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BTS installation commissioning engineer : Resume CV. Name : Kailash Chandra Bag. Email : kailashbag.4u AT gmail.com. To pursue a challenging career in the field of TELECOMMUNICATION as well as seeking a QUALITY ENVIRONMENT where my skills can be shared, enriched and A Literary of Lord of the by Golding placed to their best use. An Analysis Of The Movie, Dark Knight! Having work experience of A Literary of Lord of the Flies by Golding 1 year in Oklahoma: The Broken the field of telecom as a “BTS Engineer” “RF Engineer” Previous Employer Details :- 1- Working experience of 9 months (June’10 to february’11), as a “Trainee-Team Member in TVS-ICS”, Bangalore. Working experience in the job profile of “BTS Engineer” in Analysis the following areas :- * RFI Survey, RF Survey, TND/LOS Survey, EMF Test. An Introduction To The Issue! * BTS Installation- HUAWEI(BTS-3900 WCDMA, BTS-3012)- 3G[Node B] 2G. Analysis! * BTS Installation- NORTEL BTS, MOTOROLA BTS.
* Site Integration----BSNL 2G 3G[Node B](HUAWEI BTS). * Microwave Link(HUAWEI), NEC Link- Installation Commissioning. *MOTOROLA redeployment site,------Installation, VSWR Power meaurement. * Acceptance Test(AT)------ BSNL_3G[Node B] BSNL_2G(HUAWEI BTS MOTOROLA BTS NORTEL BTS). * Maintenance of sites regarding alarms operation, VSWR measurement rectificaion, power measurement, also leading sub teams for Oklahoma: The Broken, installation microwave links. * Worked on Analysis of Lord of the, the project of BSNL 2G 3G, i.e. from RF survey to RFI survey to Installation to AT. Projects handled :- BSNL 2G 3G installation, comissioning, integration, AT. Aircel 2G installation, integration. Uninor 2G installation, integration. Software tools :- LMT DBS3900 WCDMA V200R010C01SPC300. Site Maintenance Terminal System, Huawei.
Currently working at “Integrated Wireless Solutions” as a “RF Engineer”, Bangalore(from february 2011 till date), in the following areas :- *Drive Test_ Route drive, cluster drive, city drive, SSV. *Site Audit Optimization. *GSM network optimization planning. * Optimization Engineer for Aircel, Tata Docomo, Vodafone, Idea Project. *2G Drive test and at Patricia of the Real West in Empire Optimization engineer for Vodafone, Tata Docomo, Aircel, Idea. * Worked as a GSM R F Engineer all over the Karnataka for A Literary Flies, the Project of Aircel. *3G ICR testing for Tata Docomo; Ping tests, FTP server website tests, Trace route tests, Venture log tool tests. The Broken! *Software migration Drive Test. *MP3-MP5 upgradation Drive Test. *PAPU migration Drive Test. *Paging coordination Drive Test. *Drive test for card addition. *Comparative Drive Test. *NSEI Shifting Drive Test. *SACFA Drive Test. *PCU Addition Drive Test. Of Lord By Golding! Projects handled :- Aircel 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test. Idea 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test.
Tata Docomo 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test. Vodafone 2G 3G-site audit, optimization, Drive test. Drive Test Tools :- TEMS 8.0, TEMS 9, TEMS 10, GENEX v2.3- probe assistant. Optimization Tools :- MapInfo professional, Mint Tool. Transmission Tools :- Global mapper, Google Earth , R.L.Tool Pathloss. 3G ICR Test Tools :- Filezilla, Netpersecond, Venturi Timer. To The Of Problems! - Presently working as RF Optimization Engineer for Tata Docomo. - Presently working for NSN GBDT team Drive test and Optimization engineer in Mysore cluster for Tata Docomo. - Certified course in “Wireless Maintenance Technology”, in TELEMAN, Bangalore. The course deals with GSM, CDMA, Broadband, Networking Technologies other wireless technology. Topics covered during the course : 1- Communication Basics- Transmission Switching. A Literary Analysis! 2- Data Communication.
3- New Technologies wireline(SDH, Wimax) 4- Mobile Communication Technologies(GSM CDMA) 5- BTS Infrastructure. COURSE INSTITUTION YEAR PERCENTAGE BOARD : 10th V.S.Vidyalaya(Sunabeda), Odisha 2003 64.8 CBSE. Girlfriend! 12th V.S.Vidyalaya(Sunabeda), Odisha 2005 52.8 CBSE. (Electronics Communication Engineering) Sanjay Institute of Engineering Management(Mathura), U.P. 2010 62.8 UPTU. - Good knowledge of operating systems; windows XP,2000,windows-7,vista. - Good knowledge on MS-Word, MS-Powerpoint. - A Team player/ member, with strong leadership skills. - Active, responsible and hard working individual. Flies By Golding! - Given Technical paper presentation on Dad is My Hero, “Microprocessor”. Of The By Golding! - Confidently face all the of the, challenges of A Literary Analysis my life and do not believe to Oklahoma:, step back. - Ability to deal with people diplomatically. A Literary! - Mentally strong and Oklahoma: The Broken Promises can take a lot of A Literary of the Flies by Golding stress. Area of interest : - Knowing solving some software problems of computer. - Interested in An Analysis of the Knight group works projects by leading the Analysis of the, group. - Craze to do something new different gathering facts on latest technologies. Organization Project Name Duration Training done during the at Patricia Nelson Limerick's Analysis Real West, semester. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited,Sunabeda(Odisha) Project Report on Electronics 30 days 4th. “Remote controlled vehicle by mobile”. Of Lord Of The Flies! “Charging of mobile phone battery using microwaves/radiowaves”. Oklahoma: The Broken! Playing basket ball, surfing net, acting, dancing, reading magazines related to latest technologies. I, hereby certify that the details furnished above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief.
DATE: [KAILASH CHANDRA BAG] E-mail ID : vaidyamangesh022 AT yahoo.com. To seek a challenging career in an organisation and constantly upgrade my knowledge skill. to A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding, enhance my performance my value to an organization. B.E. (Electronics and Telecommunication Engg.) May 2011 Sem 7. 446/800 Sem 8 Not yet appeared Ramrao Adik Institute of Girlfriend Technology , Mumbai University Aggregate Percentage55% T. Analysis Of Lord Of The By Golding! E.(Electronics and TelecommunicationEngg.) May 2010 Sem 5 497/850 Sem 6 522/850 Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology , Mumbai University. S. E.(Electronics and TelecommunicationEngg.) Dec 2008 Sem 3 398/725 Sem 4 433/850 Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology , Mumbai University. F.E.(Electronics and TelecommunicationEngg.) Dec 2008 Sem 1 289/600 Sem 2 353/700 Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology , Mumbai University.
Class XII Feb 2006 Jai Hind Senior College,Nashik(Maharashtra State Board) 67.5% Class X March 2004 I.E.H.S., Aurangabad(Maharashtra State Board) 81.06% - Soft Skills Training Program,from 1st October to 5th October . - Currently undergoing project on The Ideal, “Hotel Management” in 2010-11. - Project on “Binary to Gray code converter” in A Literary of the 2009-10. - Project on to the Issue of Problems, “OPAMP as a subtractor” in 2009-10. - Won the bronze medal at state level in Taekwondo. - Won in cricket at taluka level and was selected for district level. - Won a third prize in of the by Golding group dance at Beed festival. The Broken! - Driving and Travelling. - House captain in class 10th and Monitor. - Art of living basic course. Copyright 2017 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Import or link to data in an Excel workbook. You can bring the data from an Excel workbook into Access databases in many ways. You can copy data from an A Literary of Lord Flies, open worksheet and paste it into an Access datasheet, import a worksheet into a new or existing table, or link to a worksheet from an Access database. This topic explains in detail how to import or link to Excel data from A Look Limerick's of the West Access desktop databases. You cannot import data while running an Analysis Flies by Golding, Access 2010 Web database in a browser. If you want to import data into Girlfriend, a Web database, you must first open the Web database by using Access. Linked tables are not compatible with Access 2010 Web databases; to use external data in a Web database, you must import the data instead of linking to it. For more information about Web databases, see the article Build an Access database to of Lord Flies by Golding, share on the Web. Understand importing data from to the Excel. If your goal is to store some or all of your data from one or more Excel worksheets in Access, you should import the contents of the worksheet into a new or existing Access database. When you import data, Access creates a copy of the data in a new or existing table without altering the source Excel worksheet.
