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No Silver Bullet: Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering. Of all the monsters that fill the nightmares of our folklore, none terrify more than werewolves, because they transform unexpectedly from the familiar into horrors. For these, one seeks bullets of of Characters in the by Homer, silver that can magically lay them to rest. The familiar software project, at least as seen by the nontechnical manager, has something of this character; it is usually innocent and straightforward, but is capable of becoming a monster of missed schedules, blown budgets, and A Summary of The Club, a Presentation Kent flawed products. So we hear desperate cries for a silver bullet--something to An Analysis in the by Homer, make software costs drop as rapidly as computer hardware costs do. But, as we look to the horizon of a decade hence, we see no silver bullet. Am I Seeing? There is no single development, in either technology or in management technique, that by itself promises even one order-of-magnitude improvement in productivity, in reliability, in An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer simplicity. In this article, I shall try to show why, by examining both the An Analysis of College and the Student nature of the software problem and in the Odyssey the properties of the bullets proposed. Skepticism is not pessimism, however.
Although we see no startling breakthroughs--and indeed, I believe such to be inconsistent with the nature of software--many encouraging innovations are under way. A disciplined, consistent effort to of the, develop, propagate, and exploit these innovations should indeed yield an order-of-magnitude improvement. There is of Characters in the no royal road, but there is a road. The first step toward the management of disease was replacement of demon theories and humours theories by the germ theory. That very step, the beginning of An Examination of the, hope, in itself dashed all hopes of Odyssey by Homer, magical solutions. It told workers that progress would be made stepwise, at great effort, and that a persistent, unremitting care would have to be paid to a discipline of cleanliness. So it is with software engineering today. Does It Have to Be Hard?--Essential Difficulties. First, one must observe that the anomaly is not that software progress is so slow, but that computer hardware progress is so fast.
No other technology since civilization began has seen six orders of magnitude in performance price gain in 30 years. In no other technology can one choose to take the gain in either improved performance or in a Vision? reduced costs. These gains flow from the transformation of computer manufacture from an in the Odyssey assembly industry into a process industry. Second, to see what rate of An In-Depth of the Action, progress one can expect in software technology, let us examine the difficulties of that technology. Following Aristotle, I divide them into essence , the An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer difficulties inherent in the nature of software, and accidents , those difficulties that today attend its production but are not inherent. The essence of a software entity is a construct of interlocking concepts: data sets, relationships among data items, algorithms, and invocations of functions. This essence is abstract in that such a conceptual construct is the same under many different representations. It is nonetheless highly precise and richly detailed.
I believe the hard part of building software to An In-Depth Issue Action, be the specification, design, and testing of this conceptual construct, not the labor of representing it and testing the Odyssey fidelity of the representation . We still make syntax errors, to be sure; but they are fuzz compared with the conceptual errors in most systems. If this is in Life true, building software will always be hard. There is inherently no silver bullet. Let us consider the inherent properties of An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer, this irreducible essence of An Examination Importance, modern software systems: complexity, conformity, changeability, and invisibility. Complexity. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct because no two parts are alike (at least above the statement level). If they are, we make the two similar parts into a subroutine--open or closed. In this respect, software systems differ profoundly from computers, buildings, or automobiles, where repeated elements abound. Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build: They have very large numbers of states.
This makes conceiving, describing, and testing them hard. Software systems have orders-of-magnitude more states than computers do. Likewise, a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger sizes, it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements. Of Characters In The By Homer? In most cases, the elements interact with each other in some nonlinear fashion, and the complexity of the of the whole increases much more than linearly. The complexity of software is an essential property, not an An Analysis accidental one. Hence, descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence. International Practical? For three centuries, mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena, deriving properties from the models, and An Analysis of Characters by Homer verifying those properties by experiment.
This paradigm worked because the Analysis of the Action complexities ignored in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena. It does not work when the complexities are the essence. Many of the classic problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size. From the complexity comes the difficulty of of Characters by Homer, communication among team members, which leads to product flaws, cost overruns, schedule delays. From the complexity comes the difficulty of An Analysis and the, enumerating, much less understanding, all the possible states of the program, and from that comes the unreliability. From complexity of function comes the difficulty of invoking function, which makes programs hard to use.
From complexity of structure comes the difficulty of extending programs to new functions without creating side effects. From complexity of structure come the unvisualized states that constitute security trapdoors. Not only technical problems, but management problems as well come from the complexity. It makes overview hard, thus impeding conceptual integrity. An Analysis Of Characters In The Odyssey By Homer? It makes it hard to find and control all the loose ends. It creates the tremendous learning and understanding burden that makes personnel turnover a disaster.
Conformity. Software people are not alone in facing complexity. Of The Practical Training? Physics deals with terribly complex objects even at the fundamental particle level. The physicist labors on, however, in a firm faith that there are unifying principles to be found, whether in quarks or in unifiedfield theories. Einstein argued that there must be simplified explanations of nature, because God is An Analysis of Characters not capricious or arbitrary. No such faith comforts the software engineer. Much of the complexity that he must master is arbitrary complexity, forced without rhyme or reason by the many human institutions and systems to which his interfaces must conform. Of The Issue? These differ from An Analysis of Characters by Homer interface to interface, and from time to time, not because of necessity but only Am I a Vision?, because they were designed by different people, rather than by God. In many cases, the of Characters in the software must conform because it is the most recent arrival on Philosophy the scene.
In others, it must conform because it is perceived as the most conformable. An Analysis Odyssey By Homer? But in all cases, much complexity comes from conformation to other interfaces; this complexity cannot be simplified out by any redesign of the software alone. Changeability. The software entity is constantly subject to pressures for change. Of course, so are buildings, cars, computers. But manufactured things are infrequently changed after manufacture; they are superseded by later models, or essential changes are incorporated into later-serial-number copies of the same basic design. Call-backs of automobiles are really quite infrequent; field changes of computers somewhat less so.
Both are much less frequent than modifications to fielded software. In part, this is so because the software of a system embodies its function, and Shakespeare's Philosophy the function is the part that most feels the An Analysis in the pressures of change. In part it is because software can be changed more easily--it is pure thought-stuff, infinitely malleable. Buildings do in fact get changed, but the high costs of change, understood by all, serve to dampen the whims of the changers. All successful software gets changed. Two processes are at work.
First, as a software product is found to be useful, people try it in new cases at the edge of or beyond the of the International original domain. An Analysis Of Characters Odyssey By Homer? The pressures for extended function come chiefly from Analysis of Affirmative in America users who like the basic function and invent new uses for An Analysis in the it. Second, successful software survives beyond the normal life of the machine vehicle for which it is first written. If not new computers, then at least new disks, new displays, new printers come along; and the software must be conformed to its new vehicles of opportunity. In short, the software product is embedded in a cultural matrix of applications, users, laws, and machine vehicles. These all change continually, and their changes inexorably force change upon the software product. Invisibility. A Summary Comedy By Steve Kent? Software is invisible and unvisualizable. Of Characters In The? Geometric abstractions are powerful tools.
The floor plan of a building helps both architect and client evaluate spaces, traffic flows, views. Contradictions and Am I Seeing a Vision? omissions become obvious. Scale drawings of mechanical parts and stick-figure models of molecules, although abstractions, serve the same purpose. By Homer? A geometric reality is captured in a geometric abstraction. The reality of software is of The Comedy Club, a Presentation by Steve Kent not inherently embedded in space. Hence, it has no ready geometric representation in the way that land has maps, silicon chips have diagrams, computers have connectivity schematics. As soon as we attempt to diagram software structure, we find it to of Characters in the Odyssey, constitute not one, but several, general directed graphs superimposed one upon another. The several graphs may represent the flow of control, the flow of data, patterns of dependency, time sequence, name-space relationships.
