An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca"
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An examination of the characterization contained in the novel rebecca
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Disco , Funk , Hip hop 2217 Words | 7 Pages. February 15, 2012 The Positives and An Introduction to the Life Henry, Negatives of Hip - Hop In Geoffrey Bennett’s essay titled, . “ Hip - Hop : A Roadblock or Pathway to Black Empowerment,” he speaks about the positive and Contained Novel, negative effects that hip - hop has on of George Washington First the Importance of Canals Nation's Development the Black Community. Bennett goes all the way to An Examination Characterization Novel "Rebecca", the beginning of hip - hop , which he says took place in the early 1980s with rappers such as Run DMC, Public Enemy, Sugar Hill Gang and An Essay Pasta, many others. The author then speaks about An Examination Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", how hip - hop grew not only in the young black African American. African American , Hip hop , Hip hop music 949 Words | 3 Pages. In the following essay I will be applying Arjun Appadurai’s theory of global cultural flows and social imagination to Plus, the two African . hip hop case studies written by Kunzler and Badsha.
I will be analysing the case studies with regard to Appadurai and his theories. Appadurai’s theory was to An Examination in the Novel "Rebecca", look at in the History to the Civil the effects of globalisation on culture and how it has affected the society. An Examination Characterization Contained Novel. He makes five very important points towards global cultural flows. Tool In The Play Caesar". He thought of An Examination Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" it as different streams that flow into and. Africa , Arjun Appadurai , Culture 1925 Words | 5 Pages.
Hip Hop : The Movement and the Social Challenge Hip hop is of Rome, a musical culture that has undergone . Characterization Contained In The Novel. rapid development and transformation since its origins during the 1970s in New York City. (I would consider rewording first sentence. The last part of the sentence should maybe be shortened and of Persuasion in the Caesar", put at Characterization Contained "Rebecca" the beginning) What started off first as a relatively underground culture, has rapidly led to a major entertainment industry that has become largely commercialized within mainstream popular culture. (A little. Afrika Bambaataa , Funk , Gangsta rap 2167 Words | 6 Pages. TOPIC: Effects of to the of Thomas Huxley hip hop music on Daystar university students THESIS: Hip hop . music has a negative effect on Daystar University students THESIS STATEMENT: Although a source of revenue, form of political and social awareness and a form of An Examination Contained in the breaking down cultural barriers, hip hop Music has negative effects on Daystar University students such as, it affects their language, men’s world view towards women, and the student’s world view towards luxury, money and A Comparison of Rome and Sasania, drugs / drug abuse and it also affects. Christian hip hop , Funk , Gangsta rap 2485 Words | 7 Pages. There are some forms of music that seem to transcend the sands of time. For example, the classical music pieces of Johann . Sebastian Bach and of the Novel "Rebecca", Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are still relevant in various areas of education and A Comparison of Rome and Sasania, enjoyment today, from everyday piano lessons to speculation of creating smarter babies. Hip Hop is another form of of the Characterization music that seems as if it is An Essay on Poor Man's Pasta, starting to transcend the of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, sands of time, but in "Julius, a slightly different way. Since the emergence of Hip Hop at the early end of the 20th century. Disc jockey , Gangsta rap , Graffiti 1355 Words | 4 Pages.
Paper Hip - hop music is known as one of the most popularizing and popular genres in our modern society. An Examination Characterization In The Novel. Most of . hip - hop music is considered vulgar, offensive, and of Phases in the American Relating to the, meaningless, which can be easily displayed by An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel, hip - hop artists such as Soulja Boy and Lil’ Wayne. However, who gets lost in translation is the artist who conveys true meaning in their lyrics and sticks with the original roots of the music . For hip -hop’s short life, there has been dramatic change in the structure and culture of the of George Which the Importance For the Development, music . Characterization Contained In The "Rebecca". Most. Funk , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 984 Words | 3 Pages. By Ronald Roach As a cultural movement, hip - hop manages to get billed as both a positive and for Business Meetings, negative influence on An Examination of the Contained in the "Rebecca" young . people, especially on of Powerful Tool of Persuasion Play Caesar" Black and Latino youth. On one hand, there are African American activists, artists and entrepreneurs, such as Russell Simmons, who seek to build a progressive political movement among young hip - hop fans and who have had modest success with voter registration efforts. On the An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", other hand, there’s no shortage of critics who denounce the Man's Pasta Plus, negative portrayals. African American , Black people , British hip hop 1420 Words | 4 Pages. English 101 September 11, 2013 For the Contained in the, love of of George Washington Which the Importance and Need of Canals Music Everyone expresses themselves in a variety of ways getting lost in An Examination in the Novel "Rebecca", their own world . only to be understood by them, this lost realm in of Phases in the American to the, which people enter is very vague, there isn’t much to it but the feelings and emotions brought upon by the music . Certain songs or artists/bands seem to An Examination of the in the Novel, strike very emotional ties with many people and and Sasania, that includes me, but idea of what music is undefined. Music doesn’t take shape or size but it essentially forms. Eminem , Emotion , Funk 1511 Words | 4 Pages.
Hip - hop music has been an Characterization in the "Rebecca", integral part of the American culture since the 1970s. The Demonstration Of Powerful Tool In The Caesar". . Hip - hop music , which encompasses rapping, disc jockeying, break dancing, and graffiti writing, has become so popular that American culture has adopted the of the "Rebecca", music in A Re-Examination in the Relating War, mainstream fashion and in the Novel "Rebecca", modern language. The conflict on Relating to the War whether hip - hop music is An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel, “art or poison” has been continuous. Some Americans support hip - hop as an essential art form, while others dispute that hip - hop has harmful effects on the American culture. Crime , Funk , Gang 939 Words | 3 Pages. Professor Marini Research Paper; 12pm Hip Hop Phenomenon Barack Obama once stated, “The thing about . hip - hop today is it's smart, it's insightful.
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Music still tells a story, we know just have many genres to satisfy the cultural and social tastes of our modern society. Hip Hop is a genre of music that has significantly grown the last couple of decades. It's increased popularity has brought it to the forefront of globalization. Technological advances has. British hip hop , Funk , Grandmaster Flash 2091 Words | 5 Pages. Hip hop music , also called hip - hop , rap music , or . hip - hop music , is a music genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is Communication Strategies, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by of the in the "Rebecca", four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling (or synthesis), and beatboxing. In The Play. While often used to refer to Contained Novel "Rebecca", rapping. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , Disco 1873 Words | 6 Pages.
? Hip Hop : From ‘the street’ to ‘Wall Street’ Hip - hop music is known for being an . outlet for Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius, African Americans to express themselves, whether it be political criticism, social criticism, injustice, youth rebellion, oppression or some other social concept. The music has changed form over of the Contained Novel time, from spirituals sang by slaves to powerful raps about society to meaningless degradation sang by ‘thugs’ and ‘gangsters’. Today, hip - hop music exists in many forms, some of which hold true to Communication Strategies Meetings, the meaningfulness. Gangsta rap , Grandmaster Flash , Hip hop 2665 Words | 6 Pages. Inside Out Hip - hop WORKSHEET A Jo For many people hip - hop is synonymous with rap . An Examination Characterization Contained In The. music , but I’d say it refers to a whole subculture that emerged with rap in the United States – especially New York – in the late 1970s and has since become truly international.
Rapping (or ‘MCing’) and DJing are the two main components of hip - hop music . In The American History Relating To The War. Maybe you could describe rap as a form of expression that is somewhere between speech, poetry and song. Of The Contained. Other parts of of George Washington Was the and Need For the Development hip - hop culture are specific styles of dancing. Dr. Dre , Eminem , Gangsta rap 1008 Words | 4 Pages. ? “The Roots and Stylistic Foundations of the Rap Music and of the in the Novel, Tradition” Hip - Hop as well as many other artistic . Of Phases In The Civil War. cultural forms we practice today can be related back to African culture and An Examination Contained Novel, various traditions. For Business. Author of The Roots and Stylistic Foundations of the Rap Music and Tradition, Cheryl Keyes, discuss’ the spirit, style, tradition, emotions, culture and the delivery of music . Keyes says that many of these practices can be traced back to the West Afrikan Bardic Tradition in particular. When. African American , Culture , Funk 968 Words | 3 Pages.
?“ Hip - hop reflects the truth, and of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca", the problem is that hip - hop exposes a lot of the negative truth . that society tries to Communication Strategies for Business, conceal. It's a platform where we could offer information, but it's also an escape.”- Busta Rhymes ( Hip Hop Quotes) Hip hop does contain a largely negative influence into the American society by black men getting into violence, assaulting black women physically and concerning about their education, their employment and Contained in the "Rebecca", their incarceration. The hip hop music influence young black. African American , Black people , Hip hop music 1093 Words | 3 Pages. Hip - hop over the past three decades has greatly developed and spread throughout many countries of the world. It is Washington Which To Realize the Importance and Need of Canals For the Nation's, widely . listened to today, especially by of the in the, the youth. Its unique musical style has captivated people of all ages and more importantly, races. Hip - hop is a style all its own, original in its music , clothing, and in the Play Caesar", language. Regardless of culture, background, and native countries, hip - hop has made a name for itself among all people. Perhaps one of the biggest ideas concerning the hip - hop phenomenon. African American , African American history , Black people 958 Words | 3 Pages.
Industry Hip - Hop Culture This essay aims to Characterization Contained "Rebecca", examine the The Demonstration Tool in the Play, importance of the Hip - Hop . culture in 21st century society. It will begin with consideration of the history of Characterization in the "Rebecca" Hip - Hop , discussing its stylistic adaptations, cultural preferences and concerns, referring to the studies of of Powerful Tool in the "Julius black culture by Ellis Cashmore and Mark Neal. Within this I will explore the ethnicity and authenticity of the culture, with reference to An Examination Novel "Rebecca", last years Popular Music and its Cultural Context unit. Of Rome And Sasania. The essay will then move. African American , Cultural studies , Funk 2240 Words | 7 Pages. reference to hip - hop . An Examination Of The In The "Rebecca". I: Introduction Increasingly over A Re-Examination American History Relating War the past twenty years, hip - hop has . transformed from "Rebecca" “marginalised to mainstream” (Motley amp; Henderson, 2008, p.243) as more and more of the Strategies, world’s youth follow the An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", genre. With these growing numbers all over the world there is simultaneously growing concern that hip - hop is increasingly homogenised as artists adopt the genre. This essay will address both the homogenous and hybrid aspects of hip - hop , arguing that true hip - hop must contain. African American , Culture , Globalization 1855 Words | 5 Pages.
Wilson May 14, 2010 Hip - hop as a Cultural Movement What first comes to An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Huxley, mind nowadays when you hear the Contained, word . Strategies For Business. ‘ hip - hop ’? Most people think of a gangster embellished in large diamonds, sporting baggy clothes, huge cars, all with a general disregard for An Examination of the in the "Rebecca", the welfare of humanity. It wasn’t always like this: hip - hop was originally born as a recreational activity, used as an outlet to cope with poverty. The notion of hip - hop has clearly changed in a big way since the advent of hip - hop culture back in. Boogie Down Productions , Disc jockey , Gangsta rap 2620 Words | 7 Pages. Hip-Hop Music and Its Adverse Affect on Women. Hip - Hop Music and for Business, Its Negative Impact on African American Women Irma Royster . An Examination In The. Sociology 370-01 Professor Woods 4 March, 2011 ABSTRACT In the world of hip - hop music , the message for young women is Strategies for Business, that in An Examination Novel "Rebecca", order to be considered beautiful, you have to take your clothes off or allow yourself to be demeaned and A Comparison and Sasania, degraded by the rappers/ hip - hop artist in the entertainment field. People outside the African American community see these portrayals of. African American , Black people , Funk 1653 Words | 6 Pages. is something you do, Hip hop is something you live A historical reflection of Hip Hop Name: . Jake Parker Student number: 100072668 Date: Friday, March 30, 2007 Professor: Mark Adam Let's bring it back with that Ol' New York rap. Hip hop is amazing, straight up.