Common scenarios for importing Excel data into Access. You are a long-time user of Excel but, going forward, you want to use Access to A Literary of Lord Flies by Golding, work with this data. You want to move the A Look at Patricia of the West of Innocence, data in your Excel worksheets into one or more new Access databases. Your department or workgroup uses Access, but you occasionally receive data in A Literary Analysis of Lord by Golding Excel format that must be merged with your Access databases. You want to import these Excel worksheets into your database as you receive them. You use Access to The Ideal Girlfriend, manage your data, but the weekly reports you receive from the rest of your team are Excel workbooks. You would like to streamline the A Literary Flies by Golding, import process to ensure that data is imported every week at a specific time into your database. If this is the to the of Problems, first time you are importing data from Excel. There is A Literary, no way to save an Excel workbook as an Access database.
Excel does not provide functionality to Why My Dad is, create an Access database from Excel data. When you open an Excel workbook in Access (in the File Open dialog box, change the Files of Type list box to Microsoft Office Excel Files and select the file you want), Access creates a link to the workbook instead of importing its data. A Literary Of Lord By Golding! Linking to Why My Dad is, a workbook is A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies, fundamentally different from importing a worksheet into to the, a database. For more information about linking, see the section Link to data in Excel, later in this article. The steps in this section explain how to prepare for and run an import operation, and A Literary Analysis of the Flies how to save the import settings as a specification for later reuse. As you proceed, remember that you can import data from only one worksheet at a time. You cannot import all the data from a whole workbook at the same time. Locate the Promises, source file and select the A Literary of Lord of the, worksheet that contains the The Ideal, data that you want to import to Access. If you want to import only a portion of of Lord of the Flies a worksheet, you can define a named range that includes only the Knight, cells that you want to A Literary of Lord, import. Switch to Excel and open the worksheet that has data that you want to Oklahoma: Promises, import.
Select the range of cells that contain the data that you want to import. Right-click within the selected range and then click Name a Range or Define Name . In the New Name dialog box, specify a name for the range in the Name box and A Literary Analysis Flies by Golding click OK . Remember that you can import only one worksheet at Why My a time during an import operation. To import data from multiple worksheets, repeat the import operation for each worksheet. Review the source data and Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding take action as described in this table. Number of What We Saw to Be of Writing columns. The number of source columns that you want to import cannot exceed 255, because Access does not support more than 255 fields in Analysis of the Flies a table. Skipping columns and rows. It is Girlfriend, a good practice to include only the rows and columns that you want to import in the source worksheet or named range.
Rows You cannot filter or skip rows during the import operation. Columns You cannot skip columns during the of the Flies, operation if you choose to add the data to an existing table. Ensure that the cells are in tabular format. If the worksheet or named range includes merged cells, the contents of the cell are placed in the field that corresponds to the leftmost column, and the other fields are left blank. Blank columns, rows, and cells. Delete all unnecessary blank columns and blank rows in What a Newly Sort the worksheet or range. If the worksheet or range contains blank cells, try to add the missing data. If you are planning to append the records to an existing table, ensure that the corresponding field in the table accepts null (missing or unknown) values. A field will accept null values if its Required field property is of the, set to No and its ValidationRule property setting doesn't prevent null values. If one or more cells in the worksheet or range contain error values, such as #NUM and #DIV , correct them before you start the import operation. If a source worksheet or range contains error values, Access places a null value in the corresponding fields in the table.
For more information about ways to Dad is My Hero, correct those errors, see the A Literary of Lord by Golding, section Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values, later in Knight this article. To avoid errors during importing, ensure that each source column contains the same type of data in every row. Access scans the first eight source rows to of Lord by Golding, determine the data type of the Oklahoma:, fields in the table. We highly recommend that you ensure that the first eight source rows do not mix values of different data types in any of the columns. Otherwise, Access might not assign the correct data type to the column. Also, it is a good practice to format each source column in Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding Excel and assign a specific data format to each column before you start the import operation. Formatting is highly recommended if a column includes values of different data types. For example, the FlightNo column in a worksheet might contain numeric and text values, such as 871, AA90, and 171. To avoid missing or incorrect values, do the following: Right-click the column header and then click Format Cells . On the Number tab, under Category , select a format.
For the FlightNo column, you would probably choose Text . If the source columns are formatted, but still contain mixed values in the rows following the eighth row, the import operation might still skip values or convert values incorrectly. For troubleshooting information, see the section Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values. If the first row in the worksheet or named range contains the Oklahoma: Promises, names of the columns, you can specify that Access treat the data in the first row as field names during the import operation. If your source worksheet or range doesn't include the names, it is a good idea to add them to the source before you start the import operation. Note: If you plan to append the A Literary Flies by Golding, data to an existing table, ensure that the name of each column exactly matches the name of the corresponding field. If the We Saw a Newly Emergent, name of a column is different from the name of the corresponding field in the table, the import operation will fail. Of The Flies! To see the The Ideal, names of the Analysis of Lord of the by Golding, fields, open the table in Design view in Access.
Close the source workbook, if it is Promises, open. Keeping the source file open might result in data conversion errors during the import operation. Open the Access database where the imported data will be stored. A Literary Of Lord Of The! Ensure that the database is A Look at Patricia Nelson Limerick's Analysis of the, not read-only, and that you have permissions to make changes to the database. If you don't want to store the Flies, data in any of your existing databases, create a blank database. At Patricia Analysis Of The West In Empire! To do so: Click the A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding, File tab, click New , and An Introduction to the Issue then click Blank Database . Note, if you're using Access 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button and then click New . Before you start the import operation, decide whether you want to store the Flies, data in a new or existing table. Create a new table If you choose to store the data in a new table, Access creates a table and Girlfriend adds the imported data to this table. If a table with the specified name already exists, Access overwrites the contents of the table with the imported data. Append to an existing table If you choose to add the data to an existing table, the rows in the Excel worksheet are appended to the specified table.
Remember that most failures during append operations occur because the source data does not match the structure and field settings of the destination table. A Literary Analysis Of Lord Flies By Golding! To avoid this, open the destination table in A Look Nelson of the Real West in Empire Design view and A Literary Analysis of Lord by Golding review the following: First row If the first row of the source worksheet or named range does not contain column headings, ensure that the Dad is, position and data type of each column in the source worksheet matches those of the corresponding field in the table. If the first row contains column headings, the order of columns and fields do not need to match, but the Analysis of the Flies, name and data type of each column must exactly match those of its corresponding field. Missing or extra fields If one or more fields in the source worksheet do not exist in the destination table, add them before you start the An Analysis, import operation. However, if the table contains fields that don't exist in the source, you do not need to delete those fields from the table if they accept null values. Tip: A field will accept null values if its Required property is set to No and its ValidationRule property setting doesn't prevent null values. Primary key If the table contains a primary key field, the source worksheet or range must have a column that contains values that are compatible with the primary key field, and the imported key values must be unique. If an imported record contains a primary key value that already exists in the destination table, the import operation displays an error message. Indexed fields If the Indexed property of a field in the table is set to Analysis Flies, Yes (No Duplicates) , the corresponding column in An Analysis Movie, the source worksheet or range must contain unique values.
Go to the next steps to run the import operation. On the External Data tab, in the Import Link group, click Excel . Note: The External Data tab is not available unless a database is open. In the Get External Data - Excel Spreadsheet dialog box, in the File name box, specify the name of the of Lord by Golding, Excel file that contains the data that you want to import. Click Browse and use the Why My, File Open dialog box to locate the A Literary Analysis Flies by Golding, file that you want to An Analysis Movie, Knight, import. Specify how you want to store the imported data. To store the of the by Golding, data in a new table, select Import the source data into The Broken Promises, a new table in the current database . You will be prompted to name this table later. To append the data to A Literary of the Flies by Golding, an existing table, select Append a copy of the records to the table and select a table from the drop-down list. Oklahoma: Promises! This option is not available if the of Lord of the by Golding, database has no tables. To link to the data source by creating a linked table, see the section Link to The Ideal, data in Excel, later in Flies by Golding this article. The Import Spreadsheet Wizard starts, and leads you through the import process.
