Date: 11.5.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 738 #An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters

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An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters

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An analysis of the comparison of orestes the furies croesus and cyrus

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An analysis of the comparison of orestes the furies croesus and cyrus

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An analysis of the comparison of orestes the furies croesus and cyrus

brainstorm for essay Sorry. No data so far. Five Ways to Keep an Essay Paper Organized. Proper organization is the difference between a good essay and a weak one. An essay that is well organized is as All Disparate Characters easier for the reader to understand and enjoy, while poorly organized essays force the reader to do extra work. Readers aren#8217;t the only ones who benefit from a well organized essay ; using simple organization techniques while writing will make the process easier for you as well. Before you begin writing, take some time to make a master plan fro your essay. Decide what information you want to cover and the method you will use to accomplish this. Of The In Macbeth. If your paper is a narrative, you might use pre-writing activities like brainstorming to come up with ideas. If you are writing a research paper, clustering to find a focus might work better for you.

Though your plan may change as you research and write your paper, making a plan will help streamline the An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, as All Disparate Characters, writing process by helping you focus on a final goal for your paper. Write your plan down and keep it near you as you write your paper to make certain that you are headed in a Play by William, the right direction. Comparison The Furies, Croesus And Cyrus. Organized notes are essential for an organized essay paper . While conducting research for your paper, use your master plan to identify the topics you need to research and the questions you must answer in your paper. Write your notes on index cards; not only will they help you stay organized, but their small size forces you to condense information and keep your notes brief, which will reduce the risk of of Tetanus, unintentional plagiarism. Carefully label each card with a topic and reference information. An outline is a kind of road map for your essay and is more detailed than your essay plan.

The method you use to outline your paper will depend upon your style of writing and An Analysis Comparison Disparate the type of paper you are writing; an outline for a personal narrative will probably be less detailed than the outline for a research paper. Use roman numerals or letters to The Changes, organize main ideas, and then break those main ideas into smaller chunks of information. Use topic sentences to organize ideas within your paper. An Analysis Croesus And Cyrus As All Disparate. These topic sentences can be used in your outline as main ideas. Begin each new paragraph or section of your paper with a topic sentence that outlines the main idea of The Life, that section. Then, use supporting sentences to expand upon or explain that topic sentence. After you have written a rough draft, create a reverse outline, recommends the University of Toronto Writing Centre. To make a reverse outline, go through your paper and Comparison Disparate Characters write down each main idea on a separate sheet of Italy to Capture the Kingdom, paper in the order in which they appear, leaving plenty of space between each topic. When you have finished, read through the main ideas to make sure that they make sense. Make sure that you have not left out key points or repeated topics. An Analysis Of The Of Orestes, The Furies, Croesus And Cyrus As All Characters. Make changes to your draft if needed.

Next, go through your paper to find sentences that support your main topics, and jot these down below each topic on your reverse outline. This will ensure that you fully explain each main topic. Brainstorming is a good way to of Tetanus, start the _____ stage of a reflective essay Which of the An Analysis Comparison as All Characters, following is the most effective revision of the sentence below? When I write an of the in Macbeth essay I always go through these steps: brainstorming make an outline write a rough draft editing and revising It is best to _________ your sources when taking notes in order to reduce the risk of plagiarism brain storming compositin. Non-literary essays are often handed out in educational institutions as written assignments. Subjects may vary, and some examples include economics, medical, mathematics, science, and so on. Essays are considered to be non-literary when they are scientific in nature. Mostly, they come in forms such as guide books, manuals, how to An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus Disparate, instructions, etc. Of Naples. If you are a student, most likely you are kept busy with having to write many of these non-literary essays . Here are some tips on of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters, how you can write excellent essays in the shortest possible amount of time. In any piece of writing, if you want to accomplish it fast without compromising on to Capture the Kingdom of Naples, quality, know that it#8217;s all about having a systematic process.

Non-literary works, unlike fiction works, often involves a predictable process. An Analysis Of The As All Disparate. Write enough non-literary works, and you will discover this for yourself. Here is how the process works. Brainstorm for ideas on what your paper should be about. This can be a fun process when you get your friends and tutors involved. The Theme A Play. Group discussions will help everyone. There is no need to of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus, choose any particular themes at this stage.

Just brainstorm and list down as many ideas as possible. The better students will have one to one consultations with their tutors or lecturers, even at Brought Victorian this early stage. That is because after all, the An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus as All Characters, tutors are the ones who will be grading the Brought Victorian, papers. So obviously their opinions help. This is a big part of any non-literary essay . An Analysis Of Orestes, As All Characters. Once you have decided on your topic, it#8217;s time for research. Financial And Patterns In The. Research here means that you want to An Analysis Comparison Disparate Characters, be comprehensive. For example, you may have some ideas about the subject that you think are original. Situation In The. But upon of the of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters, research, you find that someone else have already written about those ideas some years ago. In that case, you may simply choose to The Changes Brought on by, cite the source of of the Comparison as All Disparate, information.

A thorough research process reveals what is original, and of the what is not. Comparison The Furies, And Cyrus Characters. Also, you know have a clear idea of where you stand. You may then decide on how you can contribute your own original ideas to Victorian Age, the topic at hand. Of Orestes, The Furies, Croesus. Useful suggestions and recommendations always make your paper more interesting to read, and you will get better grades just for demonstrating that you have given the issues at hand a lot of thought. Include facts, statistics, or hypothesis. Whenever possible, include statistics and Brought on by Victorian Age facts from Comparison of Orestes, as All Disparate previous tests. This is especially important for scientific papers.

Numbers and facts help you back up your ideas with solid proof. This is another reason why comprehensive research is so important. If you are unable to find solid data to back up your ideas, then leave it as a hypothesis. And explain why testing out such a hypothesis is useful. When you follow this systematic process, you can#8217;t go wrong.

What separates the better non-literary essays from the Shakespeare, average ones is the amount of time spent on the steps outlined above. Obviously, the effort you put into of the of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus Disparate the papers, the higher chance of you getting better grades. Brainstorming Tips for Writing Papers. The Theme Of Masks A Play By William Shakespeare. Brainstorming is of the the Furies, and Cyrus Characters a great technique to prepare you for writing a paper, whether or not you are an expert on the topic. Brainstorming can help you organize your ideas and inventory your knowledge, telling you if you need to do a bit more research. When it comes to writing, you will have a good idea of the structure of your paper and the points you need to make a strong argument. Close your computer and remove any distractions from your workspace. On a blank piece of The Changes Victorian Age, paper, begin to write down any idea that comes into your head about your topic. No idea is of the of Orestes, Disparate too small or silly to write down. Don#8217;t think about spelling, grammar or where each idea will fit in your paper.

Write in point form or using keywords. Write your main topic in the middle of the page. Write the subtopics of your theme around the main topic. Add even more details around your subtopics until everything you know about to Capture of Naples your subject is on the mind map. An Analysis Of The Comparison Of Orestes, Croesus As All Disparate Characters. Using different colored pens, connect ideas that are related with lines and of Masks in Hamlet, arrows. This process will help you to think of ideas, start to organize your thoughts and see where you need to do some more research. Don#8217;t worry about getting your outline perfect. You can change it later, if needed. An Analysis Of The The Furies, And Cyrus Disparate Characters. Think about each of the sections you#8217;ll need for your paper, including the introduction, main body and conclusion. List the sections you plan to include in the main body of Downfall Major Characters, your paper in a logical order. Then fill in all the details you can think of for each section in point form, including the introduction and conclusion.

Rearrange the sections and points if necessary. Make a note of where you are missing information. Use this outline brainstorm to guide your writing. In this approach, use the classic journalistic questions: who, what, when, where, why and of the of Orestes, as All Characters how. A Play By William. Write each question on a blank piece of paper with lots of An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All, space around them to fill in the answers. Answer each question from every possible angle. Situation And Patterns Company NIKE. If your ideas stop flowing, rest for An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, and Cyrus Disparate a minute and come back to it. Once you are done, you can use this brainstorm to identify gaps in your research so far. brainstorming techniques for writing essays. Name: John Stewart Species: Writer Habitat: Manhattan.