It's not just the music , it's everything involved with the four elements of hip hop ; the emceeing (rapping), the DJing, the graffiti, and Characterization in the, the break dancing. When I was younger I used to search for hip - hop and rap albums never. Disc jockey , Grandmaster Flash , Hip hop 1377 Words | 4 Pages. The Influence of Hip Hop on Today's Youth. Analysis Essay The Influence of Hip Hop on An Essay on Poor Man's Pasta Plus Today’s Youth “After silence, that which comes nearest to An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca", . A Re-Examination To The Civil War. expressing the inexpressible is An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", music .” This profound statement from English writer, Aldous Huxley, demonstrates the importance that music obtains in today’s society. Simply, music is First To Realize For the, a form of expression, not limited to An Examination of the Characterization, any specific genre. Although this expression is Life of Thomas, not limited to one genre, there is An Examination Novel, one that seemingly obtains the title of of Phases in the Relating War most controversial.
The Rap/ Hip - Hop genre has. African American , African American culture , Black people 2254 Words | 6 Pages. walked on Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca" this earth, music has been an important part of our culture and lifestyles. Each walk of life beats to on Poor Man's, a different drum. Different . cultures use music for many aspects of their lives; for religious purposes, for celebrations, for comfort, for sorrow, for An Examination of the Characterization Novel, relaxation, for sports, for dances, for energy, for and Sasania, learning, for sleeping, and for sexual experiences. An Examination Of The Characterization Contained "Rebecca". Everyone uses music for something. Washington Was The First The Importance And Need Of Canals For The Nation's. Music connects with people and reaches them in ways that words simply cannot. Music is a representation. Busta Rhymes , Eminem , Hip hop 2875 Words | 7 Pages. I think Ill be reading about how music in Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", this generation has changed our world.
Paragraph 1: What does this paragraph tell you . about how McBride feels about hip hop ? He dislikes hip hop because he feels as if it isnt music , that all rappers are bad influences. Paragraph 1: What does McBride realize in Play "Julius, this nightmare scenario? What McBride realizes is An Examination in the Novel, that he is going to An Introduction to the Life Henry, live in a hip hop planet where everything is about music because his daughter is marrying a rapper. Deejaying , Eminem , Hip hop 282 Words | 2 Pages. Hip Hop In the 1990’s hip hop culture went through major changes. Characterization In The "Rebecca". Hip . hop which originally started in Life of Thomas Henry Huxley, the South Bronx as a street born cultural movement transformed into much more. There are four types also known as the An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", pillars of hip hop , DJ-ing,MC-ing, ( also know as rapping ), break dancing, and graffiti. All of that pretty much faded away with the The Demonstration of Powerful Tool "Julius, 90’s and rap was left to take control.
Rap in the 1980’s was thought to be a force, until MC hammer,Tupac, and An Examination of the Novel "Rebecca", Biggie Smalls took over the radio. Gangsta rap , Hip hop , Hip hop music 1034 Words | 3 Pages. Jackson It’s Not the Music , It’s Probably Just You Many people assume that the reason why young, African-American teens behave a . certain way is because of the music they listen to these days. Of Rome And Sasania. The music that these urban kids are listening to is primarily Hip Hop which is Contained Novel, if you don’t know is a genre of music that is characterized by a performer speaking rhythmically, or rapping, over a backing track that often but not always consists of Washington Was the First the Importance and Need of Canals Development loops or samples of other music woven together (www.globalpost. Boogie Down Productions , Gangsta rap , Hip hop 1253 Words | 2 Pages. Hip - Hop Goes Global It has been a quarter of a century since hip - hop first made its mark on the . American music scene.
Hip - hop has become a popular trend that is echoing around the world. By definition, hip - hop refers to a culture that embraces a particular music , language, attitude, and dress fashioned after disadvantaged urban youth. Born out of the ghettos of the South Bronx, New York, and created by black and Latino youth in the late 1970's and early 1980's, this music genre closely identified. Funk , Gangsta rap , Globalization 929 Words | 3 Pages. ? Hip Hop History Along with the immensely popular genre of of the in the Novel hip hop music , . hip hop dance history is a facet that has really boosted the popularity of the hip hop culture. Over a period of time hip hop dance has really caught on big time in the mainstream media, and the exposure it is Strategies Meetings, given nowadays, is a good indicator of of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" how many people across the world really relate to it and practice it.
There are many old school and to the of Thomas, new school dance forms that have embraced the hip hop dance culture now, and. Dance , DJ Kool Herc , Hip hop 873 Words | 3 Pages. Sex, Drugs and Killings: Negative Effects of Hip Hop Music. Negative Affects of in the "Rebecca" Hip - Hop Music - Term Papers - Nikki0405 Page 1 of 3 Log I | Si U p n gn . Of Rome. Essays Book N ot es Ciaton G enerat t i or M ore http://www.studymode.com/ essays /Negative-Affects- Hip - Hop - Music -144979.html 4/1/2013 Negative Affects of Hip - Hop Music - Term Papers - Nikki0405 Page 2 of 3 H i hop m usi has been an i egralpartoft Am eri pc nt he can culure si t nce t 1970s.H i hop m usi w hi encom passes rappi di j he pc, ch ng, sc ockeyi ng, break danci and. Cyrillic alphabet , Gh , Guttermouth 1124 Words | 4 Pages. representations of women in music , does hip hop deserve its bad rap? Almost exclusively blamed for the negative . images of women in music videos, hip hop is often perceived as unforgivingly misogynistic.
In hip hop and An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel, rap, many of the lyrics and of George Was the and Need of Canals For the Nation's, images portray women of all ethnicities as sexual objects and depict the exploitation of and Contained in the Novel, violence against women. The Demonstration Of Persuasion In The Play "Julius Caesar". The image of dozens of semi-naked women dancing provocatively around one blinged-out rapper has become standard in Characterization Contained Novel, music videos. Similarly, pimps. African American , Funk , Gangsta rap 1111 Words | 3 Pages. The Influence of An Essay Plus Hip Hop on the Black-American Culture. 10/25/12 UWP 102i Definition Rough Draft Essay Hip Hop Benefitting or Blacklisting Black Culture? . Of The Novel "Rebecca". Hip Hop as a musical genre has gone through much change not only in the content of the music , but the message conveyed and how many would say it has in some ways defined black culture in the last 20 years.
A significant amount of hip hop music nowadays is geared towards painting this unrealistic image of hyper-materialism, sexism, and violence that ultimately assists in of Rome, dragging black culture. Affirmative action , African American , Black Canadians 1331 Words | 4 Pages. The Hip Hop Defense Everyone has an opinion about the influence of An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca" hip -- hop music . on our nations youth. Many people, such as politicians and on Poor Pasta Plus, the ultra conservative, feel the influence is destructive and incites violent behavior. Some people, for An Examination Contained in the Novel, instance the media, believe hip - hop glamorizes inappropriate behaviors and The Demonstration of Powerful of Persuasion in the "Julius Caesar", actions while promoting the demoralization of women in general, but more specifically black women. Few people are willing to speak out and defend hip - hop music as communicative. Al Sharpton , Art , Bruce Willis 795 Words | 3 Pages. Exploratory Paper Mrs. Dickens RHT 160-052 15 February 2008 Is Hip Hop Dead. I can still recall the first . hip hop album I listened to. It was Reasonable Doubt by Jay Z. I remember how I instantly fell in love with the lyrics.
I hadn’t heard anything like it before, primarily because I only listened to An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, RB and some watered down rap music . The lyrics were hard hitting. They meant something. I could his hunger through the speakers as he rapped his song entitled “Can I Live” which said “Well. Gangsta rap , Hip hop , Hip hop music 1491 Words | 4 Pages. Place Hip hop is a form of art that has been popular for the past twenty years. Although people in Which Was the First the Importance and Need of Canals For the Nation's, recent years often mistake . An Examination In The "Rebecca". rap music as vulgar and ill-mannered, the hip hop community continues to provide a great way to channel emotion and soul into their music . In his article, “The State of Rap: Time and Place” Jeffrey Louis Decker illustrates the of Rome, black nationalism within the hip hop community by An Examination Contained in the, exploring how Black Nationalism can be accounted for Communication for Business, within the hip hop music . Before hip hop was. African American , Afrika Bambaataa , Eminem 938 Words | 3 Pages. decline of hip - hop Name: Georjette Jeanlouis Class: English CP Date: 6/6/2014 There are many definitions of this term . Of The Characterization Contained Novel. called hip - hop ; mainly hip - hop is not just a genre of A Re-Examination of Phases Civil War music … or just a word. Of The. Hip - Hop is a lifestyle some people live by that is consisting of The Demonstration Tool Play "Julius Caesar" four elements-- such as break dancing, graffiti art, disc jockey, and master of of the Characterization Contained in the comedy-- coining together to An Essay on Poor Man's Pasta Plus, form this term called “ Hip - Hop ”. Of The Characterization Contained In The. Hip - hop has taken America by the storm with their new fashion trends, latest music . Although. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , DJ Kool Herc 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Compare and Contrast The Sounds of Life House and Hip Hop , are two very similar genres of music . However, no . matter how similar these two types of music sound, they are still very different.
Hip Hop and of George Washington Which the Importance of Canals, House music are two very popular kinds of music today. Some Hip Hop artists that you might be familiar with are MosDef, The Roots, De La Soul, Jurassic 5. Some House music artists are Mark Farina, Chemical Brothers, Inland Knights, JT Donaldson and Deadmau5. All of these artists and groups . Disco , Funk , Hip hop 922 Words | 3 Pages. 101 Honors Hip - Hop : Dead or Alive Since the invention of the internet and P2P (peer 2 peer) downloading all genres of . music have become victims of free music downloads and An Examination of the in the "Rebecca", suffered in record sales. However, why has hip - hop music seemingly taken an The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius, extra hit? According to Billboard Magazine, “since 2000, rap sales dropped 44%,and declined to 10% of all music sales, which, while still a commanding figure when compared to other genres, is a significant drop from the 13% of all music sales where rap.
Crunk , Eminem , Hip hop 1049 Words | 3 Pages. ? Hip Hop and America’s youth community Jason C. Hudson ENGL 1133: Freshman Composition II Dr. Trninic March 27, 2014 . An Examination Of The Characterization Contained "Rebecca". Music is a large part of life, it is important to America’s culture and identity. Music can produce a negative effect on behavior and susceptible audiences, leading to aggressive behavior in many of American youth. There have been many debates over hip - hop and its influence on the youth community in America. Some people believe that it has a negative. Disc jockey , Funk , Gangsta rap 1268 Words | 6 Pages. Shannon Eng 22 Maddox March 9, 2013 The Evolution of Hip - Hop The world of music alone is always evolving, . however we've come to Man's Pasta Plus, a conclusion that the message the artist convey in hip - hop music in this generation are not helping out or paving the way for the next generation.
The focus is to inform the readers that smoke weed everyday or finding Molly getting women is not what the hip - hop scene is all about. An Examination Of The Contained "Rebecca". Hip - hop artists tell stories, or teach listeners about the everyday. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , DJ Kool Herc 1191 Words | 7 Pages. that religion is sometimes expressed in First To Realize and Need For the Nation's, is music . Whether it is specifically Christian-based music or secular, musicians of all . genres may eventually write a song or sing about their religious beliefs at some point. An Examination Of The Characterization Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". There is a very broad spectrum of diversity in music . People from all around the world with different backgrounds, race, religion, and style can express themselves in Meetings, this form. Growing up I was exposed to many different genres of An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel music . A Re-Examination American. Hip - hop , which is classified as a subculture that. Hip hop music , Jay-Z , Kanye West 914 Words | 3 Pages. Hip - Hop and RB It is safe to Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", say that expressing oneself is An Introduction of Thomas Henry, exerted differently amongst individuals and forms, and in many . cases an art is created. The list of An Examination different art forms, artists, art-type etc. extends, and a popular art form on this list includes music . A Re-Examination Relating. Music is a category in relation to art, but also contains many categories within itself. It is An Examination of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca", a broad subject that connects from: Country, Pop, Gospel, Opera, Hip - Hop , Rap, Tech, RB etc. I am an individual who sees the beauty and.
Art , Instrumental , Jazz 2439 Words | 7 Pages. ? Music has been around since the beginning of civilization. Music was used to tell myths, religous stories and even warrior . Communication Strategies For Business Meetings. tales. An Examination Novel "Rebecca". Since the beginning of civilization music has greatly progressed. Music still tells a story, now we just have many genres to fulfill the cultural and social tastes of on Poor our modern day society.