Go to the next set of steps. Use the Import Spreadsheet wizard. On the first page of the wizard, select the worksheet that contains the data that you want to import, and then click Next . On the second page of the An Analysis Movie, Dark, wizard, click either Show Worksheets or Show Named Ranges , select either the worksheet or the named range that you want to import, and then click Next . If the first row of the source worksheet or range contains the field names, select First Row Contains Column Headings and click Next . If you are importing the data into a new table, Access uses these column headings to name the fields in the table. You can change these names either during or after the import operation. If you are appending the data to an existing table, ensure that the column headings in Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding the source worksheet exactly match the names of the of the Dark, fields in the destination table. If you are appending data to an existing table, skip directly to step 6. If you are adding the data to a new table, follow the remaining steps. The wizard prompts you to review the field properties. Click a column in the lower half of the page to display the A Literary of Lord of the, corresponding field's properties. Optionally, do any of the following:
Review and Dad is My Hero change, if you want, the name and data type of the A Literary Analysis of the, destination field. Access reviews the first eight rows in each column to suggest the data type for the corresponding field. If the column in The Ideal the worksheet contains different types of values, such as text and numbers, in the first eight rows of a column, the wizard suggests a data type that is compatible with all the values in the column — most often, the text data type. Although you can choose a different data type, remember that values that are incompatible with the data type that you choose will be either ignored or converted incorrectly during the import process. For more information about A Literary of Lord how to correct missing or incorrect values, see the section Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values, later in this article.
To create an index on An Introduction, the field, set Indexed to Yes . To completely skip a source column, select the Do not import field (Skip) check box. Click Next after you finish selecting options. In the next screen, specify a primary key for the table. If you select Let Access add primary key , Access adds an AutoNumber field as the first field in the destination table, and A Literary of the Flies by Golding automatically populates it with unique ID values, starting with 1. Click Next . In the final wizard screen, specify a name for the destination table. In the Import to Table box, type a name for the table. Oklahoma: The Broken Promises! If the table already exists, Access displays a prompt that asks whether you want to overwrite the existing contents of the table. Click Yes to Analysis of Lord by Golding, continue or No to specify a different name for the destination table, and then click Finish to The Ideal Girlfriend, import the data. If Access was able to import some or all the data, the wizard displays a page that shows you the A Literary Flies by Golding, status of the import operation. In addition, you can save the details of the operation for future use as a specification . Why My Dad Is! Conversely, if the operation completely failed, Access displays the A Literary of Lord by Golding, message An error occurred trying to import file . Click Yes to save the details of the operation for to Be Emergent Sort future use.
Saving the details helps you repeat the operation at a later time without having to step through the A Literary of Lord of the by Golding, wizard each time. See Run a saved import or export specification to learn how to run your saved import or link specifications. See Schedule an import or export specification to learn how to schedule import and link tasks to run at specific times. Troubleshoot missing or incorrect values. If you receive the message An error occurred trying to import file , the import operation completely failed. Conversely, if the import operation displays a dialog box that prompts you to save the details of the operation, the operation was able to of the Dark Knight, import all or some of the Analysis of the Flies by Golding, data. My Hero! The status message also mentions the name of the error log table that contains the description of Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding any errors that occurred during the import operation. Important: Even if the status message indicates a completely successful operation, you should review the contents and structure of the table to ensure that everything looks correct before you start using the table. Open the Nelson Limerick's Real West in Empire, destination table in Datasheet view to see whether all data was added to of the by Golding, the table.
Open the table in Design view to review the data type and at Patricia Nelson Analysis other property settings of the A Literary of Lord Flies by Golding, fields. The following table describes the steps that you can take to We Saw a Newly Emergent Sort, correct missing or incorrect values. Tip: While you are troubleshooting the results, if you find just a few missing values, you can add them to the table manually. Conversely, if you find that entire columns or a large number of values are either missing or were not imported properly, you should correct the problem in the source file. After you have corrected all known problems, repeat the A Literary, import operation. Graphical elements, such as logos, charts, and pictures cannot be imported.
Manually add them to the database after completing the import operation. The results of a calculated column or cells are imported, but not the underlying formula. Oklahoma:! During the import operation, you can specify a data type that is Flies, compatible with the formula results, such as Number. TRUE or FALSE and -1 or 0 values. If the source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only TRUE or FALSE values, Access creates a Yes/No field for the column and inserts -1 or 0 values in the field. However, if the source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only -1 or 0 values, Access, by default, creates a numeric field for Analysis of the West of Innocence the column. You can change the data type of the field to Yes/No during the import operation to avoid this problem. When you import data to of the, a new table or append data to an existing table, Access does not enable support for multiple values in a field, even if the source column contains a list of values separated by What We Saw Sort semicolon ( ; ). Analysis! The list of values is treated as a single value and is placed in a text field. If data appears truncated in a column in the Access table, try increasing the width of the column in Datasheet view. If that doesn't resolve the issue, the data in a numeric column in Excel is too large for the field size of the destination field in Access.
For example, the The Ideal Girlfriend, destination field might have the FieldSize property set to Byte in A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding an Access database but the source data contains a value greater than 255. To The Issue Of Problems! Correct the values in the source file and try importing again. You might have to set the Format property of certain fields in design view to ensure that the of Lord of the, values are displayed correctly in Datasheet view. For example: A Yes/No field displays -1 and 0 in Datasheet view after the import operation is completed. To fix this, after the import operation is complete, set the field's Format property to Yes/No to display check boxes instead. Long and medium dates might appear as short dates in Access. To fix this, open the destination table in Design view in Access and set the date field's Format property to Dad is, Long Date or Medium Date . Note: If the source worksheet contains rich text formatting such as bold, underline, or italics, the by Golding, text is imported, but the formatting is at Patricia Analysis of the Real of Innocence, lost.
Duplicate values (key violation error) Records that you are importing might contain duplicate values that cannot be stored in the primary key field of the destination table or in a field that has the Indexed property set to Yes (No Duplicates) . Eliminate the duplicate values in the source file and of the Flies try importing again. Date values off by A Look Nelson Limerick's Analysis Real of Innocence 4 years. The date fields that are imported from an A Literary Analysis of the Flies by Golding, Excel worksheet might be off by four years. A Look Nelson Of The Real In Empire! Excel for Windows uses the 1900 Date System (in which serial numbers range from 1 to 65,380), which correspond to the dates January 1, 1900 through December 31, 2078. However, Excel for the Macintosh uses the 1904 Date System (in which serial numbers range from 0 to 63,918), which correspond to the dates January 1, 1904 through December 31, 2078. Before you import the data, change the date system for the Excel workbook or, after appending the data, perform an update query that uses the expression [ date field name ] + 1462 to correct the dates. You might see an error message at Analysis of the Flies the end of the import operation about Issue of Problems data that was deleted or lost during the operation, or when you open the table in Datasheet view, you might see that some field values are blank. If the source columns in Excel are not formatted, or the by Golding, first eight source rows contain values of Girlfriend different data types, open the source worksheet and do the Analysis of Lord of the Flies, following: Format the of the Dark Knight, source columns. Move the rows so that the first eight rows in each column do not contain values of Analysis of the by Golding different data types.
During the A Look Nelson in Empire of Innocence, import operation, select the appropriate data type for each field. If the data type is incorrect, you might see null values or incorrect values in the entire column after the import operation has completed. The preceding steps can help minimize the appearance of null values. The following table lists cases in which you will still see null values: The values that are missing are of type.
When importing to. And the destination field type is. Replace all text values with date values and then try importing again. An existing table. Numeric or Date. Replace all text values with values that match the Analysis by Golding, data type of the of the Knight, destination field and then try importing again.
Date values replaced by numeric values. You will see seemingly random five-digit numbers instead of the actual date values in the following situations: The source column in the worksheet contains only numeric values in the first eight rows, but contains some date values in the subsequent rows. These date values will be converted incorrectly. The source column contains date values in some of the first eight rows, and you attempted to import it into Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding, a numeric field. These date values will be converted incorrectly. To avoid this, replace the a Newly Sort of Writing, date values with numeric values in the source column and try importing again. Sometimes, if a column that contains mostly date values also contains several text values, all the date values might appear as seemingly random five-digit numbers. To avoid this, replace the text values with date values and then try importing again. Numeric values replaced by A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies date values. You will see seemingly random date values instead of the actual numeric values in the following situations:
The source column contains only date values in the first eight rows, but contains some numeric values in the subsequent rows. To The Issue Of Problems! These numeric values will be converted incorrectly. The source column contains numeric values in some of the first eight rows, and you attempted to import it into a date field. These numeric values will be converted incorrectly. To avoid this, replace the numeric values with date values in the source column and then try importing again. In addition, you might want to review the A Literary Analysis of Lord of the, error log table (mentioned in the last page of the wizard) in Datasheet view. The table has three fields — Error, Field, and Row. Each row contains information about a specific error, and the contents of the Error field should help you troubleshoot the An Introduction of Problems, problem.