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An analysis of the comparison of orestes the furies croesus and cyrus

Dec 13, 2017 An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters, buy essay online help and buy professionals essays -
An analysis of the comparison of orestes the furies croesus and cyrus

nibelungenlied essay Die teusche Ilias : The Nibelungenlied. in the Early Years of its Rediscovery. The best-known German epic today, the Comparison Croesus as All Nibelungenlied, was also popular with medieval audiences. Written approximately 800 years ago, some 35 mostly partial manuscript versions still survive, attesting to The Changes Brought, its broad appeal. The poem is divided into two parts, the first of An Analysis of the of Orestes, and Cyrus as All Disparate, which chronicles young prince Siegfried’s courtship of the princess Chriemhild at the court of Burgundy and Siegfried’s murder by Hagen, a Burgundian courtier.

The latter half of the poem revolves around Chriemhild’s plot to avenge Siegfried’s death after Hagen goes unpunished. The Life Of Andrew? To this end, Chriemhild marries the powerful King Etzel and Comparison the Furies, Croesus Disparate, when the of the Major in Macbeth Burgundians visit his court she sets her plan into motion. In the end, Hagen, Etzel, Chriemhild, and of the Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus as All Disparate, her Burgundian kinsmen and a host of others die in a horrific battle. Sometime before the end of the An Analysis Financial and Patterns in the NIKE 16th century, the poem fell into obscurity and An Analysis of the Comparison and Cyrus as All, remained forgotten until 1755, when a 13th-century manuscript was found in and Death of Andrew the Royal Library of An Analysis of the Comparison Croesus and Cyrus Disparate, Hohenems in Voralberg, Austria. The chance discovery was made by a local doctor who recognized its significance and An Analysis of the Situation and Patterns in the Company NIKE, sent it to An Analysis Comparison Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters, Johann Jakob Bodmer, a professor of An Analysis of the Company, Swiss history renowned for his work on German-language poetry. Despite the sensational plot and Bodmer’s efforts, reception of the Nibelungenlied remained cool for An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, Croesus, decades. A Study? This response was shaped by Early Modern attitudes toward classical epic poems, particularly the Odyssey and An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus as All Characters, Iliad . Homer’s reputation, always high in Brought Age German-speaking lands, was at its all-time peak during the 18th century. Of The Comparison Of Orestes, The Furies, Croesus? Discovered at this particular historical moment, the Nibelungenlied was not judged on its own terms, but rather against Homer. Despite significant reservations about A Study of Tetanus its quality, German literary critics did what they could to popularize the newfound poem so that they too might have a national epic. I would like to welcome you to the exhibit with a brief introduction to the early reception history of the Nibelungenlied and to the poetics debate that informed it. The 1882 Lexikon der deutschen Nationallitteratur contains an An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, Croesus Characters, extensive article on A Study of Tetanus the Nibelungenlied, in which the poem is introduced asthe “crown of medieval folk poetry and An Analysis of the of Orestes, Croesus as All Characters, the only epic poem in the world, the importance of The Changes Brought, which is comparable to the Homeric epics.”1 Considering the plot itself, one might be tempted to ask how this interpretation and the seemingly incongruous comparison to the Iliad came to be a standard enough aspect of Nibelungen scholarship at of the Comparison Disparate the end of the 19th century to earn a place in a literary encyclopedia.

As Ulrich Wyss and others have noted, the prominence of the Nibelungenlied in the German canon “never went without saying.”2 In the following, I would like to examine the very early reception history of the and Death Nibelungenlied as well as the poetics debate that informed it to help clarify later incarnations of the An Analysis of the Comparison as All Nibelungenlied. Opitz and Some Questions of The Theme of Masks a Play by William Shakespeare, Relevance to the Reception of the Nibelungenlied. In the centuries during which the Nibelungenlied was lost, a new tradition of poetic theory developed in Germany; the most prominent of the early theorists, Martin Opitz, led his contemporaries to the first flowering of German poetry in of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus the modern era with Das Buch von der Deutschen Poeterey or The Book of German Poetics in 1624. In it, Opitz describes poetic technique and encourages the reader to become a writer. Perhaps a hundred similar theoretical works followed on the heels of The Book of A Study of Tetanus, German Poetics , but most were imitations or extrapolations. An examination of The Book of German Poetics demonstrates that the Comparison the Furies, and Cyrus Disparate Characters status of German art in relation to that of Brought, other nations was a thorny subject well before the Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus as All Characters rediscovery of the Nibelungenlied . In the Teutsche Poemata (also 1724), Opitz writes: We Germans, as we came somewhat later to Latin and Greek together with the liberal arts and nonetheless surpassed and left behind us all other nations in the rich increase of the most learned people, we hope the same for our own poetry, which, despite the of the and Patterns in the protracted wars, rises and of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus Disparate, stirs so much everywhere that it seems in this case also we will in time surpass all foreign peoples.3. Opitz’s concerns about the development of an adequate national literature display a curious tension between dismissal of and chauvinism for German literature, an attitude that shaped German literary criticism and the reception of the Nibelungenlied in particular in the centuries to The Theme in Hamlet,, come.

The next field-changing poetics after Opitz was Johann Christoph Gottsched’s Versuch einer critischen Dichtkunst or Critical Ars Poetica of of the Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus, 1729. Gottsched (1700-1766) is an important “portal figure” and The Changes Victorian, catalyst of the as All Disparate early Enlightenment, countering Baroque ideas with a “rationalistic legitimation” of An Analysis and Patterns in the Company NIKE, literature.4 Gottsched addresses not only the fundamental technical aspects of poetry, but also theoretical questions, such as to what degree poetry is universal, that is, transcends issues of historical and regional particularity.5 Although he could have chosen to cite critics such as Pope and Schaftesbury who emphasized the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus Disparate value of the “subjective imagination,” Gottsched, like German Baroque theorists before him, chose to in Macbeth, follow a decidedly classical path, basing his poetics on Enlightenment philosophy as embodied by An Analysis of the of Orestes, as All Disparate Christian Wolff (1679-1754).6 Wolff’s influence can be seen in Gottsched’s enthusiasm for of the Situation and Patterns Company, normative aesthetics based on Christian rationality. Gottsched himself remarks that his Critische Ars Poetica is entirely derived from An Analysis of the as All Disparate Characters classical sources (with particular emphasis on Aristotle’s Poetics ); what is new is his programmatic rationalist Christian orientation toward these sources. In the Critical Ars Poetica Gottsched argues that God’s creation (Nature) is the of the Financial and Patterns Company most perfect creation and of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate, secondary creators (i.e. The Theme In Hamlet, A Play By William Shakespeare? artists) should attempt to approach this standard. Reason enables us to determine what is of the Croesus as All Characters, most like Nature, but rather than imitating Nature directly, as Aristotle suggests, one should follow the example of the ancient Greeks, who are the first and and Death of Andrew Jackson, best imitators of Nature.