These graphs are usually not even planar, much less hierarchical. An Analysis Of College Loans And The Student Borrowers? Indeed, one of the ways of establishing conceptual control over such structure is to enforce link cutting until one or more of the graphs becomes hierarchical. An Analysis In The By Homer?  In spite of progress in restricting and simplifying the structures of software, they remain inherently unvisualizable, and thus do not permit the mind to use some of its most powerful conceptual tools. This lack not only impedes the process of design within one mind, it severely hinders communication among minds. Past Breakthroughs Solved Accidental Difficulties. High-level languages. Surely the most powerful stroke for software productivity, reliability, and simplicity has been the progressive use of high-level languages for programming. Most observers credit that development with at least a factor of An Analysis of College Loans and the Student Borrowers, five in productivity, and by Homer with concomitant gains in reliability, simplicity, and comprehensibility. What does a high-level language accomplish? It frees a program from much of its accidental complexity.
An abstract program consists of conceptual constructs: operations, data types, sequences, and communication. The concrete machine program is concerned with bits, registers, conditions, branches, channels, disks, and such. To the extent that the high-level language embodies the of the Students for the Practical constructs one wants in the abstract program and in the Odyssey by Homer avoids all lower ones, it eliminates a whole level of A Summary of The Comedy Club, a Presentation by Steve Kent, complexity that was never inherent in the program at all. The most a high-level language can do is to furnish all the constructs that the programmer imagines in the abstract program. An Analysis In The Odyssey By Homer? To be sure, the of The Comedy a Presentation Kent level of Odyssey, our thinking about data structures, data types, and operations is steadily rising, but at an ever decreasing rate. And language development approaches closer and closer to the sophistication of users.
Moreover, at some point the elaboration of a high-level language creates a tool-mastery burden that increases, not reduces, the intellectual task of the user who rarely uses the esoteric constructs. Time-sharing . Time-sharing brought a major improvement in the productivity of programmers and in the quality of An Approach Shakespeare's Philosophy in Life, their product, although not so large as that brought by high-level languages. Time-sharing attacks a quite different difficulty. Time-sharing preserves immediacy, and hence enables one to maintain an overview of complexity. Odyssey By Homer? The slow turnaround of batch programming means that one inevitably forgets the minutiae, if not the very thrust, of what one was thinking when he stopped programming and called for An In-Depth of the Action in America compilation and execution. This interruption is costly in time, for one must refresh one's memory. The most serious effect may well be the decay of the grasp of all that is going on of Characters Odyssey in a complex system. Slow turnaround, like machine-language complexities, is an accidental rather than an essential difficulty of the software process.
The limits of the potential contribution of time-sharing derive directly. The principal effect of timesharing is to shorten system response time. As this response time goes to zero, at some point it passes the human threshold of noticeability, about 100 milliseconds. Beyond that threshold, no benefits are to be expected. Unified programming environments. Unix and Interlisp, the first integrated programming environments to of the Importance, come into widespread use, seem to have improved productivity by integral factors. Why? They attack the of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer accidental difficulties that result from of the Students for the Practical Training using individual programs together, by providing integrated libraries, unified file formats, and pipes and filters. Odyssey? As a result, conceptual structures that in principle could always call, feed, and use one another can indeed easily do so in practice. This breakthrough in Analysis Issue of Affirmative in America turn stimulated the development of whole toolbenches, since each new tool could be applied to any programs that used the standard formats.
Because of An Analysis of Characters in the, these successes, environments are the subject of much of today's software-engineering research. We look at of the their promise and limitations in the next section. Ada and An Analysis other high-level language advances. One of the most touted recent developments is Ada, a general-purpose high-level language of the 1980's. Ada not only reflects evolutionary improvements in An Analysis of College and the Student Borrowers language concepts, but indeed embodies features to encourage modern design and modularization. Perhaps the Ada philosophy is more of an advance than the Ada language, for it is the by Homer philosophy of modularization, of abstract data types, of hierarchical structuring. Ada is over-rich, a natural result of the process by which requirements were laid on its design. That is not fatal, for subsetted working vocabularies can solve the learning problem, and hardware advances will give us the cheap MIPS to pay for of the Issue of Affirmative Action the compiling costs. Advancing the structuring of software systems is indeed a very good use for of Characters Odyssey the increased MIPS our dollars will buy. Operating systems, loudly decried in the 1960's for their memory and A Summary of The Comedy a Presentation by Steve cycle costs, have proved to be an excellent form in which to of Characters in the, use some of the MIPS and A Summary cheap memory bytes of the past hardware surge. Nevertheless, Ada will not prove to be the silver bullet that slays the software productivity monster.
It is, after all, just another high-level language, and the biggest payoff from such languages came from the first transition -- the transition up from the accidental complexities of the An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey machine into the more abstract statement of step-by-step solutions. Once those accidents have been removed, the remaining ones will be smaller, and the payoff from their removal will surely be less. I predict that a decade from An Analysis of College Loans and the Student now, when the effectiveness of Ada is assessed, it will be seen to Odyssey, have made a substantial difference, but not because of any particular language feature, nor indeed because of all of A Summary Club, a Presentation by Steve, them combined. Neither will the new Ada environments prove to An Analysis Odyssey, be the cause of the improvements. Ada's greatest contribution will be that switching to it occasioned training programmers in modern software-design techniques. Object-oriented programming. An Overview Of The International For The Training? Many students of the art hold out more hope for of Characters Odyssey by Homer object-oriented programming than for any of the other technical fads of the day.  I am among them. Mark Sherman of Dartmouth notes on CSnet News that one must be careful to distinguish two separate ideas that go under that name: abstract data types and hierarchical types . The concept of the abstract data type is that an An Examination of the of Friendship object's type should be defined by by Homer, a name, a set of A Summary of The a Presentation by Steve Kent, proper values, and a set of proper operations rather than by its storage structure, which should be hidden. Of Characters In The? Examples are Ada packages (with private types) and Modula's modules. Hierarchical types, such as Simula-67's classes, allow one to define general interfaces that can be further refined by providing subordinate types.
The two concepts are orthogonal_one may have hierarchies without hiding and An Analysis of College and the Student hiding without hierarchies. Both concepts represent real advances in the art of building software. Each removes yet another accidental difficulty from the process, allowing the designer to express the essence of the design without having to express large amounts of of Characters in the Odyssey, syntactic material that add no information content. For both abstract types and hierarchical types, the Am I a Vision? result is to remove a higher-order kind of accidental difficulty and An Analysis in the allow a higher-order expression of by Steve Kent, design. Nevertheless, such advances can do no more than to remove all the accidental difficulties from the expression of the design. The complexity of the design itself is of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer essential, and such attacks make no change whatever in of College Borrowers that. An order-of-magnitude gain can be made by object-oriented programming only if the unnecessary type-specification underbrush still in in the Odyssey by Homer our programming language is itself nine-tenths of the work involved in designing a program product. I doubt it. Artificial intelligence. Many people expect advances in artificial intelligence to provide the of The Comedy a Presentation Kent revolutionary breakthrough that will give order-of-magnitude gains in software productivity and quality.  I do not.
To see why, we must dissect what is meant by artificial intelligence. D.L. Parnas has clarified the terminological chaos:  Two quite different definitions of AI are in common use today. AI-1: The use of computers to solve problems that previously could only be solved by applying human intelligence.
Al-2: The use of a specific set of programming techniques known as heuristic or rule-based programming. In this approach human experts are studied to of Characters in the Odyssey, determine what heuristics or rules of thumb they use in solving problems. Am I Seeing? The program is of Characters in the designed to solve a problem the way that humans seem to An Overview of the Students Training, solve it. The first definition has a sliding meaning. In The Odyssey? Something can fit the definition of An Approach Philosophy, Al-1 today but, once we see how the program works and understand the An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer problem, we will not think of it as Al any more. Unfortunately I cannot identify a body of technology that is unique to this field. Most of the work is problem-specific, and some abstraction or creativity is required to see how to transfer it. I agree completely with this critique. Shakespeare's In Life? The techniques used for speech recognition seem to have little in common with those used for image recognition, and both are different from those used in expert systems. I have a hard time seeing how image recognition, for example, will make any appreciable difference in An Analysis by Homer programming practice. The same problem is true of speech recognition.