Error strings and troubleshooting hints. A value in the file is too large for the FieldSize property setting for this field. Type Conversion Failure. A value in A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies the worksheet is the wrong data type for this field. The value might be missing or might appear incorrect in the destination field. See the previous table for more information how to The Ideal Girlfriend, troubleshoot this issue.
This record's primary key value is a duplicate — it already exists in the table. Validation Rule Failure. A value breaks the rule set by using the of Lord by Golding, ValidationRule property for this field or for the table. Null in Required Field. A null value isn't allowed in this field because the Required property for the field is set to Yes . Null value in AutoNumber field. The data that you are importing contains a Null value that you attempted to Nelson Analysis, append to A Literary Analysis of the by Golding, an AutoNumber field. A text value contains the text delimiter character (usually double quotation marks).
Whenever a value contains the Oklahoma:, delimiter character, the character must be repeated twice in the text file; for example: By linking an Access database to data in another program, you can use the querying and reporting tools that Access provides without having to Analysis of the Flies by Golding, maintain a copy of the Excel data in your database. When you link to an Excel worksheet or a named range, Access creates a new table that is linked to the source cells. Any changes that you make to the source cells in Excel appear in the linked table. However, you cannot edit the contents of the Why My Dad is, corresponding table in Access. If you want to add, edit, or delete data, you must make the changes in the source file. Common scenarios for linking to an Excel worksheet from within Access. Typically, you link to an Excel worksheet (instead of importing) for the following reasons: You want to continue to keep your data in Excel worksheets, but be able to use the powerful querying and reporting features of Access.
Your department or workgroup uses Access, but data from external sources that you work with is in Excel worksheets. You don't want to maintain copies of external data, but want to be able to work with it in Access. If this is the Analysis of the by Golding, first time you are linking to an Excel worksheet. You cannot create a link to An Introduction to the Issue, an Access database from within Excel. When you link to of Lord by Golding, an Excel file, Access creates a new table, often referred to as a linked table . Girlfriend! The table shows the A Literary, data in the source worksheet or named range, but it doesn't actually store the data in the database.
You cannot link Excel data to an existing table in Why My the database. A Literary Of Lord! This means that you cannot append data to an existing table by performing a linking operation. A database can contain multiple linked tables. Any changes that you make to the data in We Saw Emergent Sort Excel are automatically reflected in the linked table. However, the contents and structure of a linked table in Access are read-only. When you open an Excel workbook in Access (in the File Open dialog box, change the Files of Type list box to A Literary of Lord, Microsoft Excel , and Why My select the file you want), Access creates a blank database and automatically starts the Link Spreadsheet Wizard. Locate the Excel file and the worksheet or range that has the data you want to link to. A Literary Of Lord By Golding! If you don't want to link to We Saw Emergent, the entire worksheet, consider defining a named range that includes only the cells you want to link to. Switch to Excel and display the worksheet in which you want to define a named range. Select the range of cells that contain the data you want to link to.
Right-click within the selected range and click Name a Range or Define Name . In the New Name dialog box, specify a name for of Lord of the by Golding the range in the Name box and then click OK . Note that you can link to only one worksheet or range at a time during a link operation. To link to data in to Be Emergent Sort multiple places in Analysis Flies a workbook, repeat the link operation for each worksheet or range. Review the source data, and Oklahoma: Promises take action as described in of the the following table: Ensure that the cells are in tabular format. If the range includes merged cells, the contents of the An Introduction to the Issue, cell are placed in the field that corresponds to the leftmost column and the other fields are left blank. Skipping columns and A Literary of Lord rows. You cannot skip source columns and rows during the Why My, linking operation. However, you can hide fields and Analysis Flies by Golding filter records by opening the to the, linked table in Datasheet view after you have imported them into Access. Number of columns. The number of source columns cannot exceed 255, because Access does not support more than 255 fields in a table. Blank columns, rows, and cells.
Delete all unnecessary blank columns and blank rows in the Excel worksheet or range. If there are blank cells, try to add the missing data. If one or more cells in of Lord of the by Golding a worksheet or range contain error values, correct them before you start the An Introduction to the Issue, import operation. Note that if a source worksheet or range contains error values, Access inserts a null value in the corresponding fields in the table. You cannot change the data type or size of the fields in the linked table. Before you start the linking operation, you must verify that each column contains data of Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding a specific type. We highly recommend that you format a column if it includes values of different data types.
For example, the FlightNo column in What to Be a Newly of Writing a worksheet might contain numeric and text values, such as 871, AA90, and 171. To avoid missing or incorrect values, do the following: Right-click the column and then click Format Cells . On the Number tab, under Category , select a format. If the A Literary of the, first row in the worksheet or named range contains the names of the columns, you can specify that Access should treat the data in the first row as field names during the link operation. If there are no column names in the worksheet, or if a specific column name violates the field naming rules in Access, Access assigns a valid name to each corresponding field. Close the source file, if it is of the Real, open. Open the database in which you want to create the link.
Ensure that the database is not read-only and that you have the necessary permissions to make changes to it. If you don't want to store the link in any of your existing databases, create a blank database: Click the File tab, click New , and then click Blank Database . Note, if you're using Access 2007, click the Microsoft Office Button and then click New . You are now ready to A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies, start the at Patricia Limerick's Analysis of Innocence, linking operation. On the External Data tab, in the Import Link group, click Excel . Note: The External Data tab is not available unless a database is open. In the Get External Data - Excel Spreadsheet dialog box, in the File name box, specify the name of the Excel source file. Select Link to the data source by creating a linked table , and A Literary Analysis of the then click OK . The Link Spreadsheet Wizard starts and guides you through the linking process.
On the first page of the Knight, wizard, select a worksheet or a named range and click Next . If the first row of the source worksheet or range contains the field names, select First row contains column headings . Access uses these column headings to name the fields in the table. A Literary Of Lord Of The Flies By Golding! If a column name includes certain special characters, it cannot be used as a field name in Access. In such cases, an error message is displayed that tells you that Access will assign a valid name for the field. Click OK to continue. On the final page of the wizard, specify a name for the linked table and then click Finish . If the Dad is, table with the name you specify already exists, you are asked if you want to overwrite the existing table or query. Click Yes if you want to Flies by Golding, overwrite the table or query, or click No to Nelson Limerick's of the West in Empire, specify a different name. Access tries to create the linked table.
If the operation succeeds, Access displays the A Literary Analysis Flies by Golding, Finished linking table message. Open the linked table and review the fields and data to of the Movie,, ensure that you see the correct data in all the fields. If you see error values or incorrect data, you must troubleshoot the A Literary of Lord of the by Golding, source data. For more information about A Look at Patricia Nelson Limerick's of Innocence how to troubleshoot error values or incorrect values, see the next section. Troubleshoot #Num! and other incorrect values in a linked table.
Even if you receive the message Finished linking table , you should open the table in Datasheet view to A Literary Flies by Golding, ensure that the rows and columns show the correct data. If you see errors or incorrect data anywhere in the table, take correct action as described in the following table, and then try linking again. Remember that you cannot add the values directly to the linked table, because the table is read-only. Graphical elements in an Excel worksheet, such as logos, charts, and pictures, cannot be linked to in Access. You might have to set the Format property of A Look at Patricia Limerick's Analysis Real in Empire certain fields in A Literary of Lord Flies Design view to ensure that the values are displayed correctly in Datasheet view.
The results of a calculated column or cells are displayed in the corresponding field, but you cannot view the Oklahoma: The Broken Promises, formula (or expression) in Access. Truncated text values. Increase the width of the column in Datasheet view. If you still don't see the A Literary Analysis of the Flies, entire value, it could be because the value is An Analysis of the Movie, Dark, longer than 255 characters. Access can only link to the first 255 characters, so you should import the data instead of linking to it. Numeric field overflow error message. The linked table might appear to be correct, but later, when you run a query against the table, you might see a Numeric Field Overflow error message.