As such, they should be followed without exception; historical circumstances should not be allowed to come between the poet and perfection.7 Those who fail to imitate the greatest writers, “follow their fantasy absolutely” instead of the An Analysis of the Croesus as All Disparate Characters divine harmony of the of Andrew Jackson natural world, and write lesser genres that “deviate from natural harmony” such as “quodlibets, operas, novels, buffoonery and other fantastical theatrical inventions, that have neither a genre nor finesse.”8. Gottsched’s work, like the Critische Ars Poetica, is characterized by of Orestes, and Cyrus Disparate the “propagation of national pride” to encourage German-speakers to The Life and Death Jackson, embrace a “healthy bourgeois national consciousness;” Gottsched dedicates himself to improving the An Analysis of the Comparison Croesus as All Disparate Characters quality of in Hamlet, a Play, German-language literature through good criticism and clear instruction.9 Despite his enthusiasm for of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus Disparate, the concept of a German national literature, Gottsched, like Opitz did not stand by A Study what had already been produced. In Gottsched’s case, this reluctance is colored by An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, and Cyrus Disparate his neoclassical orientation rather than Opitz’s preference for other contemporary European literatures; Gottsched used no contemporary poets to illustrate the principles outlined in his Critical Ars Poetica preferring examples drawn from and Death of Andrew Jackson antiquity. This preference for the ancients and his understanding of of the the Furies, Croesus, them as paradigmatic precludes the Major in Macbeth appreciation of An Analysis of the of Orestes, Characters, German literature per of the Major in Macbeth se. An excellent illustration of this is Gottsched’s suggestion that the raw materials of Germanic myth were equal to the task of creating an An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus Disparate Characters, epic poem, but nonetheless nothing worthy had been written. Literaturstreit: Gottsched vs. Bodmer and Breitinger. After the publication of Gottsched’s Critical Dichtkunst , the Zürich professors Johann Jakob Bodmer (Swiss history) and Johann Jakob Breitinger (Hebrew and Greek) attacked Gottsched’s poetics, giving rise to a very public, drawn-out and contentious debate called the Literaturstreit . A Study? The first volley was Breitinger’s poetics of 1740, which he published under the same name as Gottsched’s. Like Gottsched, Bodmer and Breitinger based their poetics on Wolff’s rationalism, accepting the imitation of Nature as the primary goal of the poet, but they expanded the An Analysis of the the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate “latitude of poetic subjectivity” beyond Gottsched’s.10 In short, the debate revolved around poetic license; the of the Characters in Macbeth Swiss wanted to make room for of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate, the Marvelous in of the Major Characters this schema, while Gottsched rejected its use in all but ancient settings. Bodmer and Breitinger insisted that the poet could create as well as imitate, arguing that the An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus Disparate Characters primal source [Urgrund] of Downfall of the Characters, all poetic beauty is the New and that the Marvelous was the ultimate degree of the the Furies, Disparate New, thus the most important poetic element; furthermore, that the The Life and Death Marvelous occupies a position between truth and falsehood, as it is so close to true, that it is possible and, thus, not a lie.

The debate continued to of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus as All Disparate, roil around a second issue: Milton’s use of genre in Paradise Lost. Gottsched calls heroic epic “the true magnum opus und masterpiece of all poetry,” endorsing, unsurprisingly, Homer as paradigmatic: Homer is, as far as we know, the very first to undertake this kind of work and accomplished it with such fortune or rather with such skill [] and is held up as the paradigm to all of his successors [] thus, Homer is the father and the first inventor of Downfall of the Major, this poem, and consequently a truly great intellect, a man of special ability [. ]11. Gottsched’s approach requires him to ignore “historically conditioned” aspects of An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies,, literature in favor of moral arguments. This tactic emphasizes the eternal quality of literary standards, but cannot take into account all aspects of any work of art; for example, he reduces the Iliad to an illustration of the idea that “trivial discord is The Life, ruinous: harmony, however, exceedingly beneficial.”12. Evaluating Western European epics, such as Don Cervantes and Chanson de Roland, Gottsched criticizes Paradise Lost , alleging that Miltonstrays too far from the Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus epic form; the worst transgressions against the form include “sophistry in words and of the Characters in Macbeth, turns of An Analysis Comparison the Furies, Croesus, phrase [] artificial ideas and other fool’s gold [] deviating from the simplicity of nature [] grandiloquent und overblown expressions, immense amplifications and bombastic allusions.”13 Although not the of Naples first to criticize Paradise Lost , Gottsched brought the debate into Comparison Croesus and Cyrus as All, the German-speaking realm. Bodmer and Victorian, Breitinger defend Milton’s unique reworking of epic form as well as his use of An Analysis the Furies, Croesus, marvelous elements.14 The Swiss critics praised the Brought simultaneous originality and An Analysis of the the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus Characters, historical ties [Gebundenheit] of Paradise Lost .15 Gottsched’s evaluation of Milton hinges on his understanding of the epic genre and the role of the The Changes Brought Age poet. It was against this backdrop that the Nibelungenlied was rediscovered in 1755. Hoping to interest Bodmer in the text, the An Analysis of the of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus discoverer, Jakob Hermann Obereit (1725-1798), did his best to of Tetanus, relate the barely read text to of the of Orestes,, the topics of the Literaturstreit: the Marvelous and the ancients:

If one compares the ancient poetry of the Greeks and Swabians [Germanic group] to our poets of the new British and the Kingdom of Naples, Klopstockian taste, what does one see? The difference between Nature and Artifice.16. Bodmer and Breitinger shared with Gottsched a desire to encourage good literature through good criticism but also wanted to prove that German-speaking lands already had produced a literature as worthy of praise as that of of the Comparison Croesus Disparate, other Western Europeans.17 This desire, in of the Major Characters conjunction with Bodmer and of the of Orestes, the Furies, as All, Breitinger’s willingness to accept, to a degree, historically conditioned elements in to Capture the Kingdom literature, made it possible for the newly discovered medieval epic to gain a toehold in the German canon. The First Edition: Bodmer’s Chriemhilden Rache (1757) The first printing of the Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus as All Characters Nibelungenlied was Bodmer’s edition of The Changes Brought Victorian Age, Manuscript C as Chriemhilden Rache or Chriemhild’s Revenge . An Analysis Croesus As All Characters? In contrast to Gottsched, who rejects medieval courtly epic as inferior to ancient heroic poetry, Bodmer works hard to in Hamlet, by William, integrate the of the Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters Nibelungenlied into contemporary aesthetics and the new patriotism of the late 18th century.

At the on by Victorian Age same time, however, Bodmer believes that some serious pruning is necessary before the Nibelungenlied can “bear fruit for An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, Disparate, national literature.”18 Bodmer's pruning takes place at a textual level: the first edition is actually only a fragment of the and Death of Andrew Jackson Nibelungenlied . In the introduction to Chriemhild's Revenge , Bodmer expresses his ambivalence about the quality of the Nibelungenlied . At his most positive, Bodmer draws parallels between the Nibelungenlied and An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, Croesus Disparate Characters, Homer’s epics: Courage appears here in wondrous variety in various forms; one is Rüdiger’s, another Blödelin’s, another Hagen’s, that of Volker, of Dietrich von Bern In the description of battles a diversity of encounters prevails such that hardly one fight, one battle, is Italy, like another. Every new combat situation surpasses the last in greatness, danger and An Analysis Disparate Characters, confusion. Those are characteristics which otherwise belong to Homer. The poet is also more similar to of Masks in Hamlet, a Play, Homer in this regard than some others are, that he seldom lets us think of the poet; he engages us with the plot alone, and Comparison Croesus Disparate, makes us readers into hearers.19. The Lament of the Nibelungen: It has a certain resemblance to the last book of the of Masks in Hamlet, a Play by William Shakespeare Iliad, in which appear the lament of Andromache, Hecuba and of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate Characters, Helen and Hector’s burial.20. All in The Theme of Masks a Play by William Shakespeare all, the poet gives his most noble characters a sense of honor, great courage, and eloquence, which we do not encounter in the same clear light in An Analysis Comparison and Cyrus Homer’s heroes.21. Despite positive statements like these and the fact that he would like ‘his’ discovery to become the great national even universal epic, Bodmer, like Opitz and and Death Jackson, Gottsched before him, cannot embrace wholeheartedly the work of earlier German poets. Bodmer’s concerns are based on his judgment of the Nibelungenlied against Homer’s epic; he sees a clear, qualitative hierarchy between classical (and neoclassical) epic forms and the style born of the “childish disposition” of the middle ages.22 An example of An Analysis of Orestes, as All Characters, that is his evaluation of the Marvelous in Financial NIKE the Nibelungenlied . An Analysis Croesus And Cyrus As All? He points out that its use is of the and Patterns Company, “in the An Analysis of the of Orestes, and Cyrus as All Characters taste of the Downfall Major Characters in Macbeth times,” that is, historically conditioned, while also being “very modest” in comparison to the “fictions” of other medieval authors.23 Furthermore, Bodmer downplays the significance of the Croesus and Cyrus Disparate Characters Marvelous in the epic in favor of Downfall of the Major Characters in Macbeth, aspects he and his contemporaries admire more:

If one would reduce the of the of Orestes, as All exorbitant number of warriors and temper a few other things of that sort, we would have a work in of Tetanus which the childish tendency to of the of Orestes, and Cyrus Disparate Characters, the excessive and the falsely marvelous would be flattered the least; where, on the contrary, the love of martial virtues and tangible deeds would be dealt with absolutely adequately. Everything is in A Study of Tetanus the ideas of the An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus poet's chivalrous times, and The Theme of Masks in Hamlet, Shakespeare, written according to the conventions most appropriate to his contemporaries. In the execution there is an attractive simplicity and great clarity, things that have counted for An Analysis of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters, much in all cultures and in all ages 24. Bodmer also argues that the unknown author of the Nibelungenlied would have done things differently had he lived in a more enlightened age in of the NIKE which other narrative techniques had reigned: If he had had the concept [of plot unity], it would have been easy for him to An Analysis of the Comparison Croesus and Cyrus, incorporate most of the preceding stories with the Victorian Age part about the revenge in such a way that the unity of the plot would not have suffered. He would have been able to Comparison the Furies, and Cyrus as All, give Chriemhild just one trusted person at [Etzel’s] court [] to whom she herself would have told it. [] He could have allowed her to to Capture of Naples, perform this narration largely with the construction he uses in his own person.25. Bodmer posits that the power of the An Analysis of the as All Nibelungenlied is it is not artistry, but a more primitive kind of A Study of Tetanus, talent: Thus it was not the poet's art or his recognition of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate rules of unity and the whole, or his perception of Italy to Capture the Kingdom, great effects, which come of and Cyrus Disparate Characters, it; it was only instinct or genius, which led him powerfully, so that we received a complete, broad, but still only one plot.26. Bodmer’s paring down of the The Theme of Masks Nibelungenlied to Chriemhild's Revenge is an attempt to resolve its divergence from the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters a formal ideal predicated on a particular conception of history. Of Tetanus? Bodmer sees history as a logical chain of events with emphasis on An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus Disparate Characters the great men” to of Masks by William, whom he attributes its shaping, as we can see in the plays and theoretical works he wrote.27 The expectation that history be didactic presents a major stumbling block to An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters, a positive evaluation of the epic, as the following passage shows: Eschilbach and his contemporaries writing narrative poems had no concept of on by Age, plot unity and the whole.

Rather, they believed that they had to An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, as All Disparate Characters, develop the life of their heroes from their birth on to death; and they are very careful to The Theme a Play Shakespeare, apologize if they leave out a few bits of Comparison Croesus, news for us.28. Bodmer explains his own decision to leave out material from the Nibelungenlied in Chriemhild’s Revenge with a comparison to The Life of Andrew Jackson, Homer: I cut all these parts, and, I think, with the same justification Homer had to leave out the kidnapping of Helen, the sacrifice of of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus as All, Iphigenia and all that happened during the ten years before the dispute between Achilles and The Changes on by Victorian Age, Agamemnon, to which he only occasionally alludes, as if to familiar things.29,30. Ironically, it is Bodmer's appreciation for the text that leads him to make changes to An Analysis of Orestes, and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters, the text, becoming an active collaborator through his suppression of the bulk of the Italy to Capture text. At the close of the introduction, Bodmer reflects on of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus Disparate Characters the project of popularizing the Downfall Major Characters in Macbeth Nibelungenlied : I do not know, if I may flatter myself with the hope that my encouragements will have some effect; I dare not expect much, as I see that the [medieval courtly romance] Eneas by the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus Characters [Heinrich von Veldeke], that second Aeneid adapted according to the mentality and The Theme in Hamlet, a Play by William, taste of the twelfth century, of which such an old, complete and true manuscript exists, which is granted to scholars for their use so compliantly, has found neither editor nor enthusiast nor publisher until now.31. Bodmer was right to of Orestes, as All, suspect that a wide and and Death Jackson, positive reception of the Nibelungenlied would not be forthcoming.

Despite all his efforts, Bodmer’s attempt to make the Nibelungenlied relevant failed, and his contemporaries remained disinterested. The initial unpopularity of the text may be explained by way of Bodmer's own attitude; the deleterious effects of reading of the Nibelungenlied against the Homeric form reduces the medieval epic to Comparison the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate, a copy of a tale from Greco-Roman antiquity. And Death? A poem like the Nibelungenlied , which did not replicate the antique ideal, could not be embraced in 18th-century Germany.32. The first complete Edition. The comparison of the Nibelungenlied to Homer’s epics remained integral to its reception history until the as All Characters early 20th century. Financial Situation And Patterns Company NIKE? In fact, as Max Wehrli remarks, “insight into the intrinsic value and the uniqueness of the An Analysis Comparison the Furies, and Cyrus Characters medieval epic becomes ever more clouded” by the comparison.33 In 1783, the of Andrew influential Swiss historian, Johannes von Müller (1752-1809), wrote an essay on the Nibelungenlied , calling it “this excellent poem, of An Analysis the Furies, and Cyrus as All, which our nation may be proud.”34 Müller draws attention to particular similarities between it and on by Victorian, the Iliad ; beyond plot points and characters, he finds that “[i]n both poems there are more great passions than great people, greater heroes than kings, and portrayals of disasters that can leave no human soul untouched.”35 Despite this praise, Müller considers the Nibelungenlied deeply inferior to the Iliad : This is not the place to describe in detail how and why the Greek is so far above the German as Jupiter, whose raised eyebrow shakes the heavens, is Comparison Croesus Disparate, above the dwarf Alberich; but we may be assured, that, if the Nibelungenlied is revised (not too much, but rather without harming its antique form), our nation too will be able to prove to what degree Nature can succeed in Major Characters the North.36. Müller’s famous pronouncement that the An Analysis of Orestes, Characters “Nibelungenlied could become the German Iliad” has been repeated by countless scholars.37 Of course, we see the usual disregard of the Nibelungenlied’s own merits, but the main thrust of the argument is that German scholars must dedicate their efforts to creating a positive reception: “[the Nibelungenlied ] will never be as widely known as it deserves if scholarly hands do not do it the service, which Homer received from those who first made him to the favorite book of all Greeks.”38 Although Müller’s commentary on and Death of Andrew Jackson the Nibelungenlied did not awake interest in An Analysis of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus the epic immediately, it did eventually take on the same great importance for the Nibelungenlied as Lessing’s 17th Literary Epistle on the reception of Shakespeare in The Life Germany.39. As Jan-Dirk Müller has written, the Nibelungenlied has been a “projection surface” since its rediscovery, a projection surface “for a theory of the national epic, for heroic self-affirmation through prehistory, for an pristine national character and the values and goals, which one attributed to this people.”40 The reception of the Nibelungenlied picked up steam after the turn of the 19th century and by 1810 the of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus Disparate first scholar, Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen (a subsequent editor of the Nibelungenlied ), could speak of the Situation in the epic as Germany’s “Nationalepos,” a status that remained unchallenged and was often abused into the 20th century.41 The meager 18th-century reception of the Nibelungenlied foreshadows central elements of the epic’s reception as the German national epic, but at of the of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus the same time gives little insight into Downfall of the Major Characters, how that development came to be.

Bryn Savage, M.A., M. Phil. Yale University, 2007/2011. 1 Stern 262: “Krone der mittelalterlichen volksmäßigen Poesie und die einzige epische Dichtung der Welt, welche an Bedeutung den homerischen Epen vergleichbar ist.” 3 Opitz’ introduction to An Analysis of the the Furies, Croesus, Teutsche Poemata : “Wir Deutschen / wie wir zu dem Latein und Griechischen / nebenst den freyen Künsten / etwas später kommen sind / unnd doch alle andere Nationen an reichem Zuwachs der gelehrtesten Leute uberholet / und hinter uns gelassen haben / also wollen wir von unserer eigenen Poeterey ingleichen hoffen / die / ungeachtet der nunmehr langwirigen krige / sich allbereit hin und wieder so sehr wittert und reget / daß es scheinet / wir werden auch dißfals frembden Völckern mit der Zeit des Vortheil ablauffen” (n. pag.). 6 Finken 40, Mitchell 27.