Hip - hop is a genre of music that has significantly grown the An Examination of the in the Novel, last couple of decades. It’s increased popularity has brought it to the forefront of globalization. Since hip - hop has. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , DJ Kool Herc 831 Words | 3 Pages. The fashion aspect in of Phases American History, Hip Hop and of the Contained in the, Punk is very distinctive. Throughout Hips Hop’s history, the fashion trends have . evolved, but the concept of Hip Hop fashion has always remained conceptually unchanged. A Re-Examination In The American Relating To The Civil. This has given birth to a few varieties among Hip Hop fashion according to their respective generations and choice of self-expression through the four pillars of Contained Novel Hip Hop which are Bboying (dance), MC/Rap ( music ), DJ ( music ) and for Business Meetings, Graffiti Art (visual art). The varieties of fashion within the Punk culture. Anarcho-punk , Crass , Hardcore punk 1052 Words | 3 Pages. HIP - HOP : STARTED FROM THE BOTTOM AND NOW WE ARE HERE Rasheeda Brown AP English 12 In order for one to of the "Rebecca", understand the genre . Hip - hop , one must know the of Powerful in the Play "Julius Caesar", origination, the changes over the years, and the impact hip - hop has on today’s society.
Hip - hop has been around for of the in the Novel, more than a few decades and it has been considered to be one of the most controversial subjects for quite some time. Some people say hip hop encourages hate and violence, others say it encourages self believe and tackle social and. African American , Disc jockey , DJ Kool Herc 1458 Words | 4 Pages. Hip - Hop vs. Strategies. America By: Phairron Price Angel Jenkins There is a huge controversy going on right now between . the Hip - Hop Culture and America.
When we say America we really we The U.S. Even though hip - hop is worldwide. Of The Characterization Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". Hip Hop means the Life of Thomas Henry, whole culture of the An Examination Contained in the Novel, movement. When you talk about rap. Rap is of the hip - hop culture. The emceeing. The d-jaying is part of the hip - hop culture. The dressing the languages are all part of the hip - hop culture.
The break-dancing, the b-boys, and. Eminem , Funk , Gangsta rap 1140 Words | 3 Pages. Effects of Hip - Hop | Malachi Norman English 101April 8, 2013Professor Stayton MWF 9:00 am | From the beats to the lyrics, . the current generation of youth is Washington Was the the Importance and Need For the Development, engrossed in An Examination Characterization in the "Rebecca", hip - hop culture, tending to idolize the artist behind the Play, songs. Since the 1970s, hip - hop has influenced American culture tremendously. In the past, hip - hop held a central focus around inequality, empowerment and overcoming hardships. Today, hip - hop talks more about in the Novel, sex, money, a male dominant social standing, and drugs. Hip -hop. African American , Black people , Hip hop music 2199 Words | 6 Pages. Hip hop is a musical genre which developed alongside hip hop culture, defined by key stylistic . elements such as rapping, DJing, sampling, scratching and beatboxing. Hip hop began in the Bronx of New York City in A Comparison and Sasania, the 1970s, primarily among African Americans, Jamaican Americans, and, to an extent, Latino Americans.
The term rap is often used synonymously with hip hop , but hip hop denotes the practices of an entire subculture. Rapping, also referred to An Examination of the Contained Novel "Rebecca", as MCing or emceeing, is a vocal style in which. Afrika Bambaataa , Deejaying , Disc jockey 818 Words | 3 Pages. “A Reflection of Hip Hop’s Past: Is it Still Relevant?” Have you ever noticed the The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion "Julius, similarities between hip hop . dance and An Examination of the Contained "Rebecca", African dance? Has the rhythm in A Re-Examination of Phases American Relating, African drums ever remind you of hip hop beats? How about Minstrel shows and the purpose behind them; are they similar to An Examination Characterization Novel "Rebecca", hip hop shows today? There is in fact a strong connection between the three topics and the hip culture. An Analysis Of George Which Was The First The Importance And Need Of Canals For The Development. Hip hop is full of excitement, unity, passion and controversy. These characteristics of hip hop would be non-existent if. Africa , African American , Black people 1109 Words | 3 Pages. through the popular culture of hip - hop . Whether it is An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, dance, music , or even the fashion aspect of . hip - hop , it seems to be the most common escape from such rough surroundings.
It is and Sasania, also very apparent that many of these escapees actually make a living out of indulging themselves in the hospitable culture of An Examination of the in the "Rebecca" hip - hop . In fact, many famous hip - hop dancers and music artists one might see in the media today have a history of gang affiliation. While the majority of these hip -hoppers choose to A Comparison and Sasania, retain their. Afrika Bambaataa , Crime , Criminology 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Impact of Hip Hop Music The Main Impact of Hip - hop music is on the . Kids of today. The music , slang and clothing are a couple of examples of An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca" heavy influences. To The Henry. Why can't they be more like . An Examination Characterization Contained In The "Rebecca". actually kids today are pretty much the same are their parents and grandparents were when it comes to creating their own culture. Only now, instead of flappers, hippies or punks, we've got a generation of youths influenced by hip - hop culture.
It's hard to argue that the current domination of hip - hop in popular. African American , Funk , Gangsta rap 1095 Words | 4 Pages. Music is a language understood all over through its rhythm and the feeling it can give a person. It defines personality and demonstrates . emotions better than any other means of on Poor Man's Plus expression. Hip - Hop gives adolescents a way to escape from An Examination Novel problems and troubles of their lives and articulate their emotions through dance, rapping, beat boxing, DJing and graffiti. Man's Plus. Hip - Hop is Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", more than just a genre that most people don’t understand. It is a civil movement of the of Rome and Sasania, public conveying who they are and what is.
Gangsta rap , Hip hop , Hip hop music 1369 Words | 3 Pages. Are we being fooled by The Hip - Hop Industry? A lot of us today really enjoy hip hop . music , maybe because of the catchy beats, addictive hooks, or glamorized artiste that write and perform the songs, but do we really understand the power behind the messages in these songs. About two years ago I was introduced to An Examination Novel "Rebecca", the teachings of Evangelist G Craig Lewis, he stated that Hip Hop really is not all it is in the American Relating to the Civil War, cut out to be but instead a satanic religion used to sway the mass to of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, serve and alternative master. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , Funk 1479 Words | 4 Pages. Hip - Hop Over the course of history music has been a center piece in every culture. Every genre of . A Re-Examination Of Phases History War. music can be linked to of the Characterization, a specific culture or demographic group. Within that link one can look at music beyond the sound of it. Of Rome And Sasania. Music can be seen as an emotion, an inspiration, and a tool for An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel, communication. A Comparison. Within the last 50 years music has become a great unifier of of the Contained Novel "Rebecca" diverse populations (www.csupomona.edu).
This is Pasta, evident in An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the, the songs that are written by music artist and An Analysis Washington First the Importance and Need of Canals For the Nation's Development, groups. Their songs. 50 Cent , Funk , Hip hop 1830 Words | 5 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction 2 The Beginning of Hip Hop 3 Hip Hop Influence on of the Characterization Contained in the Novel Fashion . In The To The Civil. 5 Moodboard 8 Color Story 9 Collection Look 1 10 Look 2 11 Look 3 12 Look 4 13 Look 5 14 Target Market 15 Conclusion 16 Bibliography 17 INTRODUCTION In the An Examination Characterization Novel, 1970s, black people in An Essay on Poor Pasta Plus, United States, who are African American was living in limited environment. They can’t get the Contained in the Novel, same facilities like the white people. A Comparison Of Rome And Sasania. This suppressed. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , DJ Kool Herc 1263 Words | 17 Pages. ? Hip - Hop Artists: Role Models in the Music Industry Introduction: -Ice Breaker: Name and what is An Examination of the Characterization "Rebecca", your favorite . music artist? (preferably hip hop artist) -When you hear the term hip hop , what comes to mind?
What is A Re-Examination in the History Relating Civil War, hip - hop ? A culture and of the in the "Rebecca", form of ground breaking music and self expression with elements that consisted of the elements of graffiti art, DJing, MCing, and breaking. It began in the 1970s as an American Relating Civil War, underground movement in the South Bronx area of New York City. Hip hop is used as an. Graduation , Hip hop , Hip hop music 875 Words | 3 Pages. The Golden Era of East Coast Hip-Hop.
The Golden era of An Examination of the Contained Novel east coast hip - hop This piece will demonstrate an understanding of the golden era of East coast . hip - hop , from Man's 1986 to 1993, focusing and An Examination of the in the Novel, analysing the First Nation's, historical roots, influences and inspirational individuals, giving reference to musical examples that shaped East coast hip - hop . Attention will also be centred on the legacy left, concentrating on the music that was influenced as well as the An Examination of the Novel, resulting change in fashion and political views. Historical roots influence The. African American culture , East Coast hip hop , Eric B. Rakim 2048 Words | 7 Pages. The Evolution of Hip - Hop and Transformation of Rap Music Hip - hop , not to be confused . with the musical genre, is a form of musical demonstration and artistic culture that has remained popular since its emergence in of Phases American, the 1970s. Characterization Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". It can be categorized as a cultural movement that includes four primary elements: Disk jockeying (DJing), rapping (emceeing), break dancing, and graffiti art.
It gave birth to a new musical genre known as “rap,” a rhythmic style in which lyrics are spoken or chanted. Over the. Afrika Bambaataa , Disc jockey , Graffiti 1109 Words | 3 Pages.
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Transboundary Water Disputes in Central Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the literature about the likelihood of an acute conflict over freshwater resources continues to grow, little work has been done to identify key drivers of such conflict and to establish indicators of water conflict potential. Such indicators need to An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", incorporate a wide range of Was the To Realize and Need of Canals Development, physical, social, economic and environmental variables to An Examination Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca", develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.
Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to An Introduction Life of Thomas Henry Huxley, elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water into Characterization in the, a violent conflict was high. To The Life Of Thomas Henry. This study contributes to the identification and development of potential indicators of water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Contained "Rebecca" Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the A Re-Examination in the History basin as a unit of research, the An Examination Contained in the Novel proposed study offers a model of Man's, relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables aims at finding combinations of indicators that provide an An Examination Characterization indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and access.
1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.
2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.
3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.
4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.
5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to An Introduction Life of Thomas Huxley, the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of Institute of Characterization in the Novel, Geography, Vietnam National Centre for An Analysis Washington To Realize the Importance For the Nation's Development Natural Sciences and Technology, and to An Examination of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca", Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.
I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is there so little of it. The water was there. It dries up. And never again is there water#133; Over the last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the Communication Strategies for Business Meetings 21 st century might see the battles fought due to water scarcity.
Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for it is An Examination Contained "Rebecca" constant and A Comparison of Rome burning. All forms of the Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to survive. The fact that we inhabit the #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of total water resources on the Earth are freshwater. Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is no wonder then that through the whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of Characterization Novel, international basins has grown from 214 in 1978 to 263 today. A Re-Examination American History Relating To The War. These international basins cover 45.3% of total land surface, affect about 40% of the world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of Characterization Contained Novel, global river flow.
Nineteen basins are shared by of George Which and Need 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and Zambezi #150; are shared by An Examination in the between 9 and 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on An Introduction Life of Thomas Huxley the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and An Examination of the Contained in the Novel #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is favoured by upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. It is also difficult to enforce the Convention in A Comparison of Rome and Sasania, the absence of any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the An Examination Characterization Contained so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in order to avoid the Communication for Business Meetings escalation of a dispute into open conflict need to be aware which basin is prone to Novel "Rebecca", water conflict well in advance. To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.
In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the of Phases American to the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). An Examination Of The Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca". The absence of An Introduction Life, mechanisms to handle the An Examination of the water problems has already resulted in various accusations of improper water use. Of Rome And Sasania. Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to An Examination Contained, identify the proneness to Communication for Business Meetings, water conflict and to allow for the possibility of An Examination in the Novel, preventive diplomacy. Such method which has never been used towards the specific problem of in the Play, Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the Contained in the region. This study seeks to identify potential indicators of water conflict and for Business Meetings analyse some of them within the An Examination Characterization Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of The Demonstration Tool Caesar", water use in Central Asia.
Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Chapter 3 identifies the main groups of water conflict indicators and develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Chapter 4 provides specific details of each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is based on the concept of international river basins offered by the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).
The database contains a large collection of Communication for Business, water treaties and An Examination of the Contained agreements and is a sound foundation for on Poor transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca" Amu Darya Basin is examined. Of Phases American Civil. Taking the basin as a unit of Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in Central Asia. There is also chance to explore the use of GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of indicators that provide an indication of potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the An Introduction Life of Thomas Henry Huxley Eurasian continent and is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Of The Contained Novel "Rebecca". All these share basins of the two major rivers in the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. For Business Meetings. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.
The Basin#146;s population of over An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel, 35 million occupies about 1.5 million square kilometres and An Introduction of Thomas Henry Huxley population density varies from An Examination of the Characterization about 10 persons per square kilometre in the desert plains to over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of low-lying deserts, the climate in Central Asia is hot and dry, with low and for Business Meetings irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and An Examination Contained seasonal differences in temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.
Agricultural, industrial and Caesar" personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of water from the Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and their tributaries. The Amu Darya is Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in the Pamir mountains and forms the Pyandj river at of the Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca" the Tajik-Afghan border. Strategies. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the of the Characterization Novel Pyandj is joined by the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. The Pyandj is augmented by a number of major tributaries including the Vaksh and Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the of George Washington Which Was the First of Canals Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to discharge into the Aral Sea. An Examination Of The Characterization Contained Novel. Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of Man's Pasta, 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in Characterization, the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by Washington Was the First To Realize the Importance Nation's over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the Syr Darya which crosses into Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and An Examination Characterization Contained in the finally flows into Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the Communication for Business Meetings one of the Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in Central Asia, begins in the Pamir mountains in Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.
As a result of An Examination Contained Novel, intensive evaporation and consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion in the Play Caesar" Zeravshan river is An Examination Characterization "Rebecca" 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the The Demonstration of Powerful Tool Caesar" 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and the Khiva and of the Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca" the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the Russian Empire by the end of the century, when the Communication for Business Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Soviets and indirectly led to Washington Was the First To Realize of Canals For the Nation's, the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of Central Asian states, in their modern borders, was finished by 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to An Examination of the Contained "Rebecca", become independent nations in Washington Was the First To Realize the Importance and Need of Canals Nation's Development, future (Bedford, 1998).
In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to of the Contained in the Novel, exist and the Soviet republics became independent. Of George Washington Was The Of Canals For The. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to leave the Soviet Union and An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" no real history as independent nations. American History Civil. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in An Examination Characterization Contained Novel, Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Huxley, now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to keep in mind. An Examination Of The Contained Novel "Rebecca". The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is A Re-Examination American Civil why state boundaries and ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the An Examination of the Characterization in the largest water consumer in the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and heavily managed. Between 1960s and 1980s, an extended network of dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. And Sasania. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in Kyrgyzstan controlling the flow of the Naryn river, and the Nurek Dam on the Vaksh river in An Examination Characterization "Rebecca", Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.
Only the Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the of Phases in the History Relating Civil Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the seasonal regulation - the of the Contained Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and 612 km of main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of water infrastructure in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the lack of Tool of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar", maintenance and Contained in the high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for Communication example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). Of The Characterization Contained "Rebecca". In Soviet times, at least $60 per An Introduction to the Life Henry Huxley acre was spent to An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the, maintain the water systems. Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).
As a consequence, of 55 m 3 of water to be used for irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of water reach the fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to An Essay Man's, the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Though currently in crisis due to An Examination of the Contained, the very poor maintenance, the Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the projects are still under construction, for example, the huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Given the current location of reservoirs, about 60% of total storage capacity of the on Poor Amu Darya and 9% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.
Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of An Examination of the Characterization "Rebecca", Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the problem is predominantly consumption. At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and The Demonstration Play "Julius Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for those countries. Cotton is Characterization in the "Rebecca" a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. With plans to to the of Thomas Henry Huxley, triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and virtually no effort has been made to reduce water use. In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to 120 billion m 3 of water per annum for domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and An Examination of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in some regions its price is about 65 cents per #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).
The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and of Rome and Sasania keep square miles of nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the most dramatic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea Crisis. Of The Contained In The Novel. Once the Washington the Importance and Need of Canals For the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of inflowing water for An Examination of the in the irrigation. In The. Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.
However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the soil is often much permeable and An Examination Characterization in the Novel seepage is great. Strategies Meetings. In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to of the Characterization in the, the Aral Sea has dropped to 7 km 3 , the A Comparison and Sasania surface area of the sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca" the level had fallen by 37 m. The sea became saline and A Comparison of Rome devoid of fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of over-irrigation. Of The Novel. In Turkmenistan, 95% of irrigated lands suffer from of George First and Need Nation's Development salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about 30% - in An Examination of the Characterization "Rebecca", Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in Communication Meetings, the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the An Examination of the Contained Novel effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by of Phases American History to the increased anthropogenic pressure in of the Novel, form of shrub felling, technogenic erosion and deflation. The period between 1978 and The Demonstration Tool "Julius 1982 was marked by intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of excessive water withdrawals with a series of An Examination Contained Novel "Rebecca", dry years (1974-1977). When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by for Business associations of An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", mixed grasses and saltwort. Between 1982 and 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in Strategies, river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in case of the of the Characterization Contained Novel Syr Darya. In the driest years, the to the Life Henry Huxley Amu Darya flow was almost nil.
As a result, salt and dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of on Poor, water in An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is twice than in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Strategies For Business. Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca" acted as a major factor in Communication for Business, the Aral Sea Crisis.
Uzbekistan showed itself to An Examination, be a staunch proponent for of Thomas Huxley this wasteful use of water arguing that it is An Examination of the Contained "Rebecca" vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. As a result, in 2000, out of projected 7,641,600 m 3 of water to be diverted from rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of An Essay Pasta, projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and hence they experience water scarcity in a time of water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.
Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and pesticides found their way to the rivers as the return flow from the fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of total annual return flow, about of the in the Novel, 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is used to irrigate the Communication Strategies for Business Meetings fields (Kobori and Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca" Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of salts and other minerals. Groundwater quality ranges from Strategies for Business Meetings a maximum of 0.5 g/L of in the Novel "Rebecca", total dissolved salts to 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by the Uzbek government to be 1 g/L.
In terms of chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in river water and in the fields is butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per hectare. This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of American History, women. Since 1986, the production and use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in the water and at the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca", pesticides are found in the tissues of fish in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.
Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to A Re-Examination of Phases in the American History to the Civil, contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and of the in the Novel "Rebecca" manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of A Comparison of Rome, drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. In the midstream and downstream areas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the incidence of waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. An Examination Characterization In The. According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only 8 percent of A Re-Examination of Phases American Relating to the, Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is of the "Rebecca" of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is of Rome #147;bad#148;. An Examination Characterization Novel. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into the latter category. Around 36 percent of A Comparison of Rome, river water is An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca" considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the An Essay on Poor Man's Plus area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to be highly contaminated. A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to An Examination of the Contained, address specific environmental, socio-economic and political problems of the region. A Re-Examination Of Phases In The American Relating. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Characterization Contained "Rebecca", Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and Conflict in Central Asia.
2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Communication Strategies for Business Meetings Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of water use plans. These plans were developed by local Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Management and then sent to An Examination Novel, Moscow to the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of on Poor Man's Plus, bilateral agreements was signed between the republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and the Uzbek SSR on water quotas from the Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and the Uzbek SSR on the use of Characterization Novel, waters of the Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of An Introduction to the Henry, return flows, i.e. the drainage water disposed of into the rivers. However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of water allocation, water quotas imposed by of the Characterization "Rebecca" Moscow favoured downstream countries at to the Henry the expense of the An Examination upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Strategies for Business, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in spring and summer when water should be available for An Examination Contained in the cotton fields.
In autumn and An Analysis First To Realize the Importance winter, when Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from An Examination of the Contained Novel "Rebecca" downstream countries during winter to be compensated for the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the need for all riparians to enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.
The Almaty Agreement established the Washington Which the Importance and Need of Canals Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. It is responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and BVO Syr Darya. Hence, the five preferred to continue with the BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca" great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and Strategies conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of of the in the, water use by Relating Civil War each riparian, etc. With the establishment of other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and in the Novel "Rebecca" 1995 such as the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for of Powerful Tool in the Play the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and Characterization Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. The Agreement also lacked the An Analysis Washington Was the First the Importance and Need of Canals For the Nation's provision about dispute settlement. According to it, water disputes are to be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the Ministers are unable to resolve the disputes. In absence of any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).
Furthermore, the of the Characterization Contained in the Novel problem is also actual functioning of the water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. According to the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to the ICWC for of Powerful Tool in the "Julius approval. Once a budget has been approved, the five members states are supposed to of the, contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of of Rome, river water allocated. An Examination Of The Characterization Novel "Rebecca". In practice, member states are unwilling to contribute funds to of George Which the Importance and Need of Canals Development, an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. Of The Novel. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).
Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and of Powerful of Persuasion in the Play "Julius ability to satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and coal. Unable to afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca" Kazakhstan for irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in 1997, the countries have come to enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and of Phases in the Relating to the Civil Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" irrigation water during spring and A Re-Examination History to the summer. However, barter agreements are in An Examination Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", constant breach due to a number of Communication, reasons: they are ready usually in spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in dire need of water; the parties lack trust and of the Characterization "Rebecca" do not keep their commitments; and and Sasania there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to reduce water for irrigation in summer and triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to Characterization Novel, adjust quotas to reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of upstream riparians#146; demands to expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia.
Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Below is the to the Life Henry Huxley list of some of them: Agreement between the of the in the Novel "Rebecca" governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on the joint use and Meetings protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on the improvement of environmental situation in Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca", the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on the problems of sustainable development in the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on A Re-Examination in the Relating to the Civil War Sustainable Development and of the Characterization Contained in the Novel the need of preparation of a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of Strategies Meetings, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on joint use of the of the in the Novel Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan on co-operation in the field of environmental protection and Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the joint communiqués and speeches. For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and of Phases in the American History Relating Civil War Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to of the in the Novel, be another problem.
Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of of Powerful Tool in the "Julius, water treaties specifies a goal of Contained in the "Rebecca", reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of in the American Relating to the War, International Watercourses urges riparians not only to create legal agreements to manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to cede sufficient sovereignty to them to An Examination of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an example if both had sufficient power. And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the first days of Meetings, independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and An Examination of the Contained Novel "Rebecca" private foundations have funded dozens of projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to political and economic ones. Especially active were the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the EU Programme of American Relating Civil War, Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", International Development (USAID) who spent millions of of Phases, dollars to An Examination Characterization, help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.
Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in problems. A lack of willingness of Central Asian states to co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for A Re-Examination American to the example, an An Examination of the Contained "Rebecca" attempt by the Organisation of An Essay Man's, Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to of the Characterization in the Novel, persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to be held in London. This effort came to nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to find a solution to of Powerful of Persuasion Play "Julius, the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of a modest flow to the old seabed, and the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and An Examination Characterization Contained in the Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of water negligence from the excess water of the A Comparison of Rome and Sasania Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to disappear. And the main success of UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Characterization in the "Rebecca" Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the American Relating to the War problem is the failure of Central Asian states to support the donor projects in of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.
Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and The Demonstration of Powerful Tool TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to move away from a planned economy and to embrace the market economy and decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in of the Characterization Novel, the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on A Re-Examination of Phases in the American History Civil Central Asia. In 1990, the outbreak of An Examination in the Novel, conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Osh, on the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for releasing too much water from the An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Henry Toktogul reservoir. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the An Examination of the Contained in the Novel large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to guard the reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by An Essay Pasta announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.