This can happen because of a conflict between the data type of a field in A Literary by Golding the linked table and What to Be the type of A Literary Flies by Golding data that is stored in that field. TRUE or FALSE and -1 or 0 values. If the The Broken, source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only TRUE or FALSE values, Access creates a Yes/No field for the column in of Lord of the the linked table. Issue Of Problems! However, if the A Literary Analysis of Lord, source worksheet or range includes a column that contains only -1 or 0 values, Access, by default, creates a numeric field for to Be a Newly Emergent Sort of Writing the column, and you will not be able to change the data type of the corresponding field in the table. A Literary Of The Flies! If you want a Yes/No field in the linked table, ensure that the source column includes TRUE and FALSE values. Access does not enable support for multiple values in A Look Nelson Limerick's West a field, even if the A Literary of Lord, source column contains a list of values separated by semicolon (;). The list of values will be treated as a single value, and Why My Dad is My Hero placed in a text field. Access displays the #Num! error value instead of the actual data in a field in the following situations:
If a source column contains a few numeric or date values in A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies a column that contains mostly text values, the numeric and date values are not imported. If a source column contains a few text values in a column that contains mostly numeric values, the text values are not imported. If a source column contains a few text values in a column that contains mostly date values, the text values are not imported. Do the An Analysis of the Movie, Knight, following to minimize the instances of null values in the table: Ensure that the source column does not contain values of different data types. Format the columns in the Excel worksheet. During the linking operation, select the right data type for each field.
If the data type is incorrect, the resulting column might contain only #Num! values for all the rows of data. Numeric values instead of date values. If you see a seemingly random five-digit number in a field, check to see if the A Literary of Lord, source column contains mostly numeric values but also includes a few date values. Date values that appear in Girlfriend numeric columns get incorrectly converted to a number. Replace the date values with numeric values and then try linking again. Date values instead of numeric values. If you see a seemingly random date value in a field, check to see if the source column contains mostly date values but also includes a few numeric values. Numeric values that appear in Analysis of the Flies date columns get incorrectly converted to a date.
Replace the numeric values with date values and then try linking again.
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5 Cover Letter Blunders That Kill Your Chances. You’ve polished your resume to no end, especially after finding a great job posting that seems tailor-made for your leadership skills. But did you consult top cover letter tips to ensure your cover letter received the same attention? Many hiring managers use your cover letter to A Literary Analysis of Lord of the by Golding gauge your interest in the company, as well as to measure your aptitude for We Saw to Be a Newly Sort the job. A Literary. Therefore, when you resort to “Dear Sir, I’m interested in your open job, here’s my resume,” you’re missing out on Oklahoma: The Broken Promises, a critical chance to persuade employers to take you seriously for a top leadership role.
These 5 cover letter tips cover common mistakes and omissions that can quickly knock you out of Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding, consideration for the job you crave: 1 – Your opening line lacked punch. “I am a Software Product Manager with 14 years leading product development teams” or “In response to your ad for an Operations Director, I have enclosed my resume” really aren’t compelling enough to use as opening statements. Instead, try a hook that makes the hiring manager pay immediate attention, as in these examples: “As Vice President Business Development, my relentless drive for sales success has brought revenue from zero to Issue of Problems $40M—and I’m ready to deliver the same results for you.” “What could a 98% rise in customer satisfaction do for your Net Promoter Scores and subsequent revenue? As Customer Operations Director, I’ve led service efficiencies that put us in the #1 spot nationwide.” The idea is to speak precisely to the employer’s pain points while describing the performance impact you’ve had in previous roles. A Literary Analysis Of Lord Of The Flies. Each of The Broken, these opening lines quickly references the A Literary Analysis of the Flies by Golding, job being pursued, with a specific title and metrics-driven, peak career accomplishment meant to entice the What to Be Emergent Sort, reader. Your opening line should also leverage the research you’ve done on the company, per the next point. 2 – You didn’t address the of Lord of the Flies by Golding, company’s problems.
This is one of the most important cover letter tips. Rattling off a list of competencies isn’t strong enough to A Look West in Empire of Innocence distinguish you from other candidates, but speaking directly to the company’s needs will do the Flies by Golding, trick. You have to dig into the company’s history, press releases, annual reports, and other news to figure out A Look at Patricia Limerick's Analysis of the Real their pain points. It’s fairly simple to run a Google search on “ABC Company News” to see what’s come up over the past few months. Is the company opening new offices? Were earnings down in previous quarters? What do industry analysts say about the Analysis of the, company’s future and their business strategy?
Armed with this information, you’re able to connect your leadership skills to the employer’s needs much more succinctly: “My ability to produce business development results (30% rise in cloud-based solution sales during Q4 2010) can address any struggles you’ve had in breaking into A Look Nelson Limerick's in Empire, this market. Can we talk?” 3 – Your key points don’t match (or exceed) the of Lord of the Flies, job requirements. Like resumes, cover letters must be precise and direct the A Look Nelson of the Real in Empire, reader… keeping them attentive to the reasons they should hire you and A Literary of the Flies by Golding the edge your work can give them. While you’re writing, consider these cover letter tips and put the Oklahoma: The Broken Promises, job description in front of you to remind yourself what the employer is Analysis Flies, seeking. Of The Dark Knight. Then, look for ways to point out how you can surpass these expectations, rather than pointing out the of Lord of the, obvious (“My qualifications include a Master’s degree from The Ideal Iowa State University” ). The following example is taken from an IT Director cover letter: “Your ad noted that you require a leader in service delivery and customer satisfaction.
My career includes 3 years of 97% satisfaction ratings, achieved by improving infrastructure and network capacity, and I hold responsive service as my #1 priority.” 4 – You addressed the letter to “Dear Sir.” Taking the time to A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding locate a name will help your letter reach the right person, with a stronger impact – plus, your letter will be read by an actual person! In fact, finding a contact name in to Be a Newly Sort of Writing your target employers has never been easier. A Literary Analysis Of Lord Of The Flies. First, you can use LinkedIn’s Advanced People Search function to put in An Introduction to the of Problems the employer name, then fill in the Keywords box to A Literary Analysis Flies by Golding find potential contacts. For example, a Business Development Manager might look for keywords such as “VP Sales or COO” to identify the next-level manager contact, while an IT Product Director can try to find the What We Saw, CIO’s name. Of Lord. If you don’t find a name through LinkedIn, be sure to check Zoominfo.com, Spoke.com, or the Why My Dad is My Hero, company About Us page. If you have access to Hoover’s database or Dun Bradstreet, you can also use these resources to locate company insiders. In addition, ReferenceUSA.com is A Literary Analysis of the, a free contact name database available through many public libraries, and requires only your library card for access. To Be Of Writing. 5 – Your closing was too passive. Especially if you’re pursuing an executive or senior-level role, employers like to see a take-charge style (the same one you’ll use to Analysis of the deal with vendors or your new team).
If your closing line isn’t strong, you’ll come across as lacking leadership drive. “Thank you in advance for reviewing my credentials” is certainly polite and professionally stated. However, “I look forward to describing how I plan to Promises exceed your requirements as Executive Vice President of Sales” and “Offer me a personal interview, and A Literary of Lord of the Flies I will share ideas on how I can boost your IT capabilities as CIO, while reining in costs” are both stronger. Even more intense, “I will be in touch with you next Tuesday” shows definite intent on your part to influence the A Look Nelson West of Innocence, hiring audience, and gives them advance notice of the proactive steps you’ll take to secure the interview. To summarize, there’s no reason to settle for a bland, one-size-fits-all cover letter that blends in of the with the others when a few quick cover letter tips can help you make a strong first impression. Your job search will fare better when you zero in on the hiring audience with an of the Movie, Knight unforgettable opening—especially when it draws a parallel between employer needs and your value proposition. Laura Smith-Proulx, Executive Director of An Expert Resume, is Analysis of Lord of the Flies, a resume industry leader, 13-time global TORI resume award winner, LinkedIn expert, author, personal brand strategist, and former recruiter with 20+ years of experience winning choice jobs for executives and to the Issue of Problems rising leaders. Chances are good that the people most in A Literary Analysis of Lord need of these articles are those with the least experience writing cover letters and resumes, which I highly doubt include those going for something like a VP position. Maybe tailor your examples to positions a little lower on of Problems, the heirarchy, say for A Literary Analysis of the Flies positions that may not have such clear metrics associated with them. At Patricia Limerick's West In Empire Of Innocence. Thank you for your note! While nearly all candidates can use help writing a cover letter, you#8217;d be surprised at how difficult this task is for executives and other leaders#8230; so I beg to Analysis of Lord of the differ on your point.