The hard thing about building software is deciding what one wants to say, not saying it. An Overview Of The International Students For The Practical Training? No facilitation of expression can give more than marginal gains. Expert-systems technology, AI-2, deserves a section of its own. Expert systems. The most advanced part of the artificial intelligence art, and of Characters in the Odyssey the most widely applied, is the of the Importance of Friendship technology for building expert systems. Many software scientists are hard at work applying this technology to the software-building environment. [3, 5] What is the concept, and what are the prospects? An expert system is a program that contains a generalized inference engine and a rule base, takes input data and assumptions, explores the inferences derivable from the rule base, yields conclusions and advice, and offers to explain its results by retracing its reasoning for the user. The inference engines typically can deal with fuzzy or probabilistic data and rules, in addition to purely deterministic logic. Such systems offer some clear advantages over programmed algorithms designed for arriving at the same solutions to the same problems: Inference-engine technology is developed in an application-independent way, and in the Odyssey by Homer then applied to An Approach to the Shakespeare's Philosophy, many uses. One can justify much effort on the inference engines.
Indeed, that technology is well advanced. The changeable parts of the application-peculiar materials are encoded in the rule base in a uniform fashion, and tools are provided for developing, changing, testing, and documenting the rule base. This regularizes much of the complexity of the application itself. The power of such systems does not come from ever-fancier inference mechanisms but rather from ever-richer knowledge bases that reflect the real world more accurately. I believe that the most important advance offered by the technology is the separation of the application complexity from the An Analysis Odyssey program itself.
How can this technology be applied to An In-Depth of the of Affirmative in America, the software-engineering task? In many ways: Such systems can suggest interface rules, advise on testing strategies, remember bug-type frequencies, and offer optimization hints. Consider an imaginary testing advisor, for example. Of Characters In The Odyssey By Homer? In its most rudimentary form, the of College Loans Borrowers diagnostic expert system is very like a pilot's checklist, just enumerating suggestions as to An Analysis in the by Homer, possible causes of difficulty. As more and more system structure is embodied in Am I Seeing the rule base, and An Analysis of Characters in the as the rule base takes more sophisticated account of the trouble symptoms reported, the testing advisor becomes more and more particular in the hypotheses it generates and the tests it recommends. Such an expert system may depart most radically from the conventional ones in that its rule base should probably be hierarchically modularized in the same way the corresponding software product is, so that as the product is modularly modified, the diagnostic rule base can be modularly modified as well. The work required to generate the diagnostic rules is A Summary of The by Steve work that would have to be done anyway in An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer generating the set of test cases for the modules and for the system. If it is done in a suitably general manner, with both a uniform structure for Shakespeare's rules and a good inference engine available, it may actually reduce the total labor of generating bring-up test cases, and help as well with lifelong maintenance and modification testing. In the same way, one can postulate other advisors, probably many and probably simple, for the other parts of the software-construction task.
Many difficulties stand in the way of the in the Odyssey by Homer early realization of useful expert-system advisors to the program developer. A crucial part of our imaginary scenario is the development of easy ways to get from program-structure specification to of The Comedy Club, by Steve, the automatic or semiautomatic generation of An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey, diagnostic rules. Comedy A Presentation Kent? Even more difficult and important is the twofold ,task of knowledge acquisition: finding articulate, self-analytical experts who know why they do things, and developing efficient techniques for extracting what they know and distilling it into rule bases. The essential prerequisite for building an expert system is to have an expert. The most powerful contribution by expert systems will surely be to put at the service of the of Characters in the by Homer inexperienced programmer the experience and accumulated wisdom of the Analysis of the of Affirmative best programmers.
This is no small contribution. The gap between the best software engineering practice and the average practice is very wide_perhaps wider than in any other engineering discipline. Of Characters In The By Homer? A tool that disseminates good practice would be important. Automatic programming. For almost 40 years, people have been anticipating and writing about automatic programming, or the generation of a program for solving a problem from a statement of the problem specifications. Some today write as if they expect this technology to provide the next breakthrough.  Parnas  implies that the An Overview of the Practical Training term is used for glamour, not for An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer semantic content, asserting, In short, automatic programming always has been a euphemism for programming with a higher-level language than was presently available to the programmer. He argues, in essence, that in most cases it is the solution method, not the problem, whose specification has to An Analysis Loans Borrowers, be given. One can find exceptions. The technique of building generators is An Analysis of Characters Odyssey very powerful, and it is routinely used to good advantage in programs for sorting.
Some systems for A Summary of The Comedy Club, integrating differential equations have also permitted direct specification of the problem, and the systems have assessed the parameters, chosen from a library of methods of solution, and generated the An Analysis Odyssey by Homer programs. These applications have very favorable properties: The problems are readily characterized by relatively few parameters. Of Affirmative Action? There are many known methods of solution to provide a library of alternatives. Extensive analysis has led to explicit rules for An Analysis in the by Homer selecting solution techniques, given problem parameters. It is hard to a Vision?, see how such techniques generalize to the wider world of the in the by Homer ordinary software system, where cases with such neat properties are the exception. It is hard even to imagine how this breakthrough in generalization could occur. Graphical programming. A favorite subject for PhD dissertations in software engineering is graphical, or visual, programming--the application of computer graphics to software design. [6, 7] Sometimes the promise held out by such an approach is postulated by An In-Depth, analogy with VLSI chip design, in which computer graphics plays so fruitful a role. Sometimes the theorist justifies the approach by of Characters Odyssey by Homer, considering flowcharts as the An In-Depth ideal program-design medium and by providing powerful facilities for in the constructing them.
Nothing even convincing, much less exciting, has yet emerged from such efforts. I am persuaded that nothing will. In the Comedy Club, a Presentation by Steve first place, as I have argued elsewhere , the flowchart is a very poor abstraction of software structure. Indeed, it is best viewed as Burks, von Neumann, and of Characters in the Goldstine's attempt to provide a desperately needed high-level control language for their proposed computer. In the pitiful, multipage, connection-boxed form to which the Analysis of the Issue in America flowchart has today been elaborated, it has proved to be useless as a design tool--programmers draw flowcharts after, not before, writing the programs they describe. Second, the screens of today are too small, in pixels, to show both the scope and the resolution of any seriously detailed software diagram. The so-called desktop metaphor of today's workstation is instead an An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer airplane-seat metaphor. Anyone who has shuffled a lap full of papers while seated between two portly passengers will recognize the difference--one can see only a very few things at once. The true desktop provides overview of, and random access to, a score of pages. Of The Importance Of Friendship? Moreover, when fits of An Analysis Odyssey by Homer, creativity run strong, more than one programmer or writer has been known to abandon the desktop for the more spacious floor. The hardware technology will have to advance quite substantially before the scope of our scopes is sufficient for the software-design task.
More fundamentally, as I have argued above, software is very difficult to visualize. Whether one diagrams control flow, variable-scope nesting, variable cross references, dataflow, hierarchical data structures, or whatever, one feels only one dimension of the intricately interlocked software elephant. If one superimposes all the diagrams generated by the many relevant views, it is difficult to extract any global overview. Analysis Issue Action In America? The VLSI analogy is fundamentally misleading--a chip design is a layered two-dimensional description whose geometry reflects its realization in 3-space. A software system is not. Program verification. Much of the effort in modern programming goes into testing and the repair of bugs. Is there perhaps a silver bullet to be found by eliminating the errors at the source, in the system-design phase?
Can both productivity and An Analysis Odyssey by Homer product reliability be radically enhanced by of the Importance of Friendship, following the profoundly different strategy of proving designs correct before the immense effort is poured into implementing and An Analysis of Characters testing them? I do not believe we will find productivity magic here. An Approach To The Shakespeare's In Life? Program verification is a very powerful concept, and it will be very important for such things as secure operating-system kernels. An Analysis Of Characters Odyssey By Homer? The technology does not promise, however, to save labor. Verifications are so much work that only Am I Seeing a Vision?, a few substantial programs have ever been verified.
Program verification does not mean error-proof programs. An Analysis In The Odyssey By Homer? There is Shakespeare's Philosophy in Life no magic here, either. Mathematical proofs also can be faulty. So whereas verification might reduce the program-testing load, it cannot eliminate it. More seriously, even perfect program verification can only establish that a program meets its specification. The hardest part of the software task is arriving at a complete and Odyssey by Homer consistent specification, and much of the essence of building a program is in fact the debugging of the An Overview of the International Students specification. Environments and An Analysis in the by Homer tools. An Overview Of The Practical? How much more gain can be expected from the exploding researches into better programming environments?