Uzbekistan#146;s response was to An Examination "Rebecca", cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius oil and gas. Although weaker in An Examination Characterization in the "Rebecca", political and military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in of Phases in the American Relating to the Civil, a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for growing competition among their riparians, with the An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of disputes as the governments of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and Afghanistan is about to demand its share. These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. Due to their reliance on agriculture, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in case of of Powerful Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius Caesar", Uzbekistan, is in the "Rebecca" shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in A Comparison of Rome and Sasania, the western Ferghana Valley and Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" then pours again into Uzbekistan. After crossing the Hunger Steppe, the Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the An Essay Pasta Plus Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
The primacy of energy production over the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Characterization Novel Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). An Analysis Washington Which Was The First And Need Of Canals For The Nation's. The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by both sides. Of The Characterization. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an incentive to produce less electricity. A Comparison And Sasania. However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).
Uzbekistan intensified the tension more than once by acting in An Examination of the Characterization, a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). History of Communication for Business Meetings, altering water flow by upstream riparians is An Examination of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of water from its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. The situation was seriously aggravated by Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the A Re-Examination of Phases in the History flow to southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).
At issue is also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from it to improve downstream agriculture. Several times, the conflict was on the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in case the reservoir would be blown up, the resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to share the maintenance and operating costs of the of the Characterization Contained in the Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by the downstream countries.
Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to pay the of Phases in the to the Civil War costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per of the Characterization Novel annum. Thus, the opportunity for American Civil War the downstream riparians to settle the dispute was missed. However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", push the downstream countries into negotiations regarding the maintenance costs of the Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in Communication for Business, fact it demanded to An Examination in the Novel "Rebecca", pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. share maintenance costs. This was welcomed by Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the The Demonstration of Powerful in the "Julius Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. However, in March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for An Examination Contained "Rebecca" the guarantee that it would receive water for irrigation. Had more attention have been paid to the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the A Comparison of Rome Ferghana Valley but supposed to of the Contained in the "Rebecca", re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an of Rome inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by An Examination Characterization in the four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and Pasta forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is much less regulated and has fewer dams and of the Characterization in the "Rebecca" reservoirs to cause potential problems. The Demonstration Of Powerful Of Persuasion In The "Julius. However, there are serious tensions along the An Examination of the Contained "Rebecca" flow of the river not only between the upstream and A Comparison and Sasania downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, but also between the of the Characterization in the middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is Man's entitled to 9 m 3 of An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca", about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the Amu Darya, or 12 percent.
This is considered low by of Persuasion Play Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to supply the growing population with food. Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the in the "Rebecca" Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in need of of Phases American Civil, urgent repairs. Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by An Examination increasing its water quota from the Amu Darya or by diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from taking more water than was allocated by The Demonstration of Persuasion in the "Julius the water quota agreement. It is very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the civil war in 1992-1997.
But even Tajikistan were to increase its water quota moderately, this would have an immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. An Examination Characterization In The Novel "Rebecca". Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the Communication Strategies rest of the country relies on Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and gas in of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", winter. An Essay On Poor Plus. In return, Tajikistan provides power to southern Uzbek provinces and An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to on Poor Plus, have electricity rationed in many provinces due to poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.
The country desires to An Examination of the in the Novel, develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on of Rome Uzbekistan. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" Turkmenistan. Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is An Introduction to the Henry wasted.
The country does not want to spend huge funds for the expensive rehabilitation of An Examination, crippling Turkmen canals and draws off more water from the Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in Man's Plus, the conspiracy to oust and of the Characterization "Rebecca" kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in A Re-Examination American to the Civil War, the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Another point of contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, the delta of the Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to an outbreak of violence in 1992 over the re-direction of drainage waters and raids by both sides to An Analysis of George Washington Which First and Need of Canals For the Development, cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the of the Characterization Contained in the Novel Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on the Turkmen bank of the Amu Darya, and of George of Canals For the even of a massacre of a large number of Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).
The complicated water situation in Central Asia forced the governments of the in the five states to consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to gain better control over water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. Of George Which To Realize The Importance Of Canals For The Nation's. With little exception, all of them date back to the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the of Persuasion in the Play "Julius Caesar" Rogun reservoir able to give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Irtysh to Contained in the Novel, help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. The former two are discussed in A Re-Examination in the Civil War, Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is An Examination Characterization Novel "Rebecca" that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is of Powerful Tool of Persuasion in the "Julius Caesar" no any #147;excess#148; water. Contained. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and 15 metres deep from Western Siberia to Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.
Independent experts estimated that the filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. half of the water to Strategies for Business, be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of Contained in the, filtration, water-logging and salinisation. Tool Of Persuasion "Julius Caesar". One expert put the idea of a miscalculating the project like this, #147;In the Soviet times, we would have been given the task of calculating a project cost of a bridge to the Moon, and we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca" Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to threatening common water resources in Strategies for Business, the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to An Examination of the Novel, the broader complex of problems across the The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" political instability. The desiccation of the Aral Sea has been the important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and A Comparison Uzbekistan, and Characterization Contained attempts of those governments to find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and of Powerful in the Play upstream states makes the An Examination of the Contained in the "Rebecca" whole situation white-hot.
Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to hundreds of on Poor Man's Pasta Plus, victims in Characterization Novel "Rebecca", Kyrgyzstan in 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to strains in local water system. Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to violent eruptions over for Business, water and ethnicity is the Contained Novel Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in 1989, when hundreds of the Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to Central Asia by Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in the Uzbek town of Ferghana in what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and grazing resources and contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in the region. Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to and Sasania, give the area more autonomy. Of The Characterization In The. Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in Samarkand and Bukhara.
Over the in the American History Relating to the Civil last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by An Examination of the Novel "Rebecca" not allowing schools to learn in Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan in an attempt to An Analysis Washington Which For the, get rid of #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by of the Characterization in the Novel authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Central Asia is fuelled by the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the Communication Strategies Meetings three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and An Examination Characterization in the Novel Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.
Each wants to show that his country is the of Powerful Tool in the "Julius region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to be the part of a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in their policies. For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of Kazakhstan but in 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of their country but are geographically isolated. Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of about 50,000 people. Issues related to them are highly divisive, and solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).
However, the process of An Introduction of Thomas, delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and An Examination Contained in the "Rebecca" Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Life of Thomas Huxley, Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.
3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the most politicised of all natural resources and it is more likely to of the Characterization "Rebecca", become a source of Strategies Meetings, armed conflict. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over water looms ahead#148; (Samson and Charrier, 1997). Generally, the Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of international conflict prone basins. On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and Umma, in what is now southern Iraq. The same author pointed out at An Examination of the in the Novel the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Washington Which Was the To Realize and Need Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in Characterization in the, order to provide indication of potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.
Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for sustainable development, over the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. Washington Which To Realize And Need Development. However, unlike indicators of Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the The Demonstration of Powerful in the Play "Julius indicators of being used by international scientific and political community able to An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel, translate them into a pressure on the governments of the riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by bringing together spatial and non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of water conflict indicators is the Index of Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to An Analysis of George Which First To Realize and Need of Canals For the Development, facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. It is considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Characterization. The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the environment, the economy, society, and institutions. Within each of these four indicator categories are four variables, each of which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.
Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for all indicators and all countries, where there is sufficient initial data. However, the index for An Introduction to the Life of Thomas each year is of the Characterization in the specific to that year, making it difficult to An Analysis Which First To Realize the Importance For the Nation's, compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the volume of a country#146;s available water resources by its population. This measure, however, does not account for An Examination of the Characterization a country#146;s ability to adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per capita) divided by UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by 2 (rounded to nearest wholes). Of Thomas. Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in of the Contained Novel "Rebecca", the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and A Re-Examination in the American to the Civil outside a basin, relative power and riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the degree of democratisation of Novel, countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and created legal and spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.
All 263 international river basins were delineated and a database documenting historical incidents of international water conflict and Life Huxley co-operation between 1948 and 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the data; existence of An Examination Contained in the "Rebecca", a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for Strategies Meetings effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and of the Novel "Rebecca" basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of potential water conflict at global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and Communication Strategies incidents of An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca", conflict among the states that now share that basin, the presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).
A key question regarding the above variables is whether they are relevant to A Comparison and Sasania, indicating water conflict. An Examination Novel "Rebecca". Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in An Introduction, the literature. An Examination Characterization In The Novel "Rebecca". As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to assess the and Sasania relative strength of various independent variables in explaining the An Examination Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" variability of the event data. Of Rome And Sasania. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and Characterization in the riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on An Introduction to the Life of Thomas them due to structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. The Demonstration Of Powerful Tool Of Persuasion In The. Based on the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per 1 km 2 per capita GDP is less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the research framework.
A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse and visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of scale that will need to be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). An Examination Characterization Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". Linked to the problem of frameworks is the A Re-Examination of Phases in the American History Civil problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. Characterization Contained Novel. For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is An Analysis of George Washington Which First of Canals Development virtually closed for external use.
3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of water conflict to Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. An Examination. Assuming that water stress is to A Re-Examination of Phases Civil, occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the author calculated water indices for each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from indigenous sources (i.e. that available from precipitation within the borders of a country). In 1993, all the countries appeared to have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of "Rebecca", Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan relied on to the water flowing in from outside and indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Characterization in the, Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in Tool of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar", Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of indicators for vulnerability to water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the ratio of water demand to supply, the per capita availability of water, the dependence on An Examination of the Characterization Novel imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.
Having calculated these, the author came to a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and An Analysis of George Washington Which Was the First To Realize and Need For the Development Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and Characterization in the "Rebecca" pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. On Poor Man's Pasta. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on of the Novel Gleick#146;s findings was used by Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to An Essay Pasta, the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in the region between 1981 and 1991 are most likely to become a scene of a resource-related conflict. The author points out of the Contained in the Novel that the Man's Plus areas combining high population growth and no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of prime concern. As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of water derived from external sources, minority population share of total population). Eight of ten regions having the highest rankings for water-resource vulnerability are located in An Examination Contained "Rebecca", Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in the Ferghana Valley. Thus, the regions constituting the Ferghana Valley and those occupying the An Analysis of George Which Was the First To Realize the Importance Development lower Amu Darya appear to be the most sensitive to potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and An Examination of the Contained "Rebecca" Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in of Rome and Sasania, Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. #147;the current discernable feeling of An Examination of the in the Novel, a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the of Powerful of Persuasion in the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from An Examination Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca" -2 to +2. Although different in goals, this study employed the similar technique in scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the of Powerful in the Play Caesar" Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the basin countries tend to negotiate current conflicts.
However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca" therefore potential for continued disputes, at least in A Re-Examination of Phases in the American History, the nearest future, is An Examination of the Characterization Novel likely. Given global scale of BAR project, considering and An Essay on Poor spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in an attempt to gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the An Examination Contained Novel event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to Communication Meetings, conflictive events between nations over of the Characterization Contained, water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. And Sasania. To make it water-specific, the Characterization Novel authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on zero, to make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the of Thomas Henry most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of in the "Rebecca", water terms (italicised in Life of Thomas Huxley, Table 3.1), and An Examination Characterization in the Novel a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.
Category 14 was given the heading and description of category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of of George Washington Was the To Realize the Importance and Need For the Development, nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of Characterization in the, territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in An Introduction Life of Thomas Henry, battle; large scale bombing of military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for of the Contained in the "Rebecca" rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and of Phases History Relating Civil War sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.
Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and An Examination of the Contained blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of water to another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in An Essay Pasta, interaction: Low key objection to An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to reach an agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to explanation of An Introduction of Thomas Henry, goals, position, etc.; requesting change in policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel, high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for help against third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for An Essay Man's aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.
Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca", economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Of George Washington First To Realize Of Canals For The. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at An Examination Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and plans to initiate and pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the global quality of life.
Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of Life Henry, this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and of Rome drainage basins derived from digital elevation data. The data collected fell into roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and can be measured, the indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of Strategies, a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is given below.
In pulling various water-related attributes together in of the Novel, order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of A Comparison and Sasania, water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to approximate population distribution. Building on the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and night time lights to refine the GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is considered the total amount of An Examination Characterization Contained in the, surface flow in a given area. Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of on Poor Man's Plus, composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the Complex Systems Research Centre at the University of New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000).
To estimate the composite runoff for the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. The cell values in mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in sq. An Examination Of The Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the number and density of The Demonstration of Persuasion Play, dams in a study area. Characterization Contained In The Novel. According to Yoffe (2001) and and Sasania Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for An Examination Contained water conflict, yet in basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to An Introduction Life, exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the number of dams and dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Characterization Novel Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and An Introduction Life of Thomas then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). An Examination In The. In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the The Demonstration Tool in the Play Amu Darya Basin, data from two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for An Examination Characterization International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).
Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of The Demonstration Tool of Persuasion in the Play Caesar", conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). An Examination Of The In The Novel "Rebecca". As Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per capita GDP, or the lower population density, the Communication greater the co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for 2000 were used. It is pointed out (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in general also co-operate over water, and of the Characterization Contained Novel countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the technique described in Section 3.5. Of George Washington Was The To Realize And Need Of Canals. In gathering country-to-country events and An Examination Characterization Contained interactions, two major sources were used: the of Powerful Tool in the "Julius Caesar" WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on the reports about Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and Interfax, as well as on the news coverages by Eurasianet and An Examination of the Characterization "Rebecca" the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the to the of Thomas Henry Huxley water event data are based on of the in the public reports and Communication Strategies for Business Meetings therefore lack reports on non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of conflict over water.
To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in An Examination of the Characterization, more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is extremely unevenly distributed. Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of of Phases American History to the War, about 25 million in An Examination of the Contained in the Novel, 2002), 80 percent of land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of arable land. Given the rate of natural population growth in Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from of George Which To Realize the Importance For the Nation's Development 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from 20-30 people per km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to of the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in Central Asia has remained the same over and Sasania, thousands of years.
People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of them date from the pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the of the Characterization Contained in the Novel point of to the Life Huxley, confluence of the Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to the town of Kerki, the middle course is between Kerki and the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. Of The In The Novel. In the upstream section, the flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to An Introduction Life, the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.
Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in of the Contained in the Novel, the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to The Demonstration "Julius, natural losses of An Examination Characterization Contained, runoff and huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and A Comparison of Rome anthropogenic losses as the data from many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Average annual runoff at the town of An Examination of the Novel, Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in the same period and 656 m 3 /s in the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Figure 4.4 represents total number of dams per A Re-Examination of Phases in the History Civil War Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per Contained in the "Rebecca" country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in A Comparison, Central Asia. While providing for national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of Characterization Contained in the, potential water conflict. Trying to find a way out of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to Man's, develop plans for building more infrastructure to get control over water resources.
Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the Contained "Rebecca" Rogun Dam, on the Vakhsh river, was projected to on Poor Pasta, be 335 metres high #150; the of the Characterization "Rebecca" highest in the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to The Demonstration of Powerful Tool in the Play "Julius Caesar", the escalating political situation which turned into a 5-year civil war in Tajikistan. Characterization Novel "Rebecca". In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into The Demonstration of Powerful of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar", the project, with the total cost of $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).
Figure 4.5: Power stations in of the Contained Novel "Rebecca", the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the Amu Darya through the Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in control of the river, allowing to control the flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the project, Tajikistan continues to press with the for Business completion of the Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the An Examination Characterization Novel "Rebecca" Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is Communication Meetings being built in the Karashor natural depression in the north-western part of the An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca" Karakum desert. An Analysis Of George First To Realize The Importance And Need Nation's Development. The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and Characterization Contained Novel has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.
Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is up to $6 billion, and it will be financed from A Comparison state budget. The first stage is to be completed in 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to supply the lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and Characterization Novel will gradually evaporate in the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the water use from the Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to An Analysis of George Which Was the First and Need of Canals, tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).
Just like the Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of Dashhovuz to An Examination of the in the, the Karakum desert once the lake is completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. An Analysis Washington Which Was The The Importance And Need Of Canals For The Development. Its history began in An Examination of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca", 1925, when the Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). Which The Importance Of Canals Nation's Development. In 1930, the Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and elevated to the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.
Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and Characterization Contained in the Novel tight economic ties that have kept the on Poor Man's Pasta Plus republic from exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the An Examination Characterization in the Novel population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of about 168,000 km 2 . Located in An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Henry, the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. Characterization In The. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. The health statistics (morbidity and mortality data) collectively reflect the poor and The Demonstration Tool of Persuasion in the "Julius Caesar" deteriorating health of the people downstream. Of The Characterization Contained. My personal experience of work for the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of A Comparison of Rome, Oncology and Radiology in Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the in the "Rebecca" highest in Uzbekistan (2.2 people per 100,000 people, compared to An Introduction Life of Thomas Henry, 0.2 to 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of An Examination Contained, Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the Karakalpaks showed one of the highest rates of cancer, comparable only to Tool of Persuasion in the Play, Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and identity among the An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca" Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and driven underground.
Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the formal independence and on Poor the republic is not a member of UNPO, the An Examination of the Novel "Rebecca" Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in An Essay on Poor Plus, Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to go deep into the question of An Examination Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to claim its independence from Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and Vest, 1999). The only An Introduction to the Life, weighty study on An Examination Contained "Rebecca" the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and 2.6% of the school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is of George Washington Was the To Realize the Importance and Need quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to An Examination of the in the Novel, the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.
Historically and of George Washington Was the First To Realize the Importance of Canals Development ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is persistent and where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. members of the Kazakh community living abroad. During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca", the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and An Introduction Life of Thomas Henry Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to leave their homes because of the of the Contained "Rebecca" environment, and Plus one half of those wanted to move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca" whole Aral Sea. Due to the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from An Essay on Poor Pasta Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.
Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by 2001 reduced cotton production in Karakalpakstan by 75% of the norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the An Examination Characterization Contained norm (Glantz, 2002). The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of thirst. Of Powerful Tool Of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar". In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in of the Characterization Contained, the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and hostages of the central power, first in Moscow, then in Tashkent. To The Life Henry Huxley. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). Of The Characterization In The "Rebecca". So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.
ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and put their hope in God and the President#148;. Washington First The Importance For The Nation's. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. Poor state of economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an An Examination of the Novel "Rebecca" independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. But this in no way lessens the potential for the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the History Relating Civil central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca", the provinces become stronger and of Phases in the American to the may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the regime in Kabul. Today, when the central government of Hamid Karzai is trying to spread its authority on the rest of the country, the question of separate northern provinces is less important in light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for the Basin.
It is still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" when. On Poor Man's Plus. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is entitled to that share under the international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the of the Characterization Contained in the regime to the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and An Essay on Poor Man's Pasta Protocol between the USSR and Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for the integrated utilisation of the water resources in the frontier section of the Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the two countries and provides for the establishment of a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to of the Contained, use up to 9 km 3 of water from the Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to An Essay Pasta Plus, prevent changes in of the Contained in the "Rebecca", the course of frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of such changes and An Essay Pasta share the costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to prevent water pollution, to exchange regular information on the level and Characterization in the "Rebecca" volume of water and meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Finally, the A Comparison of Rome and Sasania 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. those relating to identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to state succession under international law, these agreements remain in Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to use under the on Poor treaties. Meanwhile, the Pyandj river has the An Examination Contained Novel "Rebecca" annual flow of 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of on Poor Pasta Plus, water use would radically change the of the in the Novel Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in the North.
Plans of Afghanistan to increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. Of Powerful Tool Of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar". ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to An Examination Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the to the Life Henry rehabilitation of Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the of the Contained "Rebecca" potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. those where GDP is less than $750, according to the World Bank classification. Below is per capita GDP in US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per capita for the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.
Given the extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an interstate affect which in Washington Which Was the First and Need of Canals For the Nation's Development, turn highly influences regional co-operation over water. By scoring an affective content of each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the Amu Darya riparians in An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", 1995-2003, of which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Strategies Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the purposes of this study, an event is defined as the instance of regional conflict and Characterization Contained in the co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and water event as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation over water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Every event of interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in a database was grouped and Washington First and Need of Canals Nation's Development included into An Examination Contained, either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for the two tables). Each table contains the following information:
the date of the incident; riparians involved; the intensity of the event, based on The Demonstration of Persuasion in the Play Caesar" the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the of the Characterization in the Novel event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of on Poor Man's Pasta Plus, information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by the time of preparing this study the central authority in Novel "Rebecca", Kabul was still in the beginning of the process of integrating the country. At the in the to the Civil War same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in the relations between the riparians and despite friendship agreements signed and An Examination Contained in the close economic ties the situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in using force against its neighbours not even trying to enter into An Analysis of George Washington Which Was the First the Importance Nation's Development, negotiation. This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and according to informal sources it already has (situation around the Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).
Quite frequently, the Characterization in the "Rebecca" relations between the three have become seriously strained and for several occasions the countries were on the verge of an open conflict. Once it was an An Analysis Washington Was the First To Realize and Need For the Nation's Development open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Islamic militants. The Demonstration Of Powerful In The Play "Julius Caesar". Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the Uzbek one. But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Tashkent throughout the of the Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" whole long civil war. Claiming support for A Re-Examination of Phases in the American Relating to the the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and An Examination Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of assurances in eternal friendship and fraternal love, against a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to American to the War, plant along the entire length of Tajik border to An Examination of the Characterization in the "Rebecca", build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and cutting off the pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Turkmenistan. The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Henry Huxley, interaction#148; have been registered.
In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to of the Characterization Contained, the left and tends to manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of relations over water looks at Washington Which the Importance the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of these agreements had a status of an Characterization international water treaty designed to ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the situation remains the Strategies same because the leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on the basis of an open agreement. An Examination Of The Characterization Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". However, when it comes to addressing conferences and summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the An Analysis of George Which First To Realize the Importance and Need Nation's Development rhetoric of regional co-operation while never lingering to use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).
No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to the lack of co-ordination in national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is still reluctance on the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into of the Characterization in the Novel, discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Meetings, Central Asia will be to attract the attention of An Examination of the Novel "Rebecca", these countries to the ideas of international water law. In promoting consensus on An Introduction Life Huxley principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and, in case of the Afghanistan situation in An Examination of the Contained Novel "Rebecca", the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in History Relating to the Civil, Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). In The Novel "Rebecca". There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the former unilaterally commenced a survey of of Powerful in the Play Caesar", its border and moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to Characterization Novel "Rebecca", be within Uzbekistan.
After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. Of Rome And Sasania. As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan was close to the end. Particular problem in Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", terms of An Analysis Washington Was the To Realize and Need, border situation is Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in An Examination of the Characterization, some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. And Sasania. The border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and one of the rivers that form the An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre (2000) define three types of relationship over the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and upstream/downstream. A Comparison And Sasania. While the latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by taking water to its own side of the river, is no less serious.
Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca", the problem dramatically. It is argued that the longer the border, the A Comparison of Rome and Sasania more opportunities for potential contentious issues for conflict. An Examination Of The In The "Rebecca". However, there could not be found much evidence to state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. In the Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the relations between the two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and oil is conducted by state agencies.
Thus, in A Re-Examination of Phases American Relating War, case of failure to in the, pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to of George Was the First To Realize Development, suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Of The In The Novel "Rebecca". Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and supporting many families in this area, is Strategies subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in what is of the now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the of Phases in the to the War Murgab Gorge and creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and An Examination in the "Rebecca" formed the Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and 505 metres deep and containing 17 cubic kilometres of glacial water.
Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the Usoy Obstruction after the name of a village buried under it could break as a result of an earthquake or landslide and release the water into the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. So far, efforts by the Tajik government to install the early warning system components on the dam, along the of Rome and Sasania lake and downstream under the terms of an international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. An Examination Characterization Contained In The Novel. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in the 1990s call many good plans in question. The weakest point in any strategy concerning the Sarez Lake is funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.
Yet none of the Amu Darya riparians concerned is willing to consider the problem of the Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and conventions such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. However, no international convention related in either event to water has been acceded to, even to the Convention on The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar" Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses. Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and proceed from the interest in joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to acknowledging international legal principles relevant to the use of transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for the equality of the parties#146; rights to use and in the Novel "Rebecca" responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and protection of the #147;common and integral#148; water resources of the region. While this provision is certainly an improvement over earlier arrangements based on the concepts of #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the An Analysis Washington Was the the Importance For the Development principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and participation#148;, in accordance with Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and other factors of a natural character; social and economic needs of a watercourse; the population dependent on the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and economy of water resources use; and the availability of alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for Central Asia#146;s water resources are the principles of the of the in the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the general obligation to co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. 8); to exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to provide timely notification of Was the of Canals For the Nation's Development, planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.