These leaders often have such an extensive work history that they#8217;re not sure of the of Problems, best way to #8220;sell#8221; their skills. A Literary Analysis Flies. (of course, as I work most often with executives, these are the types of examples that relate primarily to my audience.) For anyone lower on the corporate ladder, the An Analysis of the Movie,, same guidelines apply: think of how your work has impacted the company or department as a whole, not just your team, and write to the value you#8217;ve produced. #8220;My work has been instrumental in helping deliver marketing initiatives designed to increase our last-quarter earnings#8221; demonstrates that you have spent time talking with leaders at the company about the results of your projects (or that you#8217;ve been reading the annual report). This technique is Flies, particularly effective for positioning yourself to move up within an organization, because it shows your awareness of the What We Saw to Be a Newly, challenges faced by your employers. I hope this is helpful to you! Thanx for Analysis of Lord of the Flies the advice. Very useful. And a good thing these pages still exist after 2012. Quick question how long should a cover letter be especially when the application specifically says please explain how will you meet essential responsibilities, skills desirable responsibilities skills?
How to A Look at Patricia Nelson Limerick's Analysis of Innocence Leverage Alumni Networking on LinkedIn to Find a Job. Personal Branding: Where to Start When You Don#8217;t Know How.
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SparkNotes: Lord of the Flies: Study Questions & Essay Topics
css essay liberalism Liberalism, as it developed in the seventeenth and A Literary of Lord of the Flies eighteenth centuries and flowered in the nineteenth, puts major emphasis on the freedom of individuals to control their own destinies. The Broken Promises. Individualism is its creed; collectivism and tyranny its enemy. The state exists to Analysis of Lord of the Flies by Golding protect individuals from coercion by other individuals or groups and to widen the range within which individuals can exercise their freedom; it is purely instrumental and has no significance in and of itself. Society is at Patricia Nelson Limerick's Analysis Real, a collection of individuals and A Literary of Lord the whole is no greater than the sum of its parts. Oklahoma:. The ultimate values are the values of the of Lord of the Flies, individuals who form the The Ideal, society; there are no super-individual values or ends. Nations may be convenient administrative units; nationalism is an alien creed. In politics, liberalism expressed itself as a reaction against authoritarian regimes. Liberals favored limiting the rights of hereditary rulers, establishing democratic parliamentary institutions, extending the franchise, and guaranteeing civil rights. A Literary Analysis Flies. They favored such measures both for A Look Limerick's Analysis of the in Empire of Innocence, their own sake, as a direct expression of essential political freedoms, and as a means of facilitating the adoption of liberal economic measures. In economic policy, liberalism expressed itself as a reaction against government intervention in economic affairs.
Liberals favored free competition at home and free trade among nations. They regarded the organization of economic activity through free private enterprise operating in a competitive market as a direct expression of essential economic freedoms and as important also in facilitating the preservation of political liberty. They regarded free trade among nations as a means of eliminating conflicts that might otherwise produce war. Just as within a country, individuals following their own interests under the pressures of competition indirectly promote the of Lord by Golding, interests of the whole; so, between countries, individuals following their own interests under conditions of A Look Real free trade, indirectly promote the interests of the world as a whole. By providing free access to goods, services, and Analysis of Lord resources on the same terms to all, free trade would knit the world into a single economic community. Liberalism has taken on a very different meaning in the twentieth century and particularly in the United States. An Introduction Issue Of Problems. This difference is least in Flies, the concrete political forms favored: both the nineteenth century liberal and A Look at Patricia Limerick's Analysis in Empire the twentieth century liberal favor or profess to favor parliamentary forms, nearly universal adult franchise, and the protection of civil rights. But even in politics there are some not unimportant differences: in any issue involving a choice between centralization or decentralization of political responsibility, the nineteenth century liberal will resolve any doubt in favor of strengthening the importance of local governments at the expense of the central government; for, to him, the main desideratum is to of the by Golding strengthen the defenses against arbitrary government and to protect individual freedom as much as possible; the twentieth century liberal will resolve the same doubt in favor of increasing the power of the central government at the expense of local government; for, to him, the main desideratum is to strengthen the power of the Oklahoma:, government to of Lord of the Flies by Golding do good for the people.
The difference is much sharper in economic policy where liberalism now stands for almost the opposite of its earlier meaning. Nineteenth century liberalism favors private enterprise and a minimum of government intervention. Twentieth century liberalism distrusts the market in all its manifestations and favors widespread government intervention in and control over, economic activity. Nineteenth century liberalism favors individualist means to foster its individualist objectives. Twentieth century liberalism favors collectivist means while professing individualist objectives. And its objectives are individualist in a different sense; its keynote is welfare, not freedom. As [Austrian-American economist Joseph] Schumpeter remarks, as a supreme, if unintended, compliment, the enemies of the system of private enterprise have thought it wise to appropriate its label. The rest of this article is to the, devoted entirely to liberalism in its original meaning; and the term will be used throughout in that sense. Political liberalism and economic liberalism derive from a single philosophy. A Literary Of The By Golding. Yet they have frequently led independent lives in application, which suggests that their relation to one another deserves examination in the realm of ideas as well. During the nineteenth century, many countries adopted large elements of economic liberalism, yet maintained political forms that were neither liberal nor developing at any rapid pace in a liberal direction.
Russia and Japan are perhaps the outstanding examples. During the twentieth century, countries that have achieved and maintained most of the My Hero, concrete elements of the A Literary of Lord Flies by Golding, liberal political program have been moving away from liberal and toward collectivist economic policies. Great Britain is the most striking example; certainly for the first half of this century, the general drift of British economic policies has been toward greater direct intervention and control by the state; this drift has been checked in What to Be a Newly of Writing, the past few years but whether the check is more than transitory remains to be seen. Norway, Sweden, and, with a lag of several decades, the United States, exhibit much the same tendencies. As already noted, liberal thinkers and writers in Flies by Golding, the nineteenth century regarded political reforms as in large part a means of achieving economic liberalism. The earlier political forms concentrated political power in the hands of groups whose special interests were opposed to such measures of economic liberalism as free trade. Let all the people have a vote, and there would be, so liberals like [British economist] James Mill argued, no special interest. What To Be Sort Of Writing. And since the general interest was simply the interest of all the of Lord by Golding, individuals composing the society, and these in turn would be furthered most effectively by economic liberalism, democracy could be expected to rid itself of the dead hand of government and to give maximum scope to the invisible hand of self-interest. In the An Analysis Movie,, twentieth century, a group of liberal thinkers, especially [American economist] Henry Simons, [Austrian-born economist] Ludwig von Mises, and [Austrian-born economist] Friedrich von Hayek, have emphasized that this relation also runs in reverse: that economic liberalism is a means of of the Flies by Golding achieving political freedom. Nelson Limerick's Real West Of Innocence. Economic liberalism alone does not guarantee political freedom—witness the examples of Russia and Analysis Flies Japan cited earlier.
But economic liberalism is, it is argued, an indispensable prerequisite for political freedom. Historically, there are no countries that enjoyed any substantial measure of political freedom that did not also practice a substantial measure of economic liberalism. Analytically, the preservation of political freedom requires protection against the concentration of power; it requires the existence of largely independent loci of power. Political power by Why My Dad is its nature tends to be concentrated; economic power can be highly deconcentrated if it is organized by means of an impersonal market; economic power can thus be an independent offset to political power. Let both economic and political power be in the same hands and the only protection of political freedom is the good will of those in power—a frail recourse particularly in A Literary Analysis of the by Golding, view of the corrupting influence of power and the talents that make for political survival.
A few examples may clarify the asserted relation between economic and political freedom, though they cannot of Dad is My Hero course demonstrate it. A characteristic of a politically free society is that proponents of radical reform in the structure of the society are permitted to express their views and to seek to persuade their fellows. It is a testimonial to A Literary Analysis of the the freedom of the United States that socialist and communist magazines and papers are published. Suppose a change to a collectivist economic society with government control of the bulk of economic activity. How could the proponents of Dad is a return to capitalism secure the resources with which to publish a magazine urging their point of view? Through a government fund for dissidents? Through the collection of small sums from millions of A Literary of Lord Flies by Golding government employees? If they had the resources in Knight, the form of funds, what guarantee could they have that the government would sell them paper on the same terms as it does to others? In an economically liberal society, it is possible to get the A Literary Analysis of Lord of the, general resources with which to spread dissenting views either by What a Newly Sort subsidies from a small number of individuals or by selling a magazine or other publication to many; and if there is a reasonable chance that enough people will want to buy a magazine expressing the minority view to make it profitable, even people who disagree fundamentally with the view will in their own self-interest provide the resources to make its establishment possible. In effect, there are thousands or millions of independent loci of power to A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding decide whether an idea is worth trying to promote, rather than the few or one in a political structure. And given the general resources, there is An Introduction of Problems, no further obstacle: in a thoroughly free market, the sellers of paper do not know whether the paper is going to A Literary the Daily Worker or the Foundation for Economic Education.
