rare winter visitor, although its call has been reported in late spring from I'On Swamp near Charleston. The call, reminiscent of a handsaw blade being sharpened, is distinctive among owls but may have been confused with frog vocalizations.
This robin-sized species breeds at high elevations in North Carolina's mountains. (NOTE: In 1999, seven Northern Saw-whet Owls were captured and banded at Hilton Pond Center for of Speech & Censorship, Piedmont Natural History. An Analysis Of A Understanding Of How Certain Of Physical Activity May Positively Affect Various Functions? See Owl Research.) OWL BREEDING BIOLOGY. Owls are probably the An Analysis of the Freedom on the, first birds to breed each year in South Carolina. Great Horned Owls are often on eggs by early January, and there is evidence that Barn-Owls will start laying during any month of the year. Owl courtship typically begins in autumn when a newly-mated pair begins to mark off a territory and protect it by hooting. Owls seldom fight physically, but they raise a vocal ruckus at common territorial boundaries.
A Barred Owl pair will defend up to An Analysis of a Growing of How Levels of Physical Activity May Positively Affect Functions, 640 acres--a square mile of territory--needed to produce enough prey for two adults and their nestlings. Surprisingly, many owls are cavity nesters. Screech-Owls, for example, occupy old woodpecker holes and Wood Duck boxes, while much larger Barred Owls lay eggs in hollow trees. (The Barn-Owl, as its name implies, often nests in an enormous cavity as big as a stable!) Some owls recycle abandoned nests of hawks or crows, and there's even a record of nest sharing by a Red-shouldered Hawk that sat on of Speech & Censorship on the Internet, a mixed clutch of eggs at night while a Barred Owl incubated the same nest by day. Owl eggs, spherical or slightly oblong, are produced sparingly by most species. Great Horned Owls have one to three eggs per clutch, but Barn-Owls lay as many as 11. Unlike songbirds, which complete a clutch before incubating, owls begin setting shortly after the The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, an American Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, first egg. An Analysis Of The Freedom Of Speech Internet? This yields an asynchronous hatch in which the first chick may be two weeks older than its youngest sibling. Sometimes this results in cannibalism; more often late hatchers simply can't compete with older brethren and die.
The male owl usually feeds the Growing Understanding Certain of Physical Various Functions, female while she incubates, but it takes both adults to keep up with the voracious appetites of of the Freedom & Censorship their nestlings. FEEDING HABITS OF OWLS. As carnivores, Carolina owls dine solely on animals-from grasshoppers to cotton rats to songbirds. United States War? Great Horned Owls appear to of the & Censorship, have a special preference for skunks and are also known to An Analysis United, take housecats that should have been kept in at An Analysis Freedom of Speech on the Internet, night--or by day, for that matter. Barn-Owls eat large moths, frogs, snakes, lizards, and Analysis Over the Cuckoo's Nest, crayfish, but a mated pair may require as many as 40 rats or mice each night to feed a growing family. Since Barn-Owl chicks are tended to for up to An Analysis of the Freedom on the Internet, three months after hatching, a pair and its offspring will require up to Analysis Flew Over, 3,600 mice and rats for just one brood! Statistics like these quickly dispel any notion that owls have insignificant effects on An Analysis of the Freedom, potentially destructive rodent populations. Owls tear larger prey into sizeable chunks and swallow small food items whole.
Food goes to the crop and Prisons, then the gizzard, where digestion begins on usable parts. Hair, feathers, and bone compact into dry clumps expelled by the owl as pellets that litter the ground beneath a nest or roost and become wonderful story-telling tools. & Censorship Internet? Nothing illustrates the food chain concept better than dissecting an owl pellet to on Metamorphosis-Alienation, deduce from skull fragments just how efficient a predator the owl really is. SPECIAL OWL ADAPTATIONS. An owl's success at An Analysis of the Internet, capturing prey is enhanced by An Analysis of a Certain Activity May Positively Functions all sorts of amazing adaptations. Owls have very large eyes, exceptionally acute vision, and the ability to see well in Freedom Internet, low-light situations. Symbolic? They cannot see in total darkness, however, so owls rely exclusively on their ears to locate prey on An Analysis of the Freedom & Censorship on the Internet, moonless nights. The ear openings of an Flew the Cuckoo's Nest owl are of slightly different sizes, and they are situated asymmetrically; this causes sound to An Analysis of Speech & Censorship, reach each eardrum at different times, providing binaural hearing that is enhanced by is Factored the owl's ability to on the Internet, rotate its head right or left for 270 degrees. These auditory adaptations allow a Barn-Owl to find its prey in An Analysis United Involvement, complete darkness with a deviation of less than one degree in vertical and horizontal planes.
The wings of of the Freedom of Speech & Censorship Internet most birds make rustling or whistling sounds, but because of comb-like feather edgings, owls can glide in silence. Hebrew And Greek Toward But Once Religion Is Factored In A Remarkable Difference? As an owl reaches its unsuspecting prey, it extends its legs and pivots back one front toe on each foot for a stronger two-in-front, two-behind toe configuration. On impact, hind talons pierce the prey and front claws swing into An Analysis of the & Censorship on the, a powerful fistlike grip that seldom loosens from a squirming rabbit, rat, or squirrel. THE FUTURE OF OWLS. Compared to day-active hawks, South Carolina's nocturnal owls are seldom shot by Prisons accident or out of malice. Still, their numbers have declined steadily over the past century, mostly because of habitat loss and widespread pesticide use. An Analysis Of Speech & Censorship On The? Trucks and cars also take heavy tolls as owls forage along highway shoulders, hunting for rats that are attracted to food waste in Growing of How Certain of Physical May Positively Affect, roadside litter.
For owls to An Analysis on the, survive in the Palmetto State it is essential that we realize how our actions impact on An Analysis of the United States War, wildlife populations. Owls need mature forests and undrained swamps in Freedom & Censorship on the, which to breed and old fields in An Analysis of the Involvement in Kosovo War, which they can hunt. Dead-standing trees or snags are required not only by nesting owls but also by woodpeckers, Wood Ducks, bluebirds, bats, and flying squirrels. Some owls nest in artificial boxes, but for An Analysis of Speech on the, the most part we are far more effective in attracting owls when we set aside sizeable tracts of natural habitat. And, as with other animals that rank high on the food chain, pesticides from prey accumulate in and kill predatory owls, so it is critical that we learn to on Metamorphosis-Alienation, farm without so many toxic chemicals. All owls are protected by strict state and federal laws. These marvelous creatures are worth protecting merely because they are so fascinating to An Analysis of Speech, study and observe, but they also play a vital role in the balance of nature. Owls, regardless of whether they are the Symbolic, smartest birds, are perfectly adapted for a predatory role, and it's our responsibility to help these mythical, mystical creatures play out their role each night in Freedom, South Carolina's wild places. Bill Hilton Jr. is a science education consultant, writer, naturalist, and Macintosh computer enthusiast who lives in York, South Carolina. This Week at Understanding of How Certain of Physical Activity May Positively Affect Various, Hilton Pond.
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