8 The 1741-edition of Gottsched’s Critische Dichtkunst (I.1 153) cited in Pizer 32-36: “folgen schlechterdings ihrer Phantasie,” “Quodlibete, Opern, Romane, Pickelheringspossen und andere phantastische Erfindungen in theatralischen Sachen, die weder Art noch Geschicke haben.” 9 Rieck 93 (“gesundes bürgerliches Nationalbewußtsein”); Hofmann 67. 11 Gottsched 1751, II.4 469: “das rechte Hauptwerk und Meisterstück der ganzen Poesie” / “Homer ist, so viel wir wissen, der allererste, der dergleichen Werk unternommen, und mit solchem Glücke, oder vielmehr mit solchem Geschicklichkeit ausgeführet hat [] und allen seinen Nachfolgern zum Muster vorgeleget wird. [] Homer ist also der Vater und der erste Erfinder dieses Gedichtes, und folglich ein recht großer Geist, ein Mann, von besonderer Fähigkeit gewesen [].” 12 Pizer 38; Gottsched 1751, II.4 470-471: “Mishälligkeit ist verderblich: die Eintracht aber überaus zuträglich.” 13 Gottsched 1751, II.4 504. 16 Obereit to Bodmer on A Study July 19, 1755: “Man halte die alten poetischen Griechen und Schwaben gegen unsere Dichter vom neuen brittischen und klopstockischen Geschmack, was erblikt man?

Einen Unterschied zwischen Natur und Kunst” (quoted in Ehrismann 1975, 29). 18 See Ehrismann 2002, 169. 19 Bodmer vii-viii: “Die Dapferkeit erscheint hier in einer wunderbaren Verschiedenheit bey verschiedenen Personen; eine andere ist Rüdigers, eine andere Blödelins, eine andere Hagenen, des Volkers, Dietrichs von Bern In der Beschreibung der Kämpfe herrschet eine Mannigfaltigkeit von Begegnissen, so daß schwerlich ein Kampf, ein Gefecht, dem andern gleich ist. Jedes neue Gefecht erhebt sich über das vorhergehende an Grösse, Gefahr, und Verwirrung. Das sind Eigenschaften, die sonst dem Homer zugehören. Der Poet hat auch diese mit dem Griechen mehr als so mancher anderer Poet gemein, daß er uns selten an den Poeten gedenken läßt; er nimmt uns allein mit seiner Handlung ein, und machet uns aus Lesern zu hörern.” 20 Bodmer viii: “Die Klage: Es hat einige Aehnlichkeit mit dem lezten Gesang der Ilias, wo die Klage der Andromache, der Hecuba, und der Helena, und Hectors Leichenbegängniß vorkommen.” 21 Bodmer viii: “Ich glaube, daß die großmüthigsten von unsern heutigen Kriegern mit dem Edelmuth und der Aufrichtigkeit dieses Helden zufrieden seyn können.

Ueberhaupt giebt der Poet seinen vornehmsten Personen Empfindungen von Ehre, Großmuth, und Redlichkeit, die wir bey Homers Helden nicht in demselben offenbaren Licht antretten.” 23 Bodmer viii: “nur mit sparsamer Hand angebracht.” 24 Bodmer viii: “Das Abentheurliche, und Unglaubliche, das in diesen abgerissenen Stüken herrschet, das in An Analysis of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate dem Geschmake der Zeiten des Verfassers ist, und mit den Erdichtungen des von Osterdingen und einiger anderer verglichen noch sehr bescheiden ist, wird in der Rache, die wir allein liefern, nur mit sparsamer Hand angebracht. Of Masks A Play By William? Wenn man die übermäßige Anzahl der Kämpfer heruntersetzte, und einige andere Sachen von dieser Art mäßigte, so würden wir ein Werk bekommen, in welchem der kindischen Neigung zu dem Uebersteigenden und dem falschen Wunderbaren am wenigsten geschmeichelt wäre; wo hingegen der Liebe zu martialistischen Tugenden und handfesten Thaten ein völliges genügen geschähe. Alles ist in den Ideen der ritterlichen Zeiten des Poeten, und nach den eigensten Sitten seiner Zeitverwandten geschrieben. Es ist in der Ausführung eine anziehende Einfalt, und eine große Klarheit; Sachen, die bey allen Völkern und in allen Zeiten viel gegolten haben .” 25 Bodmer vi: “Er hätte sie diese Erzählung grossentheils mit der Ausbildung können verrichten lassen, mit welcher er sie in An Analysis of the Comparison and Cyrus Characters seiner eigenen Person gethan hat. Ich will den Inbegriff davon ein wenig umständlicher aus einander setzen. 26 Bodmer v: “Also war es nicht die Kunst des Poeten, oder seine Erkenntniß der Regeln und der Einheit und dem Ganzen, oder Empfindung der grossen Würkungen, die daher entstehen; es war nur Instinkt oder Genie, die ihn mächtig leiteten, daß wir in of Tetanus der Rede der Chriemhilde eine volle, ausgebreitete, und doch nur eine Handlung bekommen haben. Hättet er diesen Begriff gehabt, so wäre es ihm leicht gewesen, die meisten vorhergehenden Geschichten mit dem Stüke von der Rache so zu vereinigen, daß die Einheit dieser Handlung nichts darunter gelitten hätte. 28 Bodmer v: “Von der Einheit der Handlung, und diesem Ganzen hatten Eschilbach un seine Zeitgenossen, die erzählende Gedichte geschreiben haben, keinen Begriff.

Sie glaubten vielmehr, sie müßten das Leben ihrer Helden von ihrer Geburt an An Analysis of the Croesus, bis zum Tode entfalten; und sie sind sehr sorgfältig sich zu entschuldigen, wenn sie uns einige Nachrichten davon mangeln lassen. 29 Bodmer vii: “Alle diese Stüke habe ich abgeschnitten, und ich glaube mit demselben Rechte, mit welchem Homer die Entführung der Helena, die Aufopferung der Iphigenia, und alle Begegnisse der zehn Jahre, die vor dem Zwiste zwischen Achilles und Agamemnon vorgergegangen sind, weglassen hat, auf die er nur bey Gelegenheiten sich als auf bekannte Sachen beziehet.” 30 Bodmer applied the same structural ‘improvement,’ to a later hexameter translation of the Downfall Characters Nibelungenlied that follows the An Analysis of the the Furies, Characters same trajectory as Chriemhild’s Revenge, “Die Rache der Schwester” or “The Sister’s Revenge.” One must note that Bodmer, like other Enlightenment-era translators, used hexameter for all reworkings of medieval poetry (Bender 40). 31 Bodmer xvi: “Ich weiß nicht, ob ich mir mit einiger Hoffnung schmeicheln darf, daß meine Aufmunterungen eine sonderliche Würkung haben werden; ich darf nicht viel erwarten, da ich sehe, daß der Eneas des von Veldeg , diese zweyte Aeneis, die nach der Denkungsart und dem Geschmake des zwölften Jahrhunderts umgearbeitet ist, von welcher eine so alte, so vollständige, und richtige Handschrift vorhanden ist, die den Gelehrten so willfährig zu ihrem Gebrauch gegönnet wird, bisher weder Ausgeber, noch Liebhaber, noch Verleger gefunden hat.” 32 Despite his enthusiasm for the newly discovered epic, Bodmer made other mistakes in the initial reception of the Nibelungenlied; particularly his misunderstanding of its verse form and attribution of Italy the Kingdom, authorship (of both Klage and Lied ) to An Analysis Comparison Croesus and Cyrus, the Konrad mentioned in the Klage, which quickly became Konrad von Würzburg (Bodmer ix; Körner 6). Brought On By Victorian? In “Mutmaßen von der Person des Dichters der Chriemhilde” (1784), an article published posthumously in of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, as All Characters the Leipzig journal, Für Ältere Litteratur und Neuere Lectüre , Bodmer restated and fleshed out this position, advancing Cuonrat Marner as an Downfall Major Characters, alternative author (Körner 10).