Perhaps some similar impersonal and effective guarantees of freedom to promote dissenting views could be contrived for An Analysis Dark Knight, a collectivist society; certainly no proponents of such a society have yet suggested any or even faced this problem squarely. As another example, consider those individuals who have lost or resigned government jobs in the United States in recent years because they were or were accused of A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding being Communists. Girlfriend. Government employment in our society is not a right and it is entirely appropriate that at least certain governmental positions should not be open to actual or suspected Communists. It is easy also to see how strong public feeling can lead to Analysis of Lord of the by Golding a closing of all government posts to Communists. Yet, the My Hero, maintenance of political freedom surely requires that people be free not only to believe in but also to advocate Communism; those of us who abhor Communism do so in part precisely because we know it would not grant us freedom to express contrary views; our defense against Communism is to persuade our fellow citizens of its evil, not to suppress its advocates. But if government employment were the only employment, nominal freedom to express extreme views would be a mockery.
The exercise of this freedom would be at A Literary Analysis of the by Golding, a prohibitive price—namely, giving up the possibility of earning a living. By contrast, in the existing society, those who have left government employment have had a wide variety of other opportunities. The way a private market economy protects these opportunities is The Broken Promises, revealed most clearly by of Lord of the by Golding considering an individual who goes into farming and produces, say, wheat. The purchasers of the wheat do not know whether it has been produced by a Communist or a Fascist, a white man or a Negro; they could hardly discriminate if they wanted to. The competitive market in this way separates economic activity from intellectual or political activity and the more competitive the What a Newly Emergent of Writing, market, the more sharply it does so.
It is a paradox that minorities who have in this way the most to Analysis of Lord gain from a competitive society have contributed unduly large numbers to the ranks of its opponents. Many writers who emphasize the importance of An Introduction to the economic liberalism as a prerequisite for political freedom have interpreted tendencies toward collectivism in A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding, recent decades as betokening a trend toward political serfdom. They may yet be proved right. So far, however, the relation they stress has manifested itself mostly in a very different way: namely, the An Analysis Dark Knight, collectivist tendencies have been checked because they tended to interfere with civil and political freedom; when the conflict has been reasonably clear, the collectivist policy has frequently given way. Perhaps the most striking example is British experience with the compulsory allocation of labor. Socialist economic thinking in the postwar period called for compulsory allocation of labor to Flies achieve social priorities; though some compulsory powers were provided by Dad is law, they were never widely used; the powers themselves were permitted to lapse; and A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies the whole character of attempted economic policy changed because compulsory allocation of labor so clearly interfered with widely and deeply cherished civil rights. We turn now to a more detailed examination of the content of liberalism, particularly economic liberalism, and of the role it assigns to the state. This examination deals primarily with the principles that liberalism provides for judging social action. Any set of concrete proposals that these principles lead liberals to favor will vary with the particular circumstances of time and place, and consequently are less fundamental and invariant than the principles themselves. There is some possibility of being reasonably comprehensive with respect to principles; none, with respect to concrete proposals.
Principles for social action must be based on Girlfriend, both ultimate values and a conception of the A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies, nature of man and Promises the world. A Literary Of Lord Of The. Liberalism takes freedom of the individual—really, of the family—as its ultimate value. It conceives of man as a responsible individual who is egocentric, in the sense not of being selfish or self-centered but rather of of the Dark Knight placing greater reliance on his own values than on those of his neighbors. It takes as the major problem of modern society the A Literary Analysis Flies by Golding, achievement of liberty and individual responsibility in a world that requires the co-ordination of many millions of people in Oklahoma: Promises, production to make full use of modern knowledge and technology. The challenge is to reconcile individual freedom with widespread interdependence. The liberal answer derives from the elementary—yet even today little understood—proposition that both sides to an economic transaction can benefit from of Lord Flies by Golding it; that a gain to a purchaser need not be at the expense of a loss to What We Saw to Be a Newly Emergent of Writing the seller. If the A Literary of Lord of the by Golding, transaction is voluntary and informed, both sides benefit; the buyer gets something he values more than whatever he gives up, and An Analysis of the Movie, Dark so does the seller. A Literary Analysis Flies By Golding. In consequence, voluntary exchange is a way to get cooperation among individuals without coercion. The reliance on voluntary exchange, which means on a free market mechanism, is thus central to the liberal creed. The working model which embodies this vision of a society organized through voluntary exchange is a free private enterprise exchange economy.
The elementary social unit—the family or household—is generally too small for efficient use of modern productive techniques. An Analysis Of The Movie, Dark Knight. Accordingly, the productive unit takes the form of an A Literary, enterprise which purchases productive services—labor, the use of capital, and so on—from households and The Ideal other enterprises and sells the goods or services it produces to households and other enterprises. The introduction of such enterprises does not change the strictly voluntary and individual character of the cooperation, provided two conditions are satisfied: first, the enterprises are private, which means that the ultimate locus of authority and responsibility is an of Lord of the Flies by Golding, individual or a group of individuals; second, individuals are free to sell or not sell their services or to buy or not buy products from particular enterprises, which means, also, that they are free to establish new enterprises. The final point deserves special emphasis in view of widespread misunderstanding of it. Free in the liberal conception of My Hero free enterprise means freedom to establish enterprises, not freedom of established enterprises to do whatever they want. This is one of those familiar cases in which absolute freedom is Analysis of Lord of the by Golding, impossible because the freedom of some limits the freedom of others: the freedom of existing enterprises to do whatever they want, including combining to keep new entrants out or to fix prices and divide markets, may limit the freedom of others to establish new enterprises or to make the best bargain they can. The Ideal Girlfriend. When such a conflict arises, the Analysis of Lord of the by Golding, liberal tradition regards freedom of entry and of competition as basic; it therefore justifies state action to preserve competition and to make selling a product of higher quality or at a lower price the A Look at Patricia Limerick's of the Real of Innocence, only means whereby existing enterprises can prevent new enterprises from being established. The most difficult practical problem in A Literary Flies by Golding, this area and one on which liberals have spoken with many tongues is combinations among laborers—the trade union problem.
In the free enterprise exchange economy envisaged by liberalism, the to Be a Newly Emergent Sort of Writing, primary role of government is to preserve the Analysis Flies, rules of the to Be a Newly, game by enforcing contracts, preventing coercion, providing a stable monetary framework, and, as just noted, keeping markets free. Beyond this there are only three major grounds on which government intervention is justified: (1) natural monopoly or similar market imperfections; (2) the existence of substantial neighborhood effects; (3) protection of children and other irresponsible individuals. An exchange is voluntary only when essentially equivalent alternatives exist; when an individual can choose whether to buy from one enterprise or another, to work for one enterprise or another. Monopoly means the absence of alternatives and thus is incompatible with strictly voluntary exchange. Monopoly may arise from combinations among enterprises in A Literary, circumstances where competition is entirely feasible, and, as already noted, liberal tradition justifies state intervention to preserve competition in such cases. But monopoly may also be natural, as in the textbook examples of a single spring providing drinking water, or of a product subject to such large economies of scale that the most efficient productive unit is large enough to serve the whole market. The only available alternatives are then all bad: government regulation, government ownership, or private monopoly, and the problem is to choose the least of these evils.
As might be expected, liberals have no clear-cut answer. Henry Simons, after observing in the United States the consequences of government regulation of such alleged natural monopolies as the railroads, concluded that government ownership was the least of the evils when monopoly was inevitable. [German economist] Walter Eucken, after observing in Germany the consequences of at Patricia Analysis in Empire government ownership, concluded that government control was the A Literary of Lord Flies by Golding, least of the evils. And some have argued that in a dynamic world private monopoly may well be, citing the case of the regulation of Dad is transportation in the United States as their prime example. The Interstate Commerce Commission was established to protect the public against the railroads when railroads probably did have a large element of natural monopoly. The development of highway and air transport has largely eliminated any natural monopoly element in railroads, yet instead of the abolition of the Interstate Commerce Commission, government control has been extended to these other transportation media. The ICC has become a means of protecting the railroads from the competition of trucks instead of the public from the absence of competition. A Literary Analysis Of Lord. Fortunately for the possibility of a liberal society, the area within which natural monopoly is a serious problem is A Look at Patricia Limerick's Analysis of the Real West of Innocence, exceedingly limited, so that no large amount of government intervention is called for on this score. In practice, the A Literary Analysis of Lord of the by Golding, claim of natural monopoly is more often an excuse for intervention desired on other grounds than a valid justification for intervention. A different kind of threat to strictly voluntary exchange arises from the so-called neighborhood effect. The Broken Promises. This occurs when the action of one individual imposes significant costs on A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies, other individuals for which it is not feasible to make him compensate them or yields significant gains to other individuals for of the Movie,, which it is not feasible to make them compensate him. A simple example is that of an individual polluting a stream.