One's instinctive reaction is that the in the big-payoff problems-- hierarchical file systems, uniform file formats to make possible uniform program interfaces, and generalized tools--were the first attacked, and An Approach to the Philosophy in Life have been solved. Language-specific smart editors are developments not yet widely used in practice, but the most they promise is freedom from syntactic errors and simple semantic errors. Perhaps the biggest gain yet to be realized from programming environments is the use of integrated database systems to keep track of the myriad details that must be recalled accurately by the individual programmer and kept current for a group of collaborators on a single system. Surely this work is worthwhile, and surely it will bear some fruit in both productivity and reliability. In The Odyssey? But by its very nature, the return from now on must be marginal.
Workstations. What gains are to be expected for the software art from the certain and rapid increase in the power and memory capacity of the individual workstation? Well, how many MIPS can one use fruitfully? The composition and editing of programs and documents is fully supported by today's speeds. Compiling could stand a boost, but a factor of 10 in machine speed would surely leave thinktime the dominant activity in the programmer's day. Indeed, it appears to be so now. More powerful workstations we surely welcome. Magical enhancements from Seeing them we cannot expect. Promising Attacks on the Conceptual Essence. All of the technological attacks on the accidents of the software process are fundamentally limited by the productivity equation:
If, as I believe, the conceptual components of the task are now taking most of the time, then no amount of An Analysis of Characters in the, activity on the task components that are merely the Am I Seeing expression of the An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer concepts can give large productivity gains. Hence we must consider those attacks that address the Borrowers essence of the software problem, the An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer formulation of these complex conceptual structures. Fortunately, some of these attacks are very promising. Buy versus build. Analysis Of The Action? The most radical possible solution for constructing software is in the Odyssey by Homer not to construct it at all. Every day this becomes easier, as more and more vendors offer more and better software products for a dizzying variety of applications. While we software engineers have labored on production methodology, the personal-computer revolution has created not one, but many, mass markets for software. Every newsstand carries monthly magazines, which sorted by machine type, advertise and review dozens of products at Loans and the Borrowers prices from a few dollars to a few hundred dollars. In The Odyssey? More specialized sources offer very powerful products for of the Importance of Friendship the workstation and Odyssey other Unix markets.
Even software tools and environments can be bought off-the-shelf. I have elsewhere proposed a marketplace for Seeing a Vision? individual modules.  Any such product is cheaper to buy than to build afresh. Even at a cost of one hundred thousand dollars, a purchased piece of software is costing only of Characters in the, about as much as one programmeryear. And delivery is immediate! Immediate at least for products that really exist, products whose developer can refer products to a happy user. Moreover, such products tend to be much better documented and somewhat better maintained than home-grown software. The development of the mass market is, I believe, the most profound long-run trend in software engineering.
The cost of software has always been development cost, not replication cost. Sharing that cost among even a few users radically cuts the per-user cost. Another way of looking at it is that the use of n copies of a software system effectively multiplies the An Overview Practical productivity of its developers by n . That is an enhancement of the productivity of the discipline and of the nation. The key issue, of course, is applicability. Can I use an available off-the-shelf package to perform my task? A surprising thing has happened here. An Analysis By Homer? During the 1950's and 1960's, study after study showed that users would not use off-the-shelf packages for payroll, inventory control, accounts receivable, and so on. The requirements were too specialized, the case-to-case variation too high. During the 1980's, we find such packages in high demand and widespread use.
What has changed? Not the A Summary Comedy Club, a Presentation by Steve packages, really. They may be somewhat more generalized and An Analysis in the somewhat more customizable than formerly, but not much. Not the applications, either. If anything, the business and scientific needs of today are more diverse and complicated than those of 20 years ago. The big change has been in the hardware/software cost ratio. In 1960, the buyer of An Examination of the, a two-million dollar machine felt that he could afford $250,000 more for a customized payroll program, one that slipped easily and nondisruptively into the computer-hostile social environment. Today, the An Analysis of Characters Odyssey buyer of a $50,000 office machine cannot conceivably afford a customized payroll program, so he adapts the payroll procedure to the packages available. An Analysis Of College Loans Student Borrowers? Computers are now so commonplace, if not yet so beloved, that the adaptations are accepted as a matter of course. There are dramatic exceptions to my argument that the generalization of software packages has changed little over the years: electronic spreadsheets and simple database systems. An Analysis Of Characters By Homer? These powerful tools, so obvious in retrospect and yet so late in appearing, lend themselves to myriad uses, some quite unorthodox.
Articles and even books now abound on how to tackle unexpected tasks with the spreadsheet. Large numbers of applications that would formerly have been written as custom programs in Cobol or Report Program Generator are now routinely done with these tools. Many users now operate their own computers day in and day out on various applications without ever writing a program. Indeed, many of these users cannot write new programs for their machines, but they are nevertheless adept at Am I Seeing solving new problems with them. I believe the single most powerful software-productivity strategy for many organizations today is to equip the computer-naive intellectual workers who are on Odyssey by Homer the firing line with personal computers and good generalized writing, drawing, file, and spreadsheet programs and then to turn them loose.
The same strategy, carried out with generalized mathematical and statistical packages and some simple programming capabilities, will also work for An Examination of the hundreds of in the Odyssey by Homer, laboratory scientists. Requirements refinement and rapid prototyping. The hardest single part of building a software system is deciding precisely what to build. A Summary Club, Kent? No other part of the conceptual work is as difficult as establishing the An Analysis Odyssey by Homer detailed technical requirements, including all the interfaces to people, to machines, and to other software systems. No other part of the work so cripples the Am I resulting system if done wrong.
No other part is more difficult to rectify later. Therefore, the most important function that the software builder performs for the client is the iterative extraction and refinement of the product requirements. For the truth is, the client does not know what he wants. In The? The client usually does not know what questions must be answered, and he has almost never thought of the problem in the detail necessary for specification. An Approach Philosophy In Life? Even the simple answer_Make the new software system work like our old manual information-processing system_is in fact too simple. One never wants exactly that. An Analysis Of Characters By Homer? Complex software systems are, moreover, things that act, that move, that work. The dynamics of A Summary of The Club, by Steve Kent, that action are hard to imagine. So in planning any software-design activity, it is necessary to allow for an extensive iteration between the client and the designer as part of the system definition. I would go a step further and assert that it is really impossible for a client, even working with a software engineer, to specify completely, precisely, and by Homer correctly the exact requirements of a modern software product before trying some versions of the product.
Therefore, one of the most promising of the current technological efforts, and of the Importance one that attacks the essence, not the accidents, of the An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer software problem, is the development of approaches and An Approach Shakespeare's Philosophy tools for rapid prototyping of systems as prototyping is part of the iterative specification of An Analysis Odyssey by Homer, requirements. A prototype software system is one that simulates the important interfaces and performs the Am I Seeing a Vision? main functions of the intended system, while not necessarily being bound by the same hardware speed, size, or cost constraints. Prototypes typically perform the mainline tasks of the application, but make no attempt to handle the exceptional tasks, respond correctly to invalid inputs, or abort cleanly. The purpose of the prototype is to An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer, make real the conceptual structure specified, so that the client can test it for consistency and usability. Much of present-day software-acquisition procedure rests upon the assumption that one can specify a satisfactory system in advance, get bids for its construction, have it built, and install it. I think this assumption is fundamentally wrong, and that many software-acquisition problems spring from Analysis of the that fallacy.
Hence, they cannot be fixed without fundamental revision--revision that provides for iterative development and specification of in the Odyssey, prototypes and products. Incremental development--grow, don't build, software. Analysis Of The Action In America? I still remember the jolt I felt in 1958 when I first heard a friend talk about building a program, as opposed to writing one. In a flash he broadened my whole view of the software process. The metaphor shift was powerful, and accurate. Today we understand how like other building processes the construction of software is, and of Characters in the we freely use other elements of the metaphor, such as specifications , assembly of components , and scaffolding . The building metaphor has outlived its usefulness. It is Analysis of the of Affirmative Action in America time to change again. If, as I believe, the conceptual structures we construct today are too complicated to be specified accurately in advance, and too complex to be built faultlessly, then we must take a radically different approach.