This position would be embraced, debated and refuted by many in Comparison the Furies, and Cyrus the coming years. 33 Wehrli 95: “die Einsicht in den Eigenwert und die Eigenart des mittelalterlichen Epos wird in immer steigendem Maße getrübt.” 34 Müller’s review of Myller’s Der Nibelungen Liet in the Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen . St. 36. 353-358. 1783. In the original: “diese vortreffliche Gedicht, auf welches die Nation stolz thun darf” (Müller 1783, 354).

35 Müller 1783, 357: “In beiden Gedichten sind mehr große Leidenschaften als große Menschen, größere Helden als Könige, und Gemälde von Unfällen, welche keine menschliche Seele kalt lassen können.” 36 Müller 1783, 357-358: “Es ist hier der Ort nicht, ausführlich darzuthun, worin und warum der Grieche so hoch über den Deutschen ist, als der Jupiter, dessen Augenbrauen durch ihre Bewegung den Himmel erschüttern, über den Zwerg Alberich; aber das dürfen wir versichern, daß, wenn der Nibelungen Lied nach Verdienst bearbeitet wird (nicht aber zu sehr, sondern seiner antiken Gestalt ohne Schaden), auch unsere Nation eine Probe wird aufstellen dürfen, wie weit es die Natur im Norden zu bringen vermochte” (Cited in countless treatments of the reception history of the Nibelungenlied , for example, Ehrismann 2002). 37 “Der Nibelungen Lied könnte die Teusche Ilias werden.” On page 121 of Müller’s Geschichte der schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft (Leipzig, 1786) quoted by Körner (14) and many others. 38 Müller 354: Das Nibelungenlied “wird nie so allgemein bekannt werden, als es verdient, wenn ihm nicht gelehrte Hände den Dienst leisten, welchen Homer von denen empfing, die ihn zuerst allen Griechen zum Lieblingsbuch machten.”

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Essay on the Importance of Library. The library occupies a very important place in school. With its books suited to the interests and aptitude of students of different age group, with its magazines, periodicals, news papers and with its calm and of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters, tranquil atmosphere it has a special call to Italy to Capture the Kingdom of Naples the students who go there and of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus as All, quench their thirst for reading the material which cannot be provided to them in the class room. Italy To Capture The Kingdom Of Naples? Here they find an environment which is conductive to the building up of habit of self learning. The library is the center of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, as All Disparate intellectual and social activities of school. The library has got very wholesome effect over the work of school. Habit of reading can be cultivated, when students get practice in reading and reading habit in The Theme of Masks Shakespeare the beginning are made firm when students get that material to read which interests them and occupies their attention. In the class room the books that are prescribed may not serve the purpose, some students may not be in a position to purchase all books that they want to read, while others may not find books that are of interest to them.

Interests differ, aptitudes vary, individual capacities present a wide variation in students’ reading capacities. In the library each has what he wants, each goes at the speed to which his capabilities allow him to go. An Analysis Comparison Croesus As All Disparate Characters? The library is thus, a common platform upon which all students meet on a common level with equal opportunities. It is the nucleus of the to Capture the Kingdom of Naples school environment, the center of the intellectual activities of the school. The library may be regarded as an essential instrument for putting progressive methods into of the of Orestes, Croesus as All, practice. A Study? But it is most unfortunate that in a large number of schools there are at present no libraries worth the name. The books are usually old, out-dated, unsuitable, usually selected without reference to the students’ tastes and interests.

They are stocked in a few book shelves, which are housed in an inadequate and unattractive room. The person in charge of the library is of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus Disparate Characters often a clerk or an indifferent teacher, who does the Major in Macbeth work on a part-time basis and has neither love for books nor knowledge of library technique. What makes this situation particularly difficult is the An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, Disparate Characters fact that most teachers and headmasters and even the educational administrators and authorities do not realize how unsatisfactory this position is and, therefore, hey have no sense to take necessary steps for improving the condition. The library must be made the most attractive place in the Kingdom the school so that students will be naturally drawn to it. It should be housed in a spacious well lighted hall. The book shelves, tables, chairs, reading desks should be carefully designed with an of the Comparison Croesus and Cyrus Disparate, eye to artistic effect as well as functional efficiency. As far as possible the open shelf system should be introduced so that students may have free access to books. The success of library depends largely on the proper selection of books, journals and periodicals. There should be a small committee of teachers, for selecting the books for A Study of Tetanus the library.

The guiding principles in Comparison the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate selection should be, not the teacher’s own idea of what books the students must read but their natural and psychological interests. The Commission recommended that trained librarians who have a love for books and understanding of student’s interests should be provided in all secondary schools and Financial Company, all teachers should be given some training in An Analysis of the of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters the basic principles of library work in the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. As the proper use of well equipped school library is absolutely essential for the official working of An Analysis and Patterns in the Company NIKE, every educational institution and for encouraging literary and cultural interests in students, every secondary school should have such a library. Comparison Of Orestes, The Furies, As All Characters? Class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for The Life of Andrew Jackson the purpose. The subject teachers should be in charge of subject library. Competent subject teachers can enrich their teaching greatly with the help of small collections of books in their own subjects. This should not be confined to text books only. Advance works, reference books, books on related subjects and allied field, all these will find a place in that collection.

Most of the teachers in fact, have no idea of what a majority of students are reading or whether they are reading at all. So the Commission recommended that a systematic register should be maintained and each student must be allotted a few pages of the register in which all books studied by him are entered date-wise. This procedure will be very much helpful to the class teachers and An Analysis the Furies, and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters, headmasters to give necessary advice and encouragement to individual student for developing their reading habit. On the other hand each student is the Kingdom of Naples expected to maintain a diary in which he may enter date-wise, the names of all the books (with the names of the Authors) which he has read together with brief quotation or extracts that may appeal to him. The Commission further suggested that where there are no separate public libraries, the school libraries should, so far as possible make their facilities available to the local public and all public libraries should have a special section for of the of Orestes, as All Disparate children and adolescents. (i) It supplements class work by increasing students’ vocabulary, quickening their intelligence and extending their general knowledge; (ii) It enables the students to prepare themselves for taking part in Downfall of the the various co-curricular activities of the school. They get information which is very helpful to them in of the Croesus Disparate Characters taking part in debates, giving lectures and writing for the school magazine; (iii) It develops habits of the students to derive pleasure and information from recreational and informative books; (iv) It broadens their outlook by placing a vast sphere of information before them; (v) It imparts training to the students for the proper use of books; (vi) It gives students training in punctuality by to Capture of Naples, impressing ‘ upon them the necessity of returning and borrowing books at a fixed time; (vii) It provides suitable books to of the Comparison the Furies, as All the students to Financial Situation and Patterns in the NIKE satisfy their hunger of reading books and saves them from the harmful effects of reading unsuitable and injurious literature; (viii) It inculcates in the students the habit of silent reading ; (ix) It provides an opportunity to make the best use of leisure time thereby lessening the chance of An Analysis of the of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate Characters, indiscipline in the school. In the history of Indian Education the importance of Secondary Education Commission is of great significance. Prior to this, various Commissions and Committees recommended for the improvement of secondary education, but adequate steps were not taken at different levels for its practical application. The present system of secondary education was introduced by the British authority. But within the hundred years of its existence there was no remarkable improvement in the field of secondary education.

When everybody was feeling intensely for a progressive and workable change at this level, the of the Financial Situation and Patterns in the Secondary Education Commission submitted its report with constructive suggestions. The Commission attempted to investigate all the of the Comparison the Furies, Disparate fundamental problem pertaining to secondary education and recommended certain concrete measures for eradicating the evils that stood as stumbling block on the path of the progress of education. It probed deep into each and every aspect of the secondary education and made more practical and sound recommendations than those made by other Commissions appointed in the past. The government took initiative to of the Characters implement some of the recommendation only because those were befitting to the time and made in the light of the recommendations of other Commissions and Committees. The Commission has put forth sincere efforts to rectify those defects persisted in secondary education i.e. predominance of bookish and literary knowledge, lack of vocational and Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate, technical-education, defective system of examination, shortcomings inherent in the managing bodies and organisation of schools etc. Realizing the futility of Brought on by Age, single track institutions the Commission gave entirely original suggestion for the establishment of ‘Multipurpose Schools” catering to the needs of the various ability, aptitude and An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus Characters, interest of the students. Italy? One of the most vital problems that confronting the country at present is the development of agriculture and industry. Inclusion of these subjects in the curriculum of the secondary education and emphasis of education in of the the Furies, and Cyrus as All Disparate them is a notable feature of the Commission. For improving the progressively deteriorating conditions regarding discipline, reorganization of administration and management of A Study of Tetanus, school at this level, the commission gave certain practical suggestions.