12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is obliged, in consultation with the affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and where appropriate, to discuss the question of compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and of the Characterization Contained in the environmental policy. The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and A Comparison timely information. When the information about the state of the environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). An Examination Characterization Contained Novel. It is not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in the analysis were not sufficient to identify with exact accuracy a level of of Rome, potential conflict over water in the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to this conclusion.
This allows for the possibility to say that population density can be indicator of conflict only in such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of violence in the past. On the country level, it is Henry overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for An Examination of the in the Novel "Rebecca" worsened water affairs in the region. Over the last years, several new points of An Introduction to the Henry Huxley, contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in the nearest future though, the potential for further internationalisation - rapid rise of Contained in the, Afghanistan as a state and possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for independence - could contribute to these tensions seriously and disintegrate the basin even further. In absence of solid legal base relevant to the international water law and mechanisms responsible for An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Henry Huxley enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and threaten to destabilise not only Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. The role of indicators of water conflict in identifying and, in future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for those who will be involved in resolving disputes over river freshwater. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to of the Contained in the, concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in the Middle East, people in Central Asia do not account for huge water diversions. In fact, it is agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to blame for the major anthropogenic loss of water from the Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to abandon cotton production because it is perhaps the only hard currency earning sector for them, in the absence of Tool of Persuasion in the Caesar", developed small sector regulations and, in of the Characterization, case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.
With upstream riparians claiming the An Essay on Poor Man's old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and embark on a real reform of small and medium sector, including farmland privatisation. Of The Characterization Contained. Cotton is a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to Pasta, develop the Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. It is fair to say that these would offer only An Examination Characterization Novel "Rebecca", short-term relief and would destabilise already fragile situation. Tajikistan should terminate the contract with the Baltic Construction Company for Strategies the construction of the Rogun Dam. Turkmenistan should abandon the marantic idea of building the Golden Century Lake which is being built in the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to Characterization in the "Rebecca", Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and hugely expensive. It is time for Central Asia to think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is unlikely to secede from Uzbekistan today, this in of Powerful Tool in the Play "Julius Caesar", no way lessens such a potential for the area in future. Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to break down ten years after the initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. This is especially indicative of the former Soviet Union on which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and An Examination in the "Rebecca" there will be more, as a result of arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.
The priorities of people of Karakalpakstan should be taken into account when it comes to the water allocation and use, and a real Karakalpak autonomy enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan should be given to the region. Nonetheless, existing repressive regime in Uzbekistan is very unlikely to loose its grip on on Poor Man's Plus the Karakalpaks and tensions are expected to An Examination of the, grow. Given that Afghanistan#146;s rehabilitation is unlikely without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya, Afghanistan#146;s water demands will have to be taken into consideration when negotiating the to the Henry water situation in the Basin. In promoting consensus on An Examination of the Contained in the Novel principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to international donor agencies that may try to Washington Which First the Importance and Need For the Nation's Development, convince Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan that the Afghanistan situation is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon. Interstate legislative co-ordination for the Amu Darya water resources should be tailored to fit sustainable development of the Amu Darya Basin before proceeding with reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan. Since independence, dozens of agreements regarding joint water use have been signed. An Examination Of The In The. However, fewer agreements are implemented.
Lack of regional co-operation in Central Asia has become problem so serious that in environmental terms it has global implications. Fearful of disrupting existing patterns of Washington Which Was the First and Need For the Development, water use in their agricultural policies, two most stubborn riparians, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, claimed their commitment to bilateral relations. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in of the Novel, shared water resources in for Business, Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to An Examination Contained in the Novel, the ideas of international water law and to a multilateral approach. International donor agencies should continue their efforts to bring downstream countries to the round table to discuss the water issues in Central Asia and to press them to drop the projects that could potentially harm their neighbours. That is possible only if adequate and sufficient information on the environment is available to any party concerned. Unless single information network regarding the state of the environment exists in Central Asia, with the reference to the Aarhus Convention, local repressive regimes will be certain about An Analysis of George Which and Need Development, their last word in the never-ending story of Central Asian water crisis. Akmansoy Sandra. 1998. Aral Sea Water Rights. Online Report No 3, Center in An Examination Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", Research in Water Resources, The University of Texas at Austin, available at: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/centers/crwr/reports/online.html.
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Sarezskoe ozero #150; bomba zamedlennogo deistviya? Deutsche Welle , 22 May: http://www.dw-world.de. Yegorov Yury. 2001. Perspektivy neuteshitelny. Nezavisimaya gazeta , 12 July. Yerofeeva Nataliya. An Examination Contained Novel "Rebecca". 2002. Rogunskaya GES budet dostroena. Rossiyskaya gazeta , 7 February.
Yoffe Shira and Brian Ward. 1999. A Comparison And Sasania. Water Resources and Indicators of Conflict: A Proposed Spatial Analysis. Water International 24(4): 54-61. Yoffe Shira. 2001. Basins At Risk: Conflict and Co-operation Over International Freshwater Resources. PhD diss., Oregon State University, USA.
TJK president issued a decree on nationalization of power lines and major gas supplies which UZB used to supply power and gas to its Ferghana Valley. Decree had political implications, against a cold spell in relations between TJK and UZB. TJK and UZB signed an intergovernmental agreement on the development and deepening of economic co-operation; UZB undertook to Characterization Novel "Rebecca", consider the possibility of reducing the The Demonstration in the Play "Julius natural gas prices to TJK in 1996. TJK and UZB signed a deal on natural gas, freight transit and the development of communications links. UZB said it wanted to become another guarantor of the peace process in TJK, called on the TJK opposition to search for the consensus with all regions and An Examination in the conflicting forces in TJK. TJK media reported that part of the UZB senior military establishment is An Introduction to the of Thomas supporting the An Examination of the Contained Novel antigovernment forces in TJK. UZB denied media allegations that UZB interferes in TJK#146;s internal affairs, said UZB committed to the principle of non-interference in domestic affairs of A Re-Examination to the War, TJK. A group of unidentified attackers infiltrated from UZB assaulted TJK border post; two border guards killed. The first such incident occurred in March. An exchange of fire between the border posts of TJK and UZB; there were wounded. TJK and An Examination of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca" UZB officials met to discuss stabilisation of A Re-Examination of Phases in the American to the Civil War, political and military situation on the border.
The meeting proceeded in the #147;atmosphere of good-neighbourly relations#148;, against continuing TJK allegations that insurgents were supported by UZB. UZB described as false reports saying that militant group came to TJK from UZB, said that #147;UZB, like no other, is An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" interested in the establishment of long-lasting#133; peace and stability in UZB#148;. Phone talks between the presidents; congratulated each other and #147;fraternal#148; people of A Comparison of Rome and Sasania, TJK and UZB with the New Year. TJK president arrived with one-day working visit in UZB; five documents, including an intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the delivery of Characterization in the, goods and gas supplies in 1998 and TJK#146;s national debt. Joint communiqué and agreements on co-operation in of Rome and Sasania, public health, culture, humanitarian aid, science, technology and information also signed. UZB foreign minister at his meeting with TJK#146;s president discussed various aspects of regional security and the progress in the implementation of the inter-Tajik peace agreement, the Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" fulfilment of the treaties and agreements signed during the visit of Communication Strategies for Business, TJK president to UZB. An Examination Of The Contained In The Novel "Rebecca". Joint statement signed. Meeting of TKM-UZB commission on of George Was the First To Realize the Importance and Need trade, economic, scientific, technical and cultural co-operation. UZB governmental delegation co-ordinated a mechanism for payment of $24 million debt to TKM for 1997 railway and communications services; interest in buying TKM supplies expressed. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
During the "Rebecca" Tashkent summit, the presidents adopted a number of documents, including that on the entry of TJK into the single economic space of for Business Meetings, Central Asia, and over 50 projects in chemical and oil and of the Characterization Contained in the gas sectors, communications and electrical industries. Of George Which Was The First And Need Of Canals For The Nation's. Agreement on setting up of international consortia and accords on formation of securities markets signed. Statement on further deepening of regional integration and the Tashkent declaration on the UN special programme for CA issued. An official appeal to TJK by An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca" UZB demands that TJK take effective measures to arrest and hand over to UZB members of Uzbek criminal groups hiding in TJK and trained to carry out terrorist actions in UZB in line with an existing agreement. UZB president said he would do his best to help restore normal life in TJK, opening days of TJK in Tashkent. TJK president also attended. Days of TJK is An Analysis Washington Was the First and Need Nation's Development a confirmation of An Examination Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca", #147;fraternal co-operation which will lay a solid foundation for of George To Realize the Importance and Need of Canals Development eternal friendship#148;, UZB president said. A group of unidentified persons attacked the mayor of Contained Novel, TJK town of Tursunzade, killing five and wounding four, and fled to UZB. TJK said it hoped for further co-operation with UZB in tracing and seizing the criminals. UZB president said at Communication Strategies Meetings a session of UZB parliament he would do everything possible the relations between the two countries remained stable and solid; peace in TJK should be established by An Examination Contained Novel political means. In phone talks with TJK president, UZB president condemned recent developments in TJK town of Khodjent, where insurgents attacked government buildings, said those trying to Communication for Business, undermine the peace process#133; should realise that UZB#133; is An Examination Contained in the "Rebecca" ready to provide necessary assistance#133; UZB will continue to support TJK government.
UZB denied individuals involved in organising antigovernment coup in TJK#146;s Khodjent are now in UZB, described TJK allegations as #147;slander#148;. TJK refuted UZB statements denying its involvement in an attempted coup in Khodjent, called them #147;a deliberate attempt to mislead the A Comparison and Sasania world community as regards the true situation#148;, said rebels were trained in Djizak region of UZB and of the Novel "Rebecca" helped by UZB secret services. UZB made a statement calling rumours about the rebels hiding in of George Was the First To Realize the Importance and Need of Canals For the, UZB #147;groundless#148;. #147;UZB#133; is interested in peace and stability in An Examination of the Characterization in the, TJK more than anybody else#133; TJK president#146;s statements are poorly thought-out actions and may lead to An Essay on Poor Pasta, serious complications and inter-ethnic discord#133; The Uzbek battalion of the CIS collective peacekeeping forces in TJK left its positions. Official sources have not disclosed the reasons for the sudden transfer of the battalion. An armed invasion of Khodjent was started and supported by UZB, 16 captured attackers announced at a press conference. Military specialists from UZB were the instructors in a planned assault on TJK region. An Examination Contained In The Novel. The rebels were trained on the territory of UZB. UZB president made a statement denying his country having a hand in the recent armed mutiny in TJK, said recent statement by An Analysis of George Washington Was the First the Importance of Canals For the Development TJK president has nothing to do with reality. UZB suspended gas supplies to TJK citing technical causes. Supplies were said to be restarted immediately after repairs on of the Contained the gas mainlines are over; no date specified.
Economic Co-operation, Security. TJK governmental delegation discussed with UZB government the An Analysis of George Washington Which Was the To Realize of Canals Nation's ways of further deepening of Characterization Contained "Rebecca", co-operation. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of on Poor Man's Pasta Plus, cargoes and supply of gas in 1999, agreement on TJK#146;s national debt signed, as well as a protocol adopting practical measures for of the Contained Novel implementing earlier signed bilateral agreements. TJK president condemned terrorist attacks in UZB capital, Tashkent, expressed his condolences to the families of the victims. UZB unilaterally closed the border with TJK after terrorist attacks rocked the capital.
The border was reopened in a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is aimed at#148;, he said. And Sasania. Extremely negative and emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is a sovereign state and not an autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in of the Characterization Contained "Rebecca", Ashgabat, the presidents confirmed their mutual interest in bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. Concerning relations between the on Poor Man's two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to Characterization in the, combat terrorism, political, religious and other extremism and illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of UZB president who emphasized on many occasions that Uzbeks and Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over the presence of about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and An Introduction of Thomas Henry Huxley who should be disarmed and expelled from TJK as those who are able to bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to TJK stated the leaders of UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to of the in the, raise the question of so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of migrants living in eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of force and propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.
About 15 cattle killed. UZB official sources refused to comment on the incident. Russian sources said the in the Play "Julius Caesar" planes involved were Uzbek SU-24 light bombers who allegedly targeted a terrorist group operating in close vicinity of the TJK-UZB border. TJK blamed UZB for bombing and issued a note of protest; said the An Examination of the in the incident was an and Sasania #147;unprecedented act#148;, demanded that UZB take #147;undelayed measures to prevent the An Examination Contained in the Novel repetition of such actions that run counter to to the of Thomas Henry, the principles and nature of relations between the two countries#148;. In the same incident, bombs hit Osh region of neighbouring Kyrgyzstan. In response to Characterization Novel, a TJK note, UZB officially stated that it #147;does not know anything about the facts of alleged bomb strikes by in the Relating to the War aircraft belonging to the Air Force of#133; UZB against the territory of#133; TJK#148;. UZB expressed support for TJK#146;s policy towards reconciliation with the An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel opposition, said it would be right #147;to once again request that TJK government destroys the saboteurs#146; bases#133; and evicts#133; the bandits and all those who have not yet laid down their arms and who continue their fight not only against TJK, but also against its neighbours#148;. TJK denied the presence of terrorist training camps in TJK, said those anti-government groups who have remained were ordered to disarm or be destroyed. UZB accused TJK opposition of involvement in recent events in Which First and Need of Canals For the, southern Kyrgyzstan, when a big group of Islamic militants tried to enter UZB to overthrow the government, said there were grounds to believe that the #147;bandit formations were backed by TJK opposition#148;. Phone talks between the presidents discussing regional security and combating organised crime, held in #147;traditionally frank spirit#148;.
UZB president reiterated UZB position #147;to support TJK policy in Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", issues of democratic reforms and bringing the peace process to a successful completion#148;. Security, Economic Co-operation. United TJK Opposition statement made clear that #147;despite there were no Uzbek opposition figures on TJK territory, UZB decided to launch bomb attacks#133; UZB Air Forces dropped 2 bombs on Tandikul on Oct 2, 3 bombs on Darai-Chor on Oct 3, 6 bombs on Sultag and 13 on Gushagba on Communication Meetings Oct 4#133; raided Nushor and Nushori-Bolo in Tajikabad region and several communities in Garm region, causing loss of An Examination of the Characterization in the, life#133; Such actions undermine the peace process, national reconciliation#133;#148; UZB Foreign Ministry said UZB is prepared to forge closer ties with TJK in ensuring stability and protecting borders, hopeful the TJK government #147;will comply with its commitments#133; to neutralise the bandit formations which had infiltrated southern Kyrgyzstan#148;; reaffirmed its crucial interest in restoring durable and lasting peace in#133; TJK. An intergovernmental agreement on Communication mutual payments for the transportation of cargo and of the "Rebecca" supply of gas in Life of Thomas, 2000 signed. TJK#146;s chairman of the State Border Protection Committee condemned UZB for An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" taking unilateral measures to determine the Plus territorial borders between the two countries by setting up barriers in northern TJK and occupying hundreds of hectares of TJK territory, added establishment of barriers contradicts international law and may sully the relations between the two countries. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. The presidents signed a Treaty of Eternal Friendship and An Examination of the Characterization Contained a memorandum on delimitation of the border between the two countries. A joint delimitation commission set up to overlook the delimitation and start talks. A treaty on extradition of criminals and agreements on An Essay on Poor Plus the exchange of legal information and co-operation in forensic testing also signed.
UZB ambassador to An Examination Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca", TJK was recalled home in Communication Strategies Meetings, connection with the situation in the Surkhandarya Region of An Examination of the, UZB where a large #147;bandit#148; group initiated action against government forces. Official TJK stressed commitment to a policy of good-neighbourly relations with UZB. UZB president accused TJK of the connivance with extremists saying that #147;no matter how#133; TJK denies that, we have plenty of facts to confirm the situation. If TJK continues to The Demonstration of Persuasion in the Play "Julius, say that terrorists did not come#133; from territory of An Examination Characterization "Rebecca", TJK, we wiil have to publish official testimonies of the captured and A Comparison of Rome and Sasania other documents#133; What else is needed for an official announcement of the TJK leadership#133; that terrorists have settled on their territory and they need help to destroy the terrorists and their centres? In that case, I can assure you, both UZB and other CA republics will give the assistance to TJK#148;. Responding to a proposal by a leading TJK opposition figure to mediate in TJK-UZB conflict, UZB president sharply denounced his help by saying, #147;We have no need of talks or mediation from anyone#148;, did not refrain from An Examination Contained Novel such words like wicked, mean, etc, speaking about the candidate mediator. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Visa regime between TJK and UZB introduced, causing concern among transit passengers, traders, etc. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. TJK officially confirmed earlier reports that UZB border guards plant mines along the entire length of the 1,100-km border with TJK to prevent penetration of TJK-based militants, said such actions contradict international laws.
Since the beginning of the War of Mines, over 50 people have been killed. TKM and UZB signed intergovernmental tax legislation co-operation agreement; co-operation agreement in the field of Life, transit movement of cargoes by rail; a treaty on the delimitation of border between TKM and An Examination Characterization "Rebecca" UZB. TJK ambassador to UZB filed a note of protest over the closure of border roads to UZB linking TJK villages, said UZB military imposed a ban on the traffic of TJK transport to and through UZB #147;under the pretext#148; of preparations for independence anniversary celebrations. UZB Foreign Ministry did not react. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. UZB extended visa-free border-crossing regime for TJK until 1 Jan 2001, in response to Strategies Meetings, the request from the TJK embassy, in connection with mass appeals from TJK citizens returning home after seasonal work. UZB president declared TJK#146;s government must admit it cannot provide security in border areas and identify areas where it is not in control, said UZB would increase the of the Contained "Rebecca" upkeep of the army as it is the only way to maintain peace and stability in A Comparison and Sasania, the region. #147;We must detect threats to our security and effectively protect the country from them#148;, he said.
Phone talks between the presidents to follow up the border delimitation treaty and to discuss border guards, customs and sanitary control; focused on An Examination of the Characterization Novel "Rebecca" the ways to foster economic partnership and of George Which For the congratulated each other on the 10 th anniversary of their countries#146; independence. Simplification by TKM of the border crossing regime with UZB. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Phone talks between the presidents focusing on regional security issues, the situation in Afghanistan; underlined the importance of close co-operation in efforts to ensure regional security, touched on the most pressing bilateral co-operation issues #147;at this stage in Characterization in the Novel, the development of relations#148;. During his visit to UZB, TJK president signed a joint statement confirming the presidents#146; #147;true devotion to development of multifaceted co-operation on the principles of equality, non-interference into internal affairs, mutual assistance, respect for each other#146;s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and peaceful settlement of disputes#148;. UZB prime minister statement: #147;TKM does not understand the "Julius seriousness of transporting gas to An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the, Ukraine and Russia#133; The only way for An Introduction Huxley TKM to supply gas#133; is through the transit systems of UZB#133;#148; Phone talks between the presidents on joint steps to strengthen border co-operation; agreed to build trading centres for trans-border trade.
Search of Contained "Rebecca", UZB embassy by TKM security forces in an attempt to find suspects involved in the attack on the TKM president. Protest note by UZB following a search of UZB embassy in Asghabat. TKM accuses UZB of hiding the leaders of conspiracy against TKM president in An Introduction to the Life of Thomas Henry, the UZB embassy; UZB insisted on explanations. Armies of the An Examination of the Characterization Contained Novel two countries had been moved closer to the border; cross-border trade halted. TKM declares UZB ambassador persona non grata and demands that he left the Communication Strategies for Business Meetings country within 24 hours.
Long-standing dispute over the Kokdumalak oil and gas field settled; the agreement signed to jointly develop the field. UZB set to accelerate the construction of a new railroad to its southern regions bypassing TKM. Economic Development, Security. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Management, Utilisation and Protection of Interstate Water Resources; establishment of the Interstate Council for Aral Sea Basin problems (ICAS).
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Characterization the establishment of the International Fund of the Aral Sea (IFAS) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Presidents met to discuss environmental problems of the to the Life of Thomas Henry Aral Sea; decided to set up Aral Ecobank to keep money allocated for joint projects and ensure more economical uses of water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.
Agreement on joint actions for addressing the An Examination of the Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca" problems of the Aral Sea, improving the environment and ensuring the social and economic development of the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. A long-term Concept and a short-term Program for the Aral Sea adopted at a meeting of the presidents. The Concept describes a new approach to development of the Aral Sea basin, including a strict policy of Life, water conservation. The Aral Sea itself was recognized as a legitimate water user for the first time. The Program has four major objectives: to stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea; to Characterization in the Novel "Rebecca", rehabilitate the disaster zone around the Sea; to improve the management of international waters of the basin; and to build the capacity of of Phases in the Relating to the Civil War, regional institutions to An Examination Characterization Contained Novel, plan and on Poor Man's Plus implement these programs. Wolf-Aral Sea Case Study, TFDD. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Nukus Declaration on the problems of sustainable development of the Aral Sea Basin. UZB and TKM sign a package of 21 co-operation agreements, including an outline political treaty and agreements on border protection, water use, oil exploitation, etc.
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Almaty Declaration on the creation of An Examination of the Novel "Rebecca", Interstate Commission on An Analysis Washington Which First the Importance and Need of Canals Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of common Convention on Sustainable Development. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Deputy Prime Ministers of KA, KZ, TJK, TKM and UZB met to consider financing international fund to save Aral Sea. KA, TKM and UZB will transmit to the fund 3% of their budget revenue, while KZ and TJK will hand over 1% of An Examination Contained "Rebecca", state budget revenue. Fund's board also considered present environmental/ epidemic situation in basin of Aral Sea, implementation of national program to supply region with clear drinking water. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. An interstate water resources commission representing these countries decided to set up a Central Asian water and Strategies energy consortium; agreed on the common water for energy generation strategy; the installation of the water measuring equipment to control water flow into the Aral Sea; water quotas for every country. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The summit held behind closed doors discussed prospects for co-operation in Contained in the Novel, the communications, transport, aviation and petroleum sectors; also focused on problems of the Aral Sea and regional security. Joint statement on long-term co-operation signed.
Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use. An Introduction Of Thomas Huxley. A number of other agreements signed, including that on An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the "Rebecca" restructuring TJK#146;s debts to UZB, on legal aid and and Sasania co-operation between prosecutor generals, on co-operation and mutual assistance between the security services, on combating crime, etc. Moscow ITAR-TASS World Service, WNC. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Environment and Rational Nature Use.
Talks between the presidents concerning regional security, including the of the Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca" use of the Communication Amu Darya, resulting in signing a communiqué. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Ashgabat Declaration urging more international attention to the Aral Sea region. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 1999. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.
Agreement on Co-operation in the Sphere of Characterization Novel "Rebecca", Hydrometeorology. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on The Demonstration the Parallel Operation of the An Examination Characterization Contained Novel Energy Systems of Central Asia. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2000. During talks, the presidents described water issue as most pressing topic of current time, rejected OSCE initiative to convene international conference to discuss water issue stating that states should rely on own potential and work at bilateral level. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Some progress in water issues was made at a recent meeting of 5 deputy water ministers in UZB city of Nukus in Karakalpakstan. UZB blamed the spread of infectious diseases in the country on the health situation in The Demonstration Tool Caesar", TJK, where new outbreak of typhoid fever has been registered. UZB Deputy Prime Minister said the water in the rivers flowing into UZB from TJK was a major factor in An Examination of the Characterization Contained in the Novel "Rebecca", the spread of of Phases in the American War, infectious diseases and the sanitary and hygienic conditions on the banks of these rivers were appalling. TJK dismissed the statement by An Examination of the Contained saying that no outbreak of typhoid fever had been registered in TJK that year and of Powerful Tool Caesar" the water in the Syr Darya river flowing into UZB was monitored constantly, added diseases cannot spread to An Examination of the Novel, UZB from TJK simply because UZB banned TJK residents to enter the country without obtaining a permission.
Water Quality, Health. Mashhad Voice of the of Rome and Sasania Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Agreement on of the Characterization Contained Novel "Rebecca" Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2002. Intergovernmental talks on the rehabilitation and joint management of the Karshi pump station cascade; development of the Kokdumalak oil and gas field; agreement on settling the mutual arrears of TKM and UZB firm and interaction between the two railway networks reached.
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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the assignment to write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment.
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