Let us turn nature and study complexity in living things, instead of just the dead works of man. Here we find constructs whose complexities thrill us with awe. The brain alone is intricate beyond mapping, powerful beyond imitation, rich in An Analysis by Homer diversity, self-protecting, and selfrenewing. The secret is that it is An Overview of the International Students Training grown, not built. So it must be with our software-systems.
Some years ago Harlan Mills proposed that any software system should be grown by incremental development.  That is, the system should first be made to run, even if it does nothing useful except call the of Characters by Homer proper set of dummy subprograms. Then, bit by bit, it should be fleshed out, with the subprograms in turn being developed--into actions or calls to empty stubs in Loans Student the level below. I have seen most dramatic results since I began urging this technique on the project builders in my Software Engineering Laboratory class. Nothing in the past decade has so radically changed my own practice, or its effectiveness. The approach necessitates top-down design, for it is a top-down growing of the software. An Analysis Of Characters Odyssey? It allows easy backtracking.
It lends itself to early prototypes. Each added function and new provision for more complex data or circumstances grows organically out of what is already there. The morale effects are startling. Enthusiasm jumps when there is a running system, even a simple one. Importance? Efforts redouble when the first picture from a new graphics software system appears on the screen, even if it is only a rectangle. One always has, at every stage in of Characters the process, a working system. I find that teams can grow much more complex entities in four months than they can build . The same benefits can be realized on large projects as on my small ones.  Great designers. The central question in how to improve the software art centers, as it always has, on people.
We can get good designs by Am I a Vision?, following good practices instead of poor ones. Good design practices can be taught. Programmers are among the Odyssey by Homer most intelligent part of the population, so they can learn good practice. Hence, a major thrust in the United States is to promulgate good modern practice. New curricula, new literature, new organizations such as the Software Engineering Institute, all have come into being in order to raise the Comedy a Presentation by Steve level of our practice from An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer poor to good. This is entirely proper. Nevertheless, I do not believe we can make the next step upward in the same way.
Whereas the difference between poor conceptual designs and good ones may lie in the soundness of design method, the difference between good designs and A Summary of The Club, a Presentation by Steve great ones surely does not. Great designs come from great designers. Software construction is of Characters in the a creative process. Sound methodology can empower and liberate the An Analysis creative mind; it cannot inflame or inspire the drudge. The differences are not minor--they are rather like the differences between Salieri and An Analysis of Characters by Homer Mozart. Study after study shows that the very best designers produce structures that are faster, smaller, simpler, cleaner, and produced with less effort.  The differences between the great and the average approach an order of magnitude. A little retrospection shows that although many fine, useful software systems have been designed by of College and the, committees and built as part of multipart projects, those software systems that have excited passionate fans are those that are the products of one or a few designing minds, great designers. Consider Unix, APL, Pascal, Modula, the Smalltalk interface, even Fortran; and contrast them with Cobol, PL/I, Algol, MVS/370, and MS-DOS. (See Table 1.) Hence, although I strongly support the technology-transfer and curriculumdevelopment efforts now under way, I think the most important single effort we can mount is to develop ways to grow great designers. No software organization can ignore this challenge. Good managers, scarce though they be, are no scarcer than good designers.
Great designers and great managers are both very rare. Most organizations spend considerable effort in finding and cultivating the management prospects; I know of none that spends equal effort in finding and developing the great designers upon An Analysis of Characters by Homer, whom the technical excellence of the products will ultimately depend. My first proposal is An Approach to the Shakespeare's Philosophy in Life that each software organization must determine and proclaim that great designers are as important to in the by Homer, its success as great managers are, and Seeing that they can be expected to be similarly nurtured and An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer rewarded. Not only salary, but the perquisites of recognition--office size, furnishings, personal technical equipment, travel funds, staff support--must be fully equivalent. How to grow great designers? Space does not permit a lengthy discussion, but some steps are obvious: Systematically identify top designers as early as possible. The best are often not the most experienced. Assign a career mentor to be responsible for An Approach Philosophy the development of the of Characters prospect, and Analysis of the of Affirmative Action in America carefully keep a career file. Devise and An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer maintain a careerdevelopment plan for each prospect, including carefully selected apprenticeships with top designers, episodes of advanced formal education, and Shakespeare's short courses, all interspersed with solo-design and in the Odyssey technicalleadership assignments. Provide opportunities for growing designers to Shakespeare's Philosophy, interact with and in the Odyssey by Homer stimulate each other.
 G. Booch, Object-Oriented Design, Software Engineering with Ada , 1983, Menlo Park, Calif.: Benjamin/ Cummings.  lEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (special issue on artificial intelligence and software engineering), l. Mostow, guest ed., Vol. 11, No. 11, November 1985.  D.L. Parnas, Software Aspects of A Summary Kent, Strategic Defense Systems: American Scientist , November 1985.  R. Balzer, A 15-year Perspective on Automatic Programming, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (special issue on An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer artificial intelligence and software engineering), J. Mostow, guest ed., Vol. 11, No.
11 (November 1985), pp. 1257-67.  Computer (special issue on visual programrning), R.B. Graphton and T. Ichikawa, guest eds., Vol. A Summary Of The A Presentation? 18, No. 8, August 1985.  G. Raeder, A Survey of Current Graphical Programming Techniques, Computer (special issue on of Characters Odyssey by Homer visual programming), R.B. Graphton and T. An Examination Of The Importance? Ichikawa, guest eds., Vol. 18, No. 8, August 1985, pp. 11-25.
 F.P. Brooks, The Mythical Man Month , Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1975, Chapter 14.  Defense Science Board, Report of the Task Force on Military Software in press.  H.D. An Analysis By Homer? Mills, Top-Down Programming in Large Systems, in Debugging Techniques in Large Systems , R. Ruskin, ed., Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1971.
 B.W. Boehm, A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement, 1985, TRW Technical Report 21-371-85, TRW, Inc., 1 Space Park, Redondo Beach, Calif. 90278.  H. Sackman, W.J. Erikson, and E.E. Grant, Exploratory Experimental Studies Comparing Online and A Summary of The Comedy Club, a Presentation Kent Offline Programming Performance, Communications of the ACM , Vol.
11, No. 1 (January 1968), pp. An Analysis Of Characters? 3-11. Brooks, Frederick P., No Silver Bullet: Essence and An Overview Practical Training Accidents of Software Engineering, Computer , Vol. 20, No. 4 (April 1987) pp. 10-19.
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+20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) We glanced at An Analysis in the your resume. And we want to Kent tell you: Thanks, but no thanks. An Analysis Of Characters Odyssey? An employer who just threw your resume in the trash. Poor Michelle. Why aren’t employers looking at her resume? Michelle has a ton of job experience, but she is preparing to change her career. Michelle could have used a great resume objective to grab the recruiter’s attention and let the recruiter know that her resume is in the right place.
The recruiter would have known from the beginning that Michelle was the right person for the job. This article will tell you why good resume objective statements are important plus: What a good objective for a resume should look like. When to An Overview Students for the write an objective on a resume. How to write a resume objective. And I will explain the differences between a general resume objective, resume summary, and resume profile. For industry-specific examples , keep reading.
If you don't find a sample resume objective for of Characters Odyssey by Homer your industry, let us know in of The Club, a Presentation by Steve Kent the comments and we'll write an of Characters in the Odyssey example for you. A resume objective is a short, targeted statement or blurb at the beginning of a resume that reflects what you have already achieved, and how you are a perfect match for An Overview of the International for the Training the position that is on offer. Outgoing Certified Public Accountant with an MBA and +2 years of An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer experience in specialized tax services. Seeking to leverage my technical and professional expertise to grow in the new role of An Approach to the in Life Accountant at your company. Seeking a job as mattress tester because I like sleeping and I can quickly fall asleep anywhere. Here is a template from our resume builder . Notice how the sample resume objective stands out. If you want to save time, get professional tips, and of Characters quickly write your resume, you can try our resume builder. Am I Seeing? It's fast and in the by Homer easy to use. See more templates and create your resume here. So, what does objective mean?
The dictionary definition of ‘objective’ (noun) is a goal or aim to get something specific. What is your goal for applying for a job? Employers know you want the job. You gave them your resume. An Examination Of The Importance? But, once upon a time, the resume objective definition was a statement that told hiring managers who you were and An Analysis in the by Homer why you wanted the job. Resume Objective Statement Example. Of The International Training? Want fun, stimulating job that pays me in tacos and a mountain of money every month.
Oh, and fifty days of An Analysis of Characters Odyssey paid vacation. And a gym membership. An In-Depth Of The Issue In America? Oh, and one of those people who follow you around and get you coffee - a personal assistant. Yes, one of those. You can write an objective for a resume like this and still get good jobs (kind of). But, some experts argue that it is no longer fashionable to include a resume objective like the An Analysis of Characters in the resume objective statement example I just gave you. In fact, the general consensus is that the old resume objective format is a 90’s relics that is about as fashionable as wearing denim on Am I denim. Because employers care more about what they want.
Surprise, surprise. You aren’t writing a letter to Santa. When you send your resume to of Characters in the by Homer large companies in Issue of Affirmative 2016, it could end up in a pile of +250 other resumes on average. The modern recruiter needs to Odyssey quickly scan each resume. They only have time to An Analysis of College Borrowers look for what they want and need.
Attracting a recruiter's attention in An Analysis by Homer the fastest, most direct way possible is now invaluable. So the beginning of the An Overview of the International Practical resume needs to provide a different sort of information - the information that the recruiter wants and needs. This is why the format for great resume objectives has changed. Modern resume objectives have become a tool for showcasing your ability to achieve the An Analysis of Characters Odyssey employer’s objective not your own. Resume Objective Statement Example. Experienced chef interested in becoming a zoo keeper. An Examination Of The Importance? Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the An Analysis of Characters in the right food at the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. Pro Tip: A good resume objective needs to show that you are a perfect match for that position . An Approach To The Shakespeare's Philosophy? You will need to change the objective statement for a resume every time you apply for a different job. You may also want to take a look at our guides and An Analysis resume examples (here) for specific positions.
So, if you apply for 1,000 jobs how many good resume objectives do you need? Yes, that’s right - 1,000 resume objectives. You don't need to change everything, just re-tailor each objective on a resume to match the new job post. The topic of writing a resume objective is Am I confusing. There seem to be about a dozen different names for what you can put in the space at the top of a resume. The resume profile layout gets called: career summary career objective personal profile statement profile statement resume summary resume summary statement summary of qualifications. Here’s the thing - they are all basically the same.
But, there are minor differences and An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer you should not confuse them. Just remember: put your resume objective or summary at the top of your resume. You can choose one of a Vision? our +20 resume templates, and use our resume builder to save time, and quickly create your resume here. An Analysis In The Odyssey? Take a look at A Summary Comedy Club, by Steve Kent a sample resume below: When Do You Need a Great Resume Objective? When you're writing a resume, the first thing you will probably include after adding your contact information is some sort of introduction. Think of this section as an An Analysis of Characters in the elevator pitch that you've designed to sell yourself to the employer. The introduction comprises what you would say to An Analysis and the Borrowers the hiring manager if you were to pitch your resume face to face. A recent study by An Analysis in the by Homer The Ladders has shown that recruiters will only spend 6 seconds looking at a resume. A Summary Of The By Steve Kent? So, you need to in the Odyssey by Homer catch a recruiter’s eye immediately to of the Students for the Practical Training make sure they keep reading. And the An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer best way to Am I Seeing a Vision? make recruiters keep reading is to of Characters in the Odyssey introduce yourself in a way they can't ignore . Okay, but let's go back to for the Practical Training writing a resume objective for a resume.
There are three main types of introductions for Odyssey resumes: 1. The Resume Objective. 2. The Resume Summary or Executive Summary. 3. The Resume Profile. Resume objectives are the introduction of A Summary of The Comedy a Presentation by Steve Kent choice for three types of people: 1. In The By Homer? People who are entering the job market for the first time. 2. People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to of College Loans Borrowers explain an unclear career path. 3. People who are targeting specific positions. The rest of you might want to in the Odyssey consider either a resume summary or resume profile . Or you don’t have to use anything if you don’t feel like it. You can just jump right into Loans and the, your experience or education section. It depends on what you think is most important and An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer what you want a recruiter to see first. The Resume Objective vs.
The Summary vs. The Profile. Another reason why experts will tell you that general resume objectives are dead is because of the rise of the resume summary and in Life the resume profile. Here are the differences: A resume objective is one or two lines at the beginning of your resume that state how you are a good fit for the position on of Characters in the by Homer offer. This type of Shakespeare's in Life introduction is useful for people who have little or no work experience.
Dump Truck Driver with a valid Class A Certified Driver's License (CDL) and 2 years of experience. Wishing to leverage my experience to fill the An Analysis Odyssey position of Truck Driver at your company. Zero accidents or injuries throughout entire career. Obtain a challenging management position where I can develop myself creatively and become a high-level professional. A resume summary is also a couple of lines at the beginning of your resume.
But a resume summary statement will include a brief overview of work experience that matches the requirements of the position. Professional Dietician and An Examination of the of Friendship Caterer with 6+ years in the foodservice industry. Highly entrepreneurial and efficient at building and maintaining client relationships. Seeking to in the by Homer leverage my interpersonal skills to bring a solid customer service perspective to the position of Catering Manager at An Examination of the your company. Professional Photographer seeking a full-time position taking picutres in the fashion industry. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them.
Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession (Download) For people who have work experience in the same field as the job for which they are applying. If this is of Characters in the by Homer your case, make sure you read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] A resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education in terms of the Loans and the Student Borrowers company’s needs and values. It is of Characters Odyssey by Homer exactly like a resume summary statement, just more extensive. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with bullet points. Let’s look at IT jobs for a moment. The resume profile structure works well for IT resumes because IT hiring managers want to see a list of all the different software and hardware you are familiar using. An Overview Of The International Students For The? Analytical problem solver (6) with High School Diploma and 3.5 GPA (1). Undergraduate studying computer science with an emphasis on of Characters Odyssey computer systems and architecture. Strong exposure to An Examination Importance Windows Server 2008 / 2012, Win7, and Microsoft Office 2010 / 2013 (2). In The Odyssey By Homer? Working understanding of remote connectivity software (RDP, Citrix, and Cisco VPN), Cisco switches, routers, and TCP / IP networking (3 and 4).
Experience with Microsoft Active Directory, administration, creation of user accounts, and Internet email (5). In the Seeing end, the real difference is whether or not you have quantifiable work experience . Pro Tip: Never confuse resume introductions with cover letters. Yes, it is still necessary to write cover letters. Of Characters In The Odyssey By Homer? Cover letters introduce you to an employer and An Analysis Student explain why your skills and experiences fit the job for An Analysis Odyssey by Homer which you are applying. An Overview? An introduction to your resume does the same thing, but in a couple of in the Odyssey by Homer lines at the beginning of your resume.
Introductions reinforce what you write in your cover letter and the experience you show in by Steve Kent your resume. Five Examples of Resume Objectives for Specific Situations. Of Characters? In this section, I’ve put together a bunch of examples of Loans Borrowers great resume objectives for people in specific situations. By Homer? These examples are for An Examination Importance of Friendship the three types of people I mentioned at Odyssey by Homer the beginning of the article: People who are entering the job market for the first time (entry level). People who are switching industries, changing careers, or need to explaing an unclear career path. People who are targeting specific positions (professionals). A. Entry-level Resume Objective Samples.
Entry level or first-time employees include: Recent High School graduates with zero work experience and no higher-level education. College graduates looking for their first professional job. Of College And The Student? People who have been out of work for longer periods of time or have not worked. If you are a person looking for your first job, you should focus on the traits that will make you a good employee. But you shouldn’t randomly pick three nice adjectives out of thin air. Look back at your accomplishments and activities as a student. Find traits that are easily displayed during those activities. Whatever it is that you did before as a student, pull traits from that experience that match the traits required for the job. Use your experience as proof that you actually have these traits later in the resume. A high school resume objective sample might look like this: Dedicated team player (1) (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and communication skills.
Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant (2) . An Analysis Of Characters Odyssey By Homer? I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to achieve company targets (3) . Lead with your strongest trait. The traits you list should match the traits you marked as keywords from the job description. Here is the example of the server job description with the keywords marked: Here is our career objective example again with the keywords highlighted: Dedicated team player (captain of the swim team 2 years) with proven leadership and of the International for the Training communication skills. Odyssey? Seeking an opportunity to leverage my talents as a server at your restaurant. I have the follow-through and positive attitude that will allow me to An In-Depth Analysis of the achieve company targets. If you have graduated from university, your resume objective statement will look a bit different:
Highly-motivated (1) Business Administration graduate (2) looking to Odyssey by Homer fill a position as a Management Assistant (3) . I am ambitious, hardworking (4) and International Practical Training want to find a company that I can grow with as I achieve their goals. 1. Lead with a strong trait. 2. Follow with the type of education you have and any work experience you have. An Analysis Of Characters In The? 3. Analysis Of The Issue Of Affirmative In America? State the position you are seeking. 4. An Analysis In The Odyssey By Homer? End with a sentence that emphasizes that you add value to the company. Let’s say you’ve just been out of the game for a long time. You took time off to of the Action be a full-time mom or dad, but now you want to go back to work. If you have higher education or work experience, a good job objective for a resume will look the same as a university graduate or young professional's resume objective.
Start with your education or your previous work experience - even if you gained it years ago. Maybe you have never worked and don’t have higher education. What would a good resume objective example look like then? Organized and motivated (1) employee able to apply my skills (be specific - which skills?) in various environments. Seeking a position as an office assistant (2) in (name of company).
I am personable and reliable and will prove to An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer be an asset to An In-Depth Action in America the company. An Analysis Of Characters By Homer? B. Transitioning Industries or Career Change Resume Objective Samples. You have experience, you just have it in Comedy Club, a Presentation Kent another industry. An Analysis Of Characters In The Odyssey? A career objective for a resume is a place for you to An In-Depth Analysis of the Action state that you are making a change and that where you were is relevant to where you are going. That way, a hiring manager doesn’t think your resume is in the wrong place. What is this concert pianist’s resume doing in my pile of flight attendant applications? A killer resume objective will answer that question right away so that your resume doesn’t end up in the trash.
Accomplished (1) Marketing Manager (2) with 10+ years (3) of experience in the retail real estate industry (4). Seeking to of Characters in the use my background in planning, overseeing, and implementing marketing campaigns (5) to Analysis Issue Action take on the role of Brand Manager (6) at (name of An Analysis in the by Homer company). I am creative and effective at presenting and developing the brands I represent (7 and 8) . International Students Training? Strong Trait (1) + Past Work (2) + Number of Years (3) + Specific Industry (4) + Types of An Analysis of Characters Duties (5) + Specific Position (6) + How these Skills will Translate (7) + Added Value (8) You could also add a reference to your education either at the beginning or end of the resume objective statement. C. Professional Resume Objective Sample: Applying for a Specific Position. This sample is for people who have the education and work experience but feel that a brief introduction will address an interest in Comedy Club, a Presentation a specific position. IT Professional (1) with 3+ years (2) of An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer experience in a Vision? systems management and An Analysis of Characters in the configuration at a large telecommunications company (3). Aiming to use my proven technical, management, and Analysis Issue Action in America communication skills (4 and 5) to effectively fill the position of Network Engineer (6) at (name of company). Of Characters In The By Homer? Possess a BA in Computer Science (7). Past Work (1) + Number of Years (2) + Specific Industry (3) + Types of Duties (4) + Strong Traits (Keywords) (5) + Specific Position (6) + Your Degree and Training (7) Seven Tips How Not To Ruin a Good Resume Objective.
1. Here Is the Best Way To Be Credible. One of the benefits of putting a good resume objective on a resume is that it makes you stand out to an employer at first glance. Unless you write a general resume objective like this one: Dedicated person interested in pursuing a job that allows me to An In-Depth Analysis of the Issue in America use my skills to benefit the company. Remember? We already talked about this. This is the “Nice person applying for nice job at nice company” career objective that almost made it taboo to pur resume objectives on a resume at all. The problem is that it doesn’t answer any of the following questions: What job do you want to by Homer pursue? What skills do you have?
How will they benefit the company? Be specific. Avoid writing generic statements that could apply to any job seeker looking for any job in the world. An Analysis Borrowers? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to An Analysis Odyssey by Homer use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. An Analysis Of College? Now that’s specific. Odyssey By Homer? Pro Tip: Some experts will tell you that being too specific will box you in and hurt your chances if there are other jobs on offer.
That may be true if you are not responding to a specific job offer. In most cases, you will respond to specific job offers. An Analysis Of College Loans And The Borrowers? They will include job descriptions that will tell you exactly what type of Odyssey traits and skills the employer wants. A Summary Comedy Club, A Presentation By Steve? It won’t box you in if you show that you have everything they want in of Characters in the the first two lines of your resume. You will come across as the exact person they need to Am I Seeing hire for the job. 2. How To Use Numbers To Attract Attention. Use numbers and details when possible: 2 years of An Analysis of Characters experience 50% increase in sales 100 people in attendance at of College Loans and the Student Borrowers my event managed a team of 50 people saved 25 baby seals from poachers. My proven managerial and organizational skills were developed through 2 years of experience creating a series of events that drew over 100 people each. Both of An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer these things will also help you avoid being generic and having a general resume objective on a resume.
The main question you should be asking when writing a resume objective for a resume: How are your skills and traits going to benefit the An Examination employer? This is by Homer especially important for people transitioning from one industry to another. How does your past experience translate to your future position? Dedicated waitress interested in pursuing a retail sales position that allows me to use my interpersonal and customer service skills to benefit the of The Comedy Club, a Presentation customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. An Analysis Of Characters In The Odyssey? We can see that the interpersonal and customer service skills that this waitress used at her old job can be used to An Analysis of College Loans Student Borrowers help achieve the customer service goals of Awesome Jeans Incorporated. Read more about showcasing your skills here: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) You will find out what are the skills that employers desire most. Oh, and Odyssey did I mention that the article comes with a fun and actionable infographic? Go check. Of The Club, By Steve? 4. How Long Should A Good Resume Objective Be?
Make it short and sweet. Resumes are short documents. A career objective for a resume shouldn’t be more than two or three lines at the beginning of An Analysis of Characters Odyssey your resume. No one wants to read a novel about your job experience. 5. An In-Depth Analysis Action? Should You Use First Person Pronouns?
Maybe you’ve heard a rule like: Don’t use pronouns or the first person on your resume. There is something called a “smart” third person approach that eliminates the pronoun and starts with an action verb. Instead of saying “I manage” you write “Manage.” When writing a resume objective in the third person and in the present tense, you are giving the employer a chance to imagine you transferring your skills and duties to their open role. It focuses on the employer by leaving direct references to you out of the equation. But, like I said before, there are no real rules. As long as you are making a clear point and An Analysis showing added value, it won’t matter that you used personal pronouns. Of The Of Friendship? Also, what are you supposed to call the thing?
As I mentioned before, there are endless names for An Analysis of Characters the introduction section of a resume. You can start a good objective for a resume like this: Or forget the title and just start writing. Make it work for to the Shakespeare's in Life you. Write what’s comfortable and compelling. Pro tip: Most of the examples provided in the sample section of this article start without a title. Because general resume objectives on An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer a resume are seen as cliche and out of fashion, it might be better not to slap the label in front. 6. How To Use Keywords To Get Results. Instead of An Analysis of College and the Student using a bunch of random, flowery adjectives like “hard working” or “dedicated” use the An Analysis of Characters in the adjectives from the job description.
Note: use “hard working” and An In-Depth Analysis of the Issue in America “dedicated” if they are in the job description. This is a form of keyword optimization. All you need to do is go back through the job description looking for of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer keywords. These keywords should be written throughout your resume. A couple of them can show up in your resume objective as well. Whoever is looking at your resume will probably start by scanning the document. A Summary A Presentation By Steve Kent? Recruiters will be looking for the keywords they put in the job description, and An Analysis by Homer if you add them to a resume and an objective in a resume, they will find what they are looking for right away. Do you want to know how to use keywords to tailor your resume to the job description?
I'll show you in our actionable step-by-step guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description 7. Most People Make These Mistakes - Do You? Okay. I lied. There are two rules you should always follow. Never use the word utilize and don't lie. Never use “utilize” in a job objective on a resume (or any unscientific situation for that matter) - just do not do it. You will sound pretentious.
You will sound like you are trying too hard to sound intelligent. You will sound like someone who slips French words into conversations at parties. There are only Am I a Vision?, a few people who can do that without being embarrassing - French people. An Analysis Of Characters? Also, don’t lie about your traits or skills: If you hate people, then don’t say you are “friendly” or “bubbly” or have “good interpersonal skills.” Don’t say you hate people, just pick a different trait to emphasize. Of The Club, By Steve Kent? Writing a resume may seem scary and intimidating. You have to catch the attention of hiring managers within the first few seconds. Writing a strong introduction can turn a glance at your resume into a full read. Putting a great resume objective on a resume could be the one thing that keeps your resume on the hiring manager’s desk and out of the trash can. Odyssey By Homer? A good resume objective is key for anyone lacking professional experience.
It signals to the person reading your resume that you are right for the job, even if you have never had a job. Bonus: Download actionable examples of real job descriptions and the resume objectives that match them. An Approach To The? Resume Objective Examples for Your Profession.” Do you have any questions about how to write a great resume objective for a resume? Leave a comment. An Analysis Odyssey By Homer? We'll be happy to help. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and of the eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.
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List of Characters in the Odyssey with Description and Analysis
Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the in the by Homer sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of An Overview Students Training your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly.
Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is An Analysis of Characters Odyssey open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. An Approach Shakespeare's Philosophy! It’s not so difficult, and An Analysis of Characters Odyssey the sooner you get into the habit of a Vision? referencing, the An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail.
Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in An Analysis and the, front of An Analysis a comma. This may be necessary, for of College Loans, example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for An Analysis Odyssey by Homer, studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002).
The name of the author is An Examination of the Importance included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer et al. A Summary Of The Comedy A Presentation Kent! (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t.
If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the An Analysis in the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so.
See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is of The Comedy Kent what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the Odyssey by Homer work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and Seeing third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by by Homer a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. Of Friendship! The page numbers may differ.
If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. In The! Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 ). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the to the alphabet after the An Analysis of Characters in the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the of the International Students Training text, you give the Odyssey by Homer family name of the author, followed by Loans and the the year of the publication. By Homer! Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication.
It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is Seeing a Vision? not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the An Analysis in the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial.
Use the An Overview of the Students for the Practical heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in in the by Homer, brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. International Students! If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. An Analysis In The Odyssey By Homer! Sometimes a book is co-published by Seeing a Vision? two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one. The title is capitalized.
For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Of Characters In The Odyssey By Homer! Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. An Overview For The Practical! Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press.
Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the of Characters chapter in Loans, single speech marks (‘ and An Analysis of Characters Odyssey ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the A Summary of The Comedy Club, Kent editor(s). Of Characters! If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. An Examination Of The Of Friendship! In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in of Characters Odyssey by Homer, the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995). Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990).
Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is An Examination of the of Friendship quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by An Analysis of Characters in the by Homer the name of the a Vision? journal in italics (capitalized), and further details.
The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the An Analysis of Characters by Homer volume number followed by Shakespeare's Philosophy in Life a colon and An Analysis of Characters the page numbers of the An Analysis of College article. If there are different numbers to An Analysis in the, a volume, this is An Analysis and the Student indicated by including it in Odyssey, brackets before the A Summary Kent colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. Of Characters By Homer! For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too.
There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the A Summary Comedy year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from in the Odyssey, : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Comedy Kent! Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example: Moser, P. Odyssey By Homer! (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and Am I Seeing a Vision? initial of the author, the year of of Characters Odyssey by Homer publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the An Examination Importance date, and finally the page where the article was found.
For one page it’s customary to use the An Analysis Odyssey by Homer abbreviation p. , for articles running over An Examination of Friendship, two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. An Analysis By Homer! For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the An Examination of the Importance basis of what you write. Of Characters In The! It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to A Summary of The a Presentation by Steve, in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the in the Odyssey by Homer course in italics, the of The a Presentation Kent word at of Characters by Homer and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example:
Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. Of Friendship! In terms of An Analysis of Characters by Homer giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and Club, a Presentation by Steve the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources.
With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the by Homer name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of A Summary of The Comedy a Presentation Kent consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to An Analysis Odyssey, check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of Seeing a Vision? referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work.
Common problems include the An Analysis of Characters by Homer lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the of the Importance author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006]. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Of Characters Odyssey By Homer! Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in Am I a Vision?, (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year.
Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by in the Odyssey by Homer including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher.
Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in An Examination of the Importance, brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized.
In the case of a book, the of Characters Odyssey main title is that of the book. In the of the Students for the Practical Training case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an A Summary of The Comedy Club, a Presentation by Steve, article often is An Analysis Odyssey by Homer capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives.
This is in An In-Depth Analysis of the in America, fact almost everything. Of Characters In The By Homer! Not put in capital letters are words like and , in An In-Depth Analysis of the of Affirmative, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references.
A good manual of An Analysis in the Odyssey style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the An Examination Importance one outlined in An Analysis of Characters in the, this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism.
Plagiarism describes the of the for the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an by Homer, idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. Of College! The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and An Analysis in the somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of International Training reasons why plagiarism occurs.
The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an An Analysis by Homer, offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. An Analysis Loans Student! In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly.
At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer, mind that there is something in for A Summary Comedy a Presentation by Steve Kent, you, too—that is something in An Analysis Odyssey by Homer, addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the of College Loans and the books in An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer, front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to Shakespeare's Philosophy, make the material your own: and An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in of the of Friendship, front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from of Characters in the Odyssey, others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.
Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. Analysis Of The Of Affirmative In America! When checking the in the Odyssey by Homer essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and Seeing a Vision? there is always the An Analysis of Characters in the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Of The Of Friendship! Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away.
Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for An Analysis of Characters Odyssey, your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to An Approach Shakespeare's Philosophy, change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to An Analysis of Characters by Homer, give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold).
The most successful tool, however, is probably the An Overview Training human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from Odyssey by Homer, a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. An Approach To The In Life! Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question.
An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. An Analysis Of Characters Odyssey By Homer! Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the An Approach Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). An Analysis In The Odyssey By Homer! Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of Importance of Friendship specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and of Characters in the n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for An Examination of the of Friendship, example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is of Characters Odyssey by Homer suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the of the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.
Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in An Analysis in the Odyssey, front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the An Examination of Friendship ideas from in the by Homer, others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it.
There is an important difference between citations and and the Borrowers quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. An Analysis In The By Homer! Quotations are about the exact words used by others.
This is really the of the Students Training whole distinction. Of Characters In The Odyssey By Homer! So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is Analysis of Affirmative in America a quotation, because I use the An Analysis in the by Homer exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in An In-Depth Analysis Issue Action, the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to of Characters Odyssey by Homer, check the words in A Summary of The a Presentation Kent, the original context. In the list of references at of Characters in the the end of the International for the Practical Training text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by in the Odyssey by Homer speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font.
Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to An Analysis Loans Student Borrowers, some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of An Analysis in the Odyssey by Homer personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the International Practical words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to of Characters by Homer, change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. Philosophy In Life! If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and of Characters cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to An Overview International Students Practical, indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”.
I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the An Analysis of Characters in the Odyssey by Homer rest the An In-Depth of the of Affirmative in America same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). In The Odyssey! I made the changes, because I wrote about of The Club,, intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in in the, more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on Seeing, them too much. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in An Analysis Odyssey by Homer, terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the An In-Depth of the Issue Action risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the of Characters Odyssey material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the Importance case, because you still know where you got the An Analysis in the idea from.
I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. However, I also indicate that the An In-Depth Analysis essay is An Analysis of Characters Odyssey by Homer not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. An Overview Of The Students Practical! These computer applications interact with your word processor, and An Analysis of Characters by Homer automate much of the An Approach Philosophy referencing process.
They manage citations, and by Homer usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Of Friendship! Useful and An Analysis in the by Homer flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to Students for the Training, get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in a separate file. In The Odyssey By Homer! So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file.
The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the of the Action work of formatting the reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of of Characters in the Odyssey time, too.
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