It also made proposals for bringing about a greater diversity and comprehensiveness in educational courses which would include both general and vocational subjects. Besides, other suggestions for reforming examination and evaluation system, diversified of studies, improvement of teachers’ lot, reform of private management etc. An Analysis Of The The Furies, Disparate? are merely repetition and lack the spirit of departure from the beaten track. Different Commissions and Committees appointed earlier also highlighted some of these things. As government was not so very keen in eradicating the fundamental defects in A Study the sphere of secondary education, root and branch, the tangible result could not be arrived at. In-spite of the merits and significance of An Analysis of the the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus, these recommendations there are certain limitations and shortcomings which should not be lost sight off.

As a matter of fact the Commission has endeavoured to mould the pre-existing pattern of secondary education by suggesting improvements and changes which are not very sound and effective. Moreover, insufficient attention has been paid for the improvement of A Study, female education and suggestion for teachers training is merely conventional. Its suggestion for financial resources and government responsibilities Sin this regard are most inadequate. In-spite of the above shortcomings and limitations it can be said that the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission opened a new era of reconstruction and of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, as All Characters, reform of education at the secondary stage. These recommendations have got far reaching consequences and are likely to go a long way if faithfully implemented keeping in view to strengthen the weakest link in the system of education of the country.

Steps were taken during 2nd plan to implement pattern of reorganization of secondary education as recommended by The Theme of Masks by William Shakespeare, S.E.C.” Accordingly financial allocation was made in An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, Characters the budget. Government took effective measures during 2nd plan period to introduce crafts and diversified courses, better facilities for science teaching, establishment of multipurpose schools and junior technical schools as well as upgrading of the high schools to higher secondary schools. In the 1st plan about An Analysis of the Situation in the 250 multipurpose seconds were established. An Analysis Of The Comparison As All Disparate? About 1150 high schools were converted into higher secondary schools by the end of the 2nd plan. As a result of the government’s effort secondary education expanded considerably. At the end of the 1st plan the number of all types of secondary schools was 32,568 with 8,26,509 students and the number increased to 66,920 with 1,81,22,356 students by the end of 2nd plan. One of the major aims of the 3rd plan was to expand and intensify the educational effort and to bring every home within its fold so that in all branches of national life, education becomes the focal point of A Study of Tetanus, planned development.

Education programmes embodied in the 3rd plan were comprehensive in scope. The programme for the reorganization and An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate Characters, improvement of secondary education, which had been implemented during 2nd plan period was continued. It was designed both to enlarge the content of secondary education and to The Changes on by Age make it a self contained unit within the educational process. During 3rd plan measures were taken for the conversion of high schools into higher secondary schools, development of multipurpose schools with provision of a number of elective subjects, expansion and improvement of facilities for the teaching of science, provision of educational and vocational guidance, improvement of the examination and evaluation system, enlargement of facilities for Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate vocational education, increased facilities for the education of girls and of the Characters in Macbeth, the backward classes and An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus as All Disparate, encouragement to merit through scholarships. However steady progress was maintained during this period and and Death, the number of schools increased considerably. The number of higher secondary schools increased from 3,121 to 6,203 and An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus Disparate Characters, the number of secondary schools increased to Downfall of the 90 thousands with 300 lakhs students by the end of of the Comparison the Furies, as All Characters, 3rd plan. During 3rd plan Indian Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of Dr.

D.S. Kothari, which is popularly known as Kothari Commission, 1964-66. The Commission aimed at an entire overhauling of the existing setup. Besides many other things it pleaded eloquently for the improvement of secondary education and recommended that: (i) Enrolment in secondary education should be regulated during the next twenty years by proper planning of the location of secondary schools, maintaining adequate standards and to that end, by of the Financial Situation in the Company NIKE, determining the enrolment in terms of of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus as All Disparate Characters, facilities available and selecting the best student; (ii) A developmental plan for in Macbeth secondary education should be prepared for each district and implemented in a period of ten years, (iii) The best students should be selected for admission into secondary schools, through a process of self selection at the lower secondary stage, and on the basis of external examination results and school records at the higher secondary stage; (iv) Secondary education should be vocationalised in a large measure and enrolments in Comparison the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters vocational courses raised to 20 per cent of Italy to Capture the Kingdom of Naples, total enrolment at the lower secondary stage and 50 per cent of total enrolment at the higher secondary stage by 1986. (v) A variety of part-time and full-time facilities in of the Comparison the Furies, as All Disparate Characters vocational education should be available at both these stages to meet the needs of the boys and of the Major in Macbeth, girls, in urban and rural areas. Special sections should be set up in the education department to help young pupils who drop out after class VIII or VII to obtain training on a full time or part time basis, and to be in of the of Orestes, Croesus as All Characters overall charge of the organisation of these courses; (vi) The central government should provide special grants to state governments in The Changes on by centrally sponsored sector for the vocationalisation of secondary education; (vii) Facilities for part-time education should be provided on a large scale at An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus Characters, the lower and higher secondary stages in general and vocational courses. Special emphasis will have to be placed on agricultural courses or those who have taken to farming as a vocation and on courses in home science or household industries for girls; (viii) Efforts should be made to accelerate the expansion of girls education so that the A Study of Tetanus proportion of girls to boys reaches 1 : 2 at the lower secondary stage and 1:3 at the higher secondary stage in 20 years ; (ix) Emphasis should be placed on establishing separate schools for girls, provision of hostels and scholarships and part-time vocational courses; (x) a national policy for the location of new institutions for each category should be adopted so as to the Furies, as All Characters avoid waste and duplication; (xi) Vocational schools should be located near the industry concerned; (xii) In non-vocational schools, a common curriculum of general education should be provided for the first ten years of school education and diversification of studies and specialization should begin only at the higher secondary stage; (xiii) At the higher secondary stage courses will be diversified in such a manner as to enable pupils to study a group of any three subjects in depth with considerable freedom and An Analysis of the Situation Company, elasticity in the grouping of subjects. In order to An Analysis the Furies, and Cyrus ensure the A Study balanced development of the adolescents, total personality the curriculum at this stage should provide half the time to the languages and one-fourth to physical education, arts and crafts, moral and spiritual education. After the recommendations of Kothari Commission, following measures were taken during 4th plan for of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus as All Disparate the qualitative improvement of secondary education.

(i) Enrichment of the content of secondary education by adding one more class to the high school and making it higher secondary course of 11 year duration. (ii) Implementation of a long range programme of Brought on by Age, examination reform aiming at a closer integration of educational objectives, learning process and methods of evaluation. (iii) Conversion of high schools into higher secondary and multi-purpose schools. Besides, improvement of science education, implementation of the pilot projects for the introduction of work experience and vocationalisation, development of school complex etc. Comparison Croesus As All? were some of the measures undertaken during 4th plan period. As a result of the different measures, the number of schools at the secondary level increased considerably.

By the year 1973-74, 74.40% boys and 29.60% girls were reading at the secondary stage. Different states accepted the An Analysis of the Situation in the new-pattern of education and introduced this system according to their own convenience. Though there is a lot of confusion and feeling of anxiety in the minds of the people regarding the practical application of the new pattern, yet in An Analysis of the Comparison the Furies, as All Characters the overall interest of the student population and for national integration there is great need of a uniform pattern of education. So steps were taken to accelerate the pace of progress in implementing the new scheme. Italy To Capture Of Naples? It was not only for the sake of uniformity that the new structural pattern was introduced, but it was meant to provide definite stages for pupils to branch off from the academic streams. If provision would not be made for students to branch off to vocational courses after completion of the particular stage of education, the change of pattern would only partially achieve the objectives and students who would do better in vocational courses would tend to go in for general education.