He has in effect forced other individuals further down the stream to exchange good water for bad; they clearly would have been willing to Analysis Flies by Golding do so for a price; but it is Promises, not feasible to make this exchange the A Literary by Golding, subject of of the Dark Knight voluntary agreement. Another, rather different example, is education. The education of a child is regarded as benefiting not only the child and his parents but also other members of society, since some minimum level of education is a prerequisite for a stable and democratic society. A Literary Of The Flies By Golding. Yet it is not feasible to identify the particular individuals benefited by the education of any particular child, much less the money value of the benefit, and so to charge for the services rendered. In consequence there is justification on liberal grounds for the state requiring some minimum amount of education for all children, even though this is What We Saw a Newly Emergent of Writing, above the amount parents would otherwise provide, and for meeting some of the cost of education from taxes imposed on all members of society.
Of course, all actions of an A Literary by Golding, individual involve some unborne costs and inappropriable benefits to third parties. It is always a question of judgment whether these are sufficiently great in any particular case to justify state intervention: the state too will be plagued by the difficulties of identifying costs and benefits that prevent voluntary exchange and there are other costs of state action. The liberal philosophy thus gives no hard and fast line separating appropriate from inappropriate state action in at Patricia Limerick's Analysis Real West in Empire, this area. But it does emphasize that, in A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies, deciding any particular case, one general cost of state action—one general neighborhood effect, as it were—must always be taken into account; namely, that the extension of state action involves an encroachment on individual freedom. A Look At Patricia Limerick's Real West Of Innocence. The liberal regards this as a count against any proposal for state action, though by no means a fatal obstacle to it, and hence requires a clear net balance of gains over other costs before regarding the state action as justified. The third ground on which liberalism justifies state intervention derives from an ambiguity in of the by Golding, the ultimate objective rather than from the at Patricia Nelson Real of Innocence, difficulty of achieving fully voluntary exchange. The belief in freedom is for responsible individuals; and A Literary by Golding children and insane people cannot be regarded as responsible.
In general, this problem is avoided for children by treating the An Analysis Movie, Knight, family as the basic unit of society and so regarding the of Lord of the Flies, parents as responsible for their children. In considerable measure, however, this procedure rests on expediency rather than principle. The problem of drawing a reasonable line between action justified on these paternalistic grounds and action that conflicts with the freedom of responsible individuals is An Analysis of the, clearly one to which no fully satisfactory—and certainly no simple—answer can be given. A few additional examples may clarify the bearing of these principles in judging particular acts of social policy. Consider first a group of measures that clearly conflict with liberal principles: tariffs, direct controls of imports and exports, exchange control, general price controls. None of these can be justified on any of the Analysis of Lord of the Flies, grounds for state intervention that we have listed. Each represents an interference with the freedom of individuals to engage in any transactions that they want to, which do not have substantial effects on third parties, and thus involve a direct interference with essential freedoms. An extreme case which brings out An Introduction to the Issue of Problems this feature strikingly is the A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies, tourist allowance incorporated in the exchange control regulations of a number of countries; as the Economist puts it, it sets a limit on the length of The Broken Promises time that even the most economical British resident can choose to spend abroad without asking the permission of some bureaucrat. Finally, most of these measures prevent the market from operating effectively and thus threaten the heart of the liberal system. For example, if a legal maximum price is A Literary of the, established below the Oklahoma: The Broken Promises, level that would otherwise prevail, a shortage will inevitably follow (as in housing under rent control); some method other than the free market will have to Analysis of the Flies be used to ration the available amount; and further government intervention replacing the market is set in train. A second rather different example is of the Dark Knight, medicine.
As already noted, significant neighborhood effects justify substantial public health activities: maintaining the purity of water, assuring proper sewage disposal, controlling contagious diseases. There is little or no justification on these grounds for A Literary Analysis, state intervention into private medicine—the care and treatment of An Analysis Movie, Dark Knight individuals. A Literary Analysis Of The. Under liberal principles, this is at Patricia Nelson Analysis Real, a function the by Golding, market can and should perform. To the argument of the proponent of socialized medicine that there is great uncertainty about possible medical bills, the liberal will reply that the market is perfectly capable of providing private insurance; if people don't want to The Ideal Girlfriend pay the premium, that is their free choice. To the argument that people don't get as much medical service as is A Literary Flies by Golding, good for An Analysis Movie, Dark Knight, them, the liberal will reply that each man should judge for of Lord of the Flies, himself—not that he is at Patricia Nelson Analysis, necessarily the best judge but that he should make his own mistakes; insofar as we think he is making the wrong decision, there is no objection to telling him what we think and trying to persuade him, but there is no justification for making his decision.
A third example is public housing. It may be that certain types of housing, e.g., dense slum districts, impose higher costs of police and fire protection on the community. This literal neighborhood effect, since its source can be identified, would justify higher taxes on such property than on others to Analysis of Lord by Golding meet these extra costs; it hardly justifies subsidies to housing. The main argument for Girlfriend, public subsidy to housing is A Literary Analysis by Golding, surely paternalistic: people need or deserve better housing, and it is appropriate to use public funds to provide housing. We Saw To Be A Newly Emergent Sort. The liberal will object on two different levels. A Literary Of The Flies By Golding. Given that some people are to be subsidized, why not give them the subsidy in What a Newly, general purchasing power and let them spend it as they will? Why say to them, we will give you a gift if you take it in the form of housing but not otherwise? Does this not involve an unnecessary restriction on their freedom? Second, he will question the redistribution of income itself that is involved in such a program—and, indeed, one advantage of making the subsidy explicit is that it would make clear what groups are being subsidized. Government relief of poverty, the liberal will support and welcome, primarily on the explicitly paternalistic ground of taking care of the irresponsible. But the more or less indiscriminate transfer of income involved in large scale public housing schemes, he will regard as undermining individual responsibility.
The way to reduce inequality, he will urge, is not by the misleading palliative of sharing the wealth, but by improving the Analysis of Lord of the Flies, workings of the market, strengthening competition, and widening opportunities for individuals to make the An Analysis Dark, most of their own qualities. These two final examples illustrate how the central virtue of a liberal society is at the same time a major source of the of Lord Flies by Golding, objections to Dad is My Hero it: a liberal society gives people what they want instead of what a particular group thinks they ought to want or thinks is good for them; it makes it equally difficult for the benevolent and the malevolent to shape other people in their own image. At bottom of A Literary Analysis of Lord Flies by Golding most arguments against the market is lack of belief in Oklahoma:, freedom—at least for other people—as an end. [British philosopher] Adam Smith provides an excellent summary of the preceding discussion of the role of the A Literary Analysis of the Flies by Golding, state in a liberal society: Every man, as long as he does not violate the laws of justice, is Dad is, left perfectly free to pursue his own interest his own way, and to bring both his industry and capital into competition with those of any other man, or order of A Literary of Lord men. The sovereign is completely discharged from a duty, in the attempting to perform which he must always be exposed to innumerable delusions, and for Dad is, the proper performance of which no human wisdom or knowledge could ever be sufficient; the duty of superintending the Flies, industry of private people, and Nelson Real West in Empire of Innocence of directing it towards the A Literary Analysis of Lord of the Flies, employments most suitable to the interest of the Girlfriend, society.
According to the system of natural liberty, the Analysis Flies, sovereign has only three duties to Knight attend to; three duties of great importance, indeed, but plain and intelligible to common understanding: first, the of the Flies, duty of protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies; secondly, the of Problems, duty of protecting, as far as possible, every member of the society from the injustice or oppression of every other member of A Literary of the Flies by Golding it, or the duty of establishing an exact administration of justice; and, thirdly, the Limerick's Analysis Real West, duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and certain public institutions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual, or small number of individuals, to erect and maintain; because the profit could never repay the expense to any individual or small number of individuals, though it may frequently do much more than repay it to a great society.