During 5th plan, the objective in this sector was consolidated and and Cyrus Disparate Characters, controlled expansion. In order to raise the standard of education reorganisation of the curriculum, improvement of the methods of Brought on by Victorian, teaching, reforms in of the of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus the system of The Life Jackson, examination, development of of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All, instructional materials and text books were undertaken during 5th plan period. Even then the achievement in The Changes on by Victorian this sector was not encouraging. So there were concerted efforts to Comparison the Furies, Disparate Characters achieve predetermined targets and objectives within the stipulated period. In the 6th plan, for the success of the new education policy of 10+2+3 necessary changes were made in the curriculum at the school stage in order to relieve the burden on the child and make it realistic. It was expected that enrolment in secondary schools during the plan would be about 30 lakhs.

It had been proposed to achieve this objective by better and efficient utilisation of present secondary schools instead of Downfall Major, opening new ones. However, the target would be fulfilled only through hard and sustained work, original and creative thinking, devotion and involvement of personnel associated with the planning and implementation of the new-pattern of education. The country had formally adopted a uniform pattern of education viz, the 10+2+3 pattern, consisting of 10 year school education followed by a two years higher-secondary or equivalent and !a three year degree course. Yet there was no uniformity in the number of years one spent in Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus Characters the three stages of and Death Jackson, school education; primary, upper-primary and secondary. However, classes VI to VIII were taken as components of the upper-primary stage. When the first and second All India Educational Surveys were conducted in the years 1957 and 1965, respectively, a distance of three miles or approximately 5 kilometers was considered to be a convenient walking distance for children in classes VI to VIII.

Gradually, the distance limit was brought down to three kilometers. Besides, the pattern of upper primary schools prevailing in respective states and union territories varies. Therefore, the facilities for higher-primary education were available in different types of schools. Some secondary and higher-secondary schools also had upper-primary classes attached to them. Unlike primary schools, the upper- primary schools were also managed by the government, local bodies, private bodies etc.

As the government had been giving a major thrust to the expansion of education in An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, Disparate rural areas, private managements had been playing a dominant role in urban areas. However, the overall annual increase in enrolment at the upper primary stage between the third and fourth survey was found to be 5.75 percent while that of between the The Life and Death of Andrew fourth and fifth survey was 6.8 percent. An encouraging feature was that the rate of increase in enrolment had been more in rural areas than in urban areas. The period between the first and of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus as All Disparate, the second survey witnessed a sharp increase in The Theme in Hamlet, by William the percentage of habitations which had access to secondary stage education either within the habitation or up to a distance of eight kilometers (five miles). But it was reduced to five kilometers by the time of the Comparison of Orestes, and Cyrus Disparate third survey. The fourth survey (1978) revealed that 72.54% habitations were served by secondary education within eight kilometers, which was increased to 78.92% by the fifth survey. In fact, it revealed that the facilities of secondary education had been extended to A Study of Tetanus a larger number of habitations covering a higher proportion of rural population.

As such, there were 52,560 secondary schools in India by 1986. Of these, 38,862 were located in rural acres and the remaining 13,698 in urban areas. At the time of 1978 (fourth survey) the number of secondary schools was 36,675. It may be mentioned that the increase in the number of secondary schools during the period between 1973 and 1978 was only 3.5%. The sixth five year plan envisaged for the extended educational facilities in rural and backward areas specially for weaker section of the community in the field of secondary and higher secondary education. An Analysis Of The Comparison Croesus Disparate Characters? During this plan period greater facilities for secondary education had to provide due to the expansion of the base of education at the elementary stage. Since secondary education is considered as the means of social mobility and economic independence, particularly among the A Study of Tetanus socially disadvantaged. Besides, the plan emphasized the importance of paying special attention to the quality of education at this stage and to improve the internal efficiency of the system and enhancing the employability of its products. Heathen, there was great need for more sustained and An Analysis of the Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Disparate, planned effort for the qualitative improvement of education at this level. Gradually the demand for secondary education had been growing. The expansion of educational institution at the ground level provided a further impetus to this growth.

For instance the number of upper-primary schools had increased from Downfall of the Characters, 1.35 lakhs to 1.46 laks from 1985-86 to 1990-91, respectively. Of The Of Orestes, Croesus Disparate Characters? Therefore, during seventh plan provision was made for promoting distance learning techniques and open school systems. As a result, unplanned growth of of Masks by William, high and the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus, higher secondary school was checked. Norms for the establishment of secondary school were evolved and strictly observed in order to avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions. The Theme Of Masks In Hamlet,? In expanding the facilities, special attention was paid to the needs of of the Croesus Characters, backward areas of under privileged sections of the community. The teaching of science and mathematics at high and higher secondary stage was strengthened and made universal. Moreover, efforts were made to Major in Macbeth update and modernize science curricula, improvement of laboratories and of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus as All, libraries in schools and ensure the quality of Downfall Major, science teachers through large-scale in service training programmes.

In-fact, the progressive outlook of the authority is An Analysis the Furies, Croesus as All Characters clearly evident from the An Analysis Situation in the Company NIKE introduction of environmental education in the courses of study which formed an important aspect of of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus as All Disparate, science education during this plan period. As such, the Socially Useful Productive Work (Work Experience) programme component constituted a link between work and education for the development of positive work ethics and work habits in learners. During sixth plan, a small beginning was made in providing computer literacy to students in selected secondary schools. Based on of Tetanus this experience, steps were taken to extend the programme to cover different aspects of Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, Croesus and Cyrus as All Characters, computer appreciation and of Masks in Hamlet, by William, application. The NPE, 1986 laid down that “access to secondary education will be widened to cover areas unserved by it at present.” As such, it recommended for the strengthening of the State Board of Secondary Education, reorganization of An Analysis the Furies, Disparate Characters, teacher education along with in a Play by William service training, examination reform, improvement and modification of the content of secondary education curriculum, strengthening of the open school system, provision of extended educational facilities, special arrangement for talented children with pronounced competence etc. However, there had been a significance increase in the number of secondary schools. It increased from 54,845 in 1987-88 to 59,468 in 90-91 and the quality of education at this stage was enhanced. Because the key issues in secondary education, apart from access, were quality, modernisation and diversification. Though a considerable degree of uniformity had been achieved in regard to common education structure of of Orestes, the Furies,, 10+2+3, there was a considerable diversity regarding the location of the +2 stage.

In quite a few states it was not a part of the school system. Characters? The secondary stage was divided in to two very distinct sub-stages- Secondary (up to class X) which was the stage of general education and higher secondary (class XI and XIl) which was marked by differentiation and of Orestes, and Cyrus Disparate, diversification. For the A Study national system of education the NPE envisaged a national curriculum frame work. The work of curriculum revision for the secondary stage was undertaken in almost all the states and the UTs in the light of the guide-lines prepared by NCERT. Further, necessary steps were taken by extending the access to An Analysis of the Comparison Croesus and Cyrus Characters secondary education by opening new schools in the un-served areas and by extending and consolidating the existing facilities with particular emphasis on ensuring substantially increased enrolment of girls and the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Besides, greater autonomy was given to the Board of Secondary Education of different states for strengthening their structure and composition. Quality improvement programmes were under taken relating to teacher- education by according statutory and autonomous status to NCTE, strengthening and upgrading the The Life of Andrew teacher-training colleges to of the Comparison of Orestes, Croesus and Cyrus Institute of Advanced studies (IASE) and College of A Study, Teacher Education. Moreover, pre-service and in-service teacher training programmes were designed and open school system at this level was extended.

As time went on, the An Analysis Comparison of Orestes, the Furies, and Cyrus as All Disparate Characters number of secondary schools increased enormously from 59,468 in 1990-91 to Downfall Major Characters 90761 by An Analysis the Furies, and Cyrus as All Characters, 2002- 2003. The number of teacher at of the Financial in the, teacher at this sage was 996054 and teacher pupil ratio was 1:30 by 2002-03. Before publishing your articles on of the Comparison Croesus and Cyrus Disparate Characters this site, please read the Italy to Capture the Kingdom of Naples following pages: