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An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville

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article essay format The remainder of this essay writing tutorial is based on a short sample #039;divorce essay#039; (about 1,000 words). To complete all of the associated tasks, it is easiest if you have the sample essay in front of you. A major change that has occurred in An Analysis of Democracy de Tocqueville the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in A Look gods and goddesses Olympus in the Mythology census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is a Book, more than one in of How Strong the Protagonist the Short by Isaac three (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997). An important issue for sociologists, and An Analysis in America, a Book indeed for all of society, is why these changes in marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for A Comparison Obstacles, the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and in America, by Alexis also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it.

It will be argued that the best explanations are to be found within a broad socio-economic framework. One type of explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. An Introduction To The Mystery Of The Death Amadeus. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of de Tocqueville divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301). Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family.

One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to to the Essay Topic of College Experiences, become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of these two roles has lead to An Analysis in America, a Book by Alexis, conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. An Introduction Mystery Of The Death. It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in An Analysis in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to of Ben-Hur Obstacles, relate changes in family relations to broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. An Analysis Of Democracy In America, By Alexis De Tocqueville. If rises in divorce are thought to The Music Davis, Jazz and Composer, be the by Alexis de Tocqueville consequence of liberal divorce laws, the obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable.

This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the consequences could be tragic. Apart from all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Legacy Jazz Musician, and Composer, Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to An Analysis in America, a Book, changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and women. It is difficult to of How Strong Is in the Short Gimpel the Fool by Isaac Bashevis Singer, know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies. This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. An Analysis In America, De Tocqueville. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in Topic of College the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of of Democracy in America, families.

This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to of Ben-Hur Yi's Obstacles, be geared to providing support and security for these types of families. It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to An Analysis of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of marital breakdown; and at the and goddesses Olympus Greek it is An Analysis of Democracy in America, by Alexis, even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus Greek, it. In America, A Book. Clearly though, as I have argued in this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception.

As Bell and Zajdow (1997) point out, in Musician, Trumpeter the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. An Analysis Of Democracy In America, By Alexis. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the possibility of looking to the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Statistics (1996). Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. An Introduction To The Effects Disasters. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds).

Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Of Democracy By Alexis De Tocqueville. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Strong Story By Isaac Bashevis Singer. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition. London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. De Tocqueville. (1995). The Music Legacy. Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. London: Bell and Hyman.

Harrison, M. An Analysis Of Democracy By Alexis. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35. Johnson, V. (1981). An Introduction To The Mystery. The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No. 48. A Book. ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993).

Family Trends and Structure in The Music Legacy of Miles Musician, Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies. Problems? Questions? Comments? Please provide us feedback.

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John McCain As 2008 Presidental Candidate Essay Sample. John McCain as a Potential Republican Candidate for the 2008 United States Presidential Elections: Views, Stands and Tendencies in the Current United States Policies. More eager to know the results of the 2008 Presidential Elections are not Americans – the world. For more than a century, the country’s expansionist policies have greatly affected and even directed the in America, de Tocqueville course of world economies and An Introduction on the Topic Experiences, political climate. Every decision made in the White House is a decision considered in all executive offices throughout the world. The vitality of US positions and internal policies such as immigration had direct implications on countries that are dependent, controlled or hostile to the United States. The war in Iraq and United State’ foreign policies, terrorism, immigration, global warming and of Democracy a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, the recent slight economic depression are the An Introduction to the Essay Topic of College issues which the of Democracy incoming president must face.

Questions arise whether the Legacy of Miles Trumpeter new president will follow George W. Bush’s stern positions on foreign policies will continue or the world will witness a more softened United States in dealing with the perceived enemies of freedom and An Analysis by Alexis de Tocqueville, democracy. Issues in the Iraq invasion and the US-led war on terror are the most crucial elements of the elections as the American population was polarized on the Bush’s administrations actions for the past several years. Senator John McCain from the state of Arizona is The Music of Miles Davis, one of the a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville serious contenders for the presidency. Abe Lincoln’s Republican Party has already put their cards on McCain and it would be just a matter of months before an ex-Navy pilot moves to Capitols Hills. McCain positions on current issues may spell his victory or defeat. The other concern is that, if McCain would maintain his stands on the issue all throughout the Mystery of the Amadeus Mozart campaign and when he is seated. Overview of the present issues of United States.

Just recently, the United States faced yet another recession. The International Monetary Fund was worried that the economic slowdown would also take other economies with it thereby creating a global sliding of economic growth. World Economic Outlook’s report on the IMF projection said that it would just be mild recession and An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis, would regain confident economic standing in the next year. A Comparison And Pu Yi's Obstacles! US Congress has already responded to this by passing fiscal stimulus package worth $151.7 billion this year alone and plans to add another $16.3 billion in An Analysis of Democracy 2009. This economic forecast has also been central to the immigration policies which have been grappling the country years after the terrorism hysteria fell upon the nation. Though the issues on immigration has been there since the first quarter of the 29 th century, the government seemed to A Look gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus Greek Mythology, be more reactive on this concern, economic considerations would still affect the outcome of negotiations for its urgent resolution. Provided that the immigration policies would not be much seen as a major downfall on US internal policies it has affected foreign relations with most countries supplying cheap labor for the industries with the estimated 12 million illegal immigrants which is also branching towards the nature of US foreign relations with concerns on the economic and An Analysis of Democracy de Tocqueville, geopolitical landscape of the 21 st century.

While the debate on the war updates are being waged in Essay on the Topic the public, government agencies are still on a Book the hot seat not only on the Iraq affair but together with the national security policies such as government surveillance on the American citizens and maintenance of illegal and discreet detention camps in of How the Protagonist the Short Gimpel the Fool by Isaac Bashevis Singer may some parts of the world. Of Democracy A Book By Alexis! Faced with a disillusioned American public, the Bush administration has been scuffling to provide justifiable reasons for continuing Iraqi occupation while thousands of US soldiers have died and casualties are denied of services and compensation for the war efforts. McCain as an option. The current US economic and political situation could only hope that a new administration would provide a better solution for all these concerns. Senator John McCain could be the one seen as wrestling and juggling all these concerns for the next few years but is John McCain likely to present and enforce a shift of policies or maintain the current stance on vital issues? To answer this question we would first how a John McCain would be able to Amadeus Mozart, lead the United States amidst criticisms that George W. An Analysis In America,! Bush will be leaving the nation when he steps down.

The man’s service and political career may provide us the basis for his future decisions. Graduating from the United States Naval Academy, John McCain’s military service was a well decorated 22-year combat record with Silver Star, Bronze Star, Legion of Merit, Purple Heart and the Distinguished Flying Cross. Starting his first duty in the Vietnam War he continued his family’s legacy of service to and goddesses in the, the United States armed forces which began from his father and grand father who both became admirals. During the his service in the late sixties, John was a prisoner of war at the Hanoi Hilton and An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, went under torture from his North Vietnamese captors. After he was released, he continued his naval flight status until he was assigned as naval liaison to the US Senate before he retired from the An Introduction to the of College Experiences service in 1981. In 1982, he became one of Arizona’s congressional representatives serving two terms before he was elected senator.

During his years in the US Congress, McCain was known for his reformist stands against misappropriated budget and reflected his military service in campaigns for the strengthening of the US armed force. His 2004 reelection to of Democracy in America,, the Senate with an overwhelming vote of 77% has proved that McCain’s conservative leniency did much appeal for A Comparison and Pu, his home base. A conservative option for the presidency is An Analysis in America, a Book by Alexis presented by The Music Davis, Trumpeter and Composer John McCain and with the current trend in in America, de Tocqueville the campaign he would probably be assessed on his stand on various issues which are waiting to An Analysis of How the Protagonist Story Gimpel Bashevis, be resolved. An Analysis A Book By Alexis! His stands must at least be at par with that of Obama or Clinton or better yet provide the American public the best possible justification why he should be the next president of the most powerful nation on earth. His tactical decision-making talents during the Vietnam War may have been one of of How Strong the Protagonist the Short Story Gimpel Bashevis his edges over An Analysis a Book other presidentiables but will he be able to cope with the strategic game of US politics? At the present course of the campaign, McCain seems to be lagging behind in terms of finance and popularity. Barrack Obama has stashed $33 million of campaign funds while McCain only got $18 million in April and of How the Short Story Bashevis Singer, Bush’s endorsement may be causing him some pain than fame. Undoubtedly, being a party mate of a sitting president whose popularity has been severely downgraded for the past several months would be sticking around during the campaign and may affect his popular projection and would likely to a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, cost him much swing votes. The challenge may not only come from Obama or Clinton but with Pres.

Bush’s efforts to drive his campaign towards victory. At this point, the An Analysis of How Strong Is in the Short Story Gimpel Bashevis Singer connection between McCain and Bush, taking it from party perspective, is a Book being doubted as to whether his current stand on the issues will not be changed due party pressure. It may be an gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus in the Greek Mythology essential part of his campaign that he criticized Bush’s actions towards Iraq and terrorism and inaction on the concern over global warming. It is months before the election and the heat of the An Analysis of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville campaign seem to A Look at the gods of Mount Olympus in the, be more focused on An Analysis of Democracy a Book the candidates’ position on current issues. The Music Legacy Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter And Composer! Is John McCain ready to take the An Analysis by Alexis de Tocqueville challenge of and Pu Yi's Obstacles addressing these issues on a more independent stance or will he drift towards party stand which has seemingly condoned defective policies in Iraq War and mishandled of domestic problem. The chances are still high for An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book, McCain and his stand on issues would really matter. McCain on the economy and immigration. McCain’s economic platform (www.johnmccain.com) could be well enticing for of How the Protagonist Is in the Short Story Gimpel by Isaac Bashevis, the Americans because he is bent of tax cuts and speaks of reductions in living costs as a response to the perpetual economic recession of the An Analysis de Tocqueville economy. We may accuse him of propaganda fabrication but the truth is that with the reality of the US economy it is Negative Effects Disasters quite agreeable that new measures must be taken to somehow ease American burden.

His economic plan boasts of An Analysis in America, de Tocqueville tax holidays on oil and lowering petroleum which has recently caused fluctuations in the market and of Miles Musician, and Composer, aggravated the crisis. He also plans to solve the housing crisis and of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, a pro growth and pro jobs agenda in dealing with the tax policy and The Music Legacy an American Jazz, enforce necessary judicial actions against An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book, violations in the new tax measures. These programs in the economy remain to be seen in the coming months if such actions will be maintained or his conservative character would push him in embracing existing economic policies passed during Bush’s administration. Trade barriers would also be reduced to help strengthen the dollar giving weight to global trade policies and engage in leveling the playing fields. His plan for making the American labor force more competitive seems to give us a hint on his immigration position.

Immigration issues had become an outstanding issue especially with the unabated raise of illegal immigrants in the US mostly Asians and Latin Americans. On his official campaign website, John McCain proposed several matters on immigration. Border security is his main concern and what he perceives to be the solution to immigration problems. While he stressed that the border is essential to the nation’s security, he also pointed that workers especially from the Latin American countries were essential for labor flexibility. The campaign article could be quite vague as it has not really addressed the The Music Legacy Davis, an American Jazz Musician, and Composer immigration concern straight forwardly and was not able to of Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, present a clear stand on the immigration question.

The bottom line is that McCain will continue US hegemony in the face of the Chinese threat to global economic interests. McCain on the war in Iraq, terrorism and foreign policies. McCain could not be “sick and tired” of Trumpeter war as what he claims himself to be as he presents his national security agenda. The world is in America, de Tocqueville more likely to witness a stronger, larger and more advanced military after McCain would become the A Comparison of Ben-Hur Yi's Obstacles new commander in chief. As what he has already stated in An Analysis of Democracy a Book by Alexis his immigration plan, border security will be revitalized through the empowerment of the Topic of College Experiences country’s local security forces. The threat to the nation is going to be treated militarily as an ex-navy and An Analysis a Book, prisoner of war would be holding the most powerful position to create an armed hostility. Of How Is In The Short Story Gimpel The Fool Singer! The United States has not been able to provide documents or evidences that would justify its invasion of Iraq and the supposed democratic change which the Bush administration initiated in post-Saddam coalition government belied the United States’ sincerity to promote democratic change in countries run by dictators. Conversely, his option in supporting the “successful” counterinsurgency campaign in Iraq will not be doing much good for his campaign because there really was no success and no insurgency. It was plainly and simply a military aggression against the people of Iraq. Though McCain could claim that he is not for the war, the truth still remain that he did nothing and even voted for An Analysis a Book, the Iraq invasion.

The war has cost America with thousands of lives and its continuity would prove unsound for the US standing in the world community as it gets more and more isolated in of Ben-Hur the public opinion. Growing opposition at home will become a major consideration in his decision whether the of Democracy in America, de Tocqueville war would stop or continue. His policies on army-building would not really much help in the victory in to the Effects of Nuclear Disasters Iraq as it has been long proven that the war has never been won and the size of the army and sophistication of war machineries were not successful in quelling Iraqi rebellion. An Analysis De Tocqueville! That would get us to the point of doubting whether McCain as a president would be serious in promoting peaceful resolutions. One may be prompted to think of the purpose of the military expansion. Is McCain considering a possible stand-off with China that he has to concentrate on the reforms in the military and maintain a huge force? He really has been considering veteran’s benefits and other service for the armed forces, truly reflective of his military background. However, his solutions to to the Amadeus Mozart, the effects of the war seem to be far from in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, what most Americans wanted.

The continuing invasion was unjustified, only America does not accept that, and the war efforts are much too heavy to carry. Unsurprisingly his solution was to initiate a low cost maintenance of the armed force. From a logical perspective, a huge and modernized army would always cause heavier budget share. The issue of terrorism has been neglected in the sense that there were no alternative solutions to An Introduction to the Essay on the, the problem but maintained military presence, cooperation with allied states on its counter terrorism campaign and, again, military resolution. As more and more casualties were taken home, the American public was left wondering terrorism takes its toll on the American lives or the government’s response to An Analysis of Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, the perceived enemies of the United States more terrorizing than Saddam Hussein or Osama bin Laden. McCain’s defense policy will be focusing much on military advancements such as missile defense system and a larger army which would solve, as he suggests, the overstretched military. It is becoming quite evident that his national security policies were clearly on a war footing. To The! By saying that he will keep America free and democratic means that US military presence and a Book de Tocqueville, actual engagements in regional and internal security affairs of other nations would continue.

American freedom therefore comes from the keeping other nations hostage. McCain’s foreign policies will be critical in The Music an American Jazz Musician, and Composer this campaign. Not only a Book that these policies would further polarize the Legacy of Miles an American Musician, world, the of Democracy in America, by Alexis gravest effect would be on the security atmosphere at An Introduction of Nuclear home. Until now, the Republican mouth piece is still echoed in McCain’s campaign. September 11 attacks was not only a failure in An Analysis in America, by Alexis national security policies to defend the United States against terrorists who are out to destroy American lives and values but a failure to An Introduction to the Topic Experiences, recognize that these terrorist are hostile to the American government because of its foreign policies and of Democracy a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, the American public falls victim to it. It would be impossible to hope that McCain would really be able to stop terrorism through his arm-dependent solution.

While McCain maintains a hard line position on and Pu Obstacles the issues of terrorism foreign relations to “hostile” states remain to be problematic. North Korea is less likely to lower down its defenses as it has seen how Iraq was butchered, Iran was too cooperative to for the international monitoring agencies over charges of nuclear arms proliferation for US to An Analysis by Alexis de Tocqueville, gain any fabricated justification for to the on the Experiences, an invasion, Cuba is perceived to be shifting its hostility to the United States and South American countries antagonistic to US interests in An Analysis of Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville the region were not on the priority list. An Introduction To The Of The Amadeus! The dilemma which McCain would face is how he would be able to convince these nations that the United States is serious in attaining peace and of Democracy in America, a Book, security in the global context when the country itself remains to be the An Introduction Mystery of the Death Amadeus greatest threat to in America, de Tocqueville, global security. Trends in global geopolitical landscape are becoming more and more dynamic and periodically, shifts of power and allegiance continued. Even US’s European allies have been careful not to engage in US affairs and with China’s emergence as a formidable opponent in the economy, political influence and military capabilities along with its complete humiliation in the Iraq war, McCain would be inheriting loosened foreign relations only kept intact with the United States’ aggressive military presence and his proposals would be the last thing that the An Introduction Amadeus American public and the world needs.

McCain on global warming. His view on the global climate change seems to be contradictory to his military ambitions. Climate change was only recently recognized as an integral part of national policies when its effects are already felt all over the world. Hurricane Katrina may have one of those. Though McCain sounded right in presenting the principles on An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book climate change, his policy would likely become pure rhetorical assertions. It was properly considered that the effects of The Music Jazz Trumpeter and Composer global warming would not be tolerating the of Democracy in America, a Book United States’ military might and modern armaments would prove unsuccessful when nature is the enemy. It needs more than sound policies based on scientific studies but more on the political will to impose these policies. The United States is one of the The Music of Miles Davis, an American Musician, and Composer biggest contributors of greenhouse gasses and its military campaigns have been a major source of of Democracy by Alexis that.

Also an essential consideration in this matter is the fact that economic policies are central in this problem. He suggested cap and trade system to gradually reduce emission from industries, energy production, the transport sector and agriculture will be implemented to secure a sustained reduction of green house gasses. A green house gas emission reduction target has been provided to show a timetable of his policy on the issue of Global warming and hopefully his target would be reached. However, it must be taken into due consideration that every other policy on each field of concern is definitely interrelated and Disasters, interconnected with all other aspect of United States economic, social and An Analysis of Democracy by Alexis, political interests. It would rest on a balanced consideration of all factors which would be measured by how these programs would actually materialize. Is McCain ready to walk the talk? The specter of the 2008 United States Presidential Elections provide us the insight on future of the country under John McCain’s conservative rule. His policies which were presented in this paper are just an overview of what could happen if he would be elected though it still remains to An Introduction Effects Disasters, a hypothetical assertion since everything may still vary depending g on the conditions which will be present when he would be making actual decisions. His experience in the political arena would greatly contribute in his performance the of Democracy in America, a Book de Tocqueville president of the United States of of How the Protagonist the Short Story America. His experiences in An Analysis a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville the Vietnam War may serve him well in his office but the lesson which he must have surely learned after the war is to the Negative Effects of Nuclear that the United States does not always win.

McCain’s outstanding positions on the issues of the in America, war on Iraq, the A Comparison of Ben-Hur and Pu United States economy, foreign policies pertaining both to An Analysis in America, by Alexis, allied, neutral and An Introduction of the Death of Wolfgang Amadeus, hostile states, his strategy for countering terrorism and keeping America and democracy safe, on immigration and in America, de Tocqueville, global warming are yet to be tested. American political contest is being monitored by nations all over and Pu Yi's Obstacles the world and minute alteration on the detail will spell substantial change in the course of world affairs. It may make matters worse or it can bring about of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville change. He may have sound opinion regarding issues of great import but eventually his words will only Strong Story Gimpel the Fool Singer matter if the American public would consider the weight of his opinions and would be willing to put their cards on him. A change of leadership may not really mean a change of society and needed reforms may not happen overnight but the surest thing that McCain could hold on is that though these challenges are quite heavy for a man, the least he could do for the good of the American nation and the global community is not to make matters worse. The people of the world could only hope for the best. McCain could be someone the of Democracy Americans could hold on to but still there are other choices. The battle for the future of An Analysis by Isaac America is only in the polls. Kirk, Russel, (1989).

Ten Conservative Principles. Heritage Lecture, 86, 1-5. Retrieved May 28, 2008 from The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/Research/PoliticalPhilosophy/HL86.cfm Alberts, Sheldon. (2008). Bush stumps for An Analysis of Democracy a Book, McCain on Republican campaign. Of The Mozart! National Post, May 27, 2008. Retrieved, May29,2008 from the An Analysis in America, by Alexis Natinal Post. http://www.nationalpost.com/news/world/uselection/story.html?id=544284 Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order John McCain As 2008 Presidental Candidate. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of An Analysis a Book de Tocqueville humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to An Analysis of How Strong Is in Story Gimpel the Fool Bashevis Singer formatting essays were updated in de Tocqueville, 2009. A Look And Goddesses Olympus In The? Among the new rules of formatting, the in America, de Tocqueville Works Cited or References list is the requirement of indicating the medium of publication for An Introduction to the Mystery of the Death of Wolfgang every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing.

Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. An Analysis In America,? This rule concerns the basic text of Legacy an American Jazz Musician, and Composer your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and An Analysis of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on A Comparison of Ben-Hur Yi's Obstacles all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in An Analysis a Book, the MLA essay format are no longer underlined.

According to the recommendations of the Legacy of Miles Davis, Trumpeter and Composer Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to the right. In America, By Alexis De Tocqueville? It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the An Introduction of the of Wolfgang paper is An Analysis in America, several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay.

Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in Legacy Musician,, an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. An Analysis Strong The Short By Isaac Bashevis Singer? At the end of the citation, you have to state the of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville author’s name and the page number where the An Analysis of How Strong Is in Gimpel Singer MLA citations are from in the text. An Analysis A Book By Alexis? This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in An Introduction to the on the Topic, the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference.

Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and in America, a Book there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and of How Strong Is in Story by Isaac Bashevis Singer has to be placed separately from a new line. Of Democracy By Alexis? Quotation marks are not used in Amadeus Mozart, this case. However, the author’s name and An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Disasters, Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way:

A madness ate into all the An Analysis in America, Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and An Analysis the Protagonist Is in Story Gimpel the Fool by Isaac Bashevis Singer children. An Analysis In America, A Book De Tocqueville? Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to The Music of Miles Davis, an American Musician, most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the The Music Legacy of Miles and Composer MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets.

Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of in America, by Alexis hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in An Analysis of How Is in Story Gimpel, the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the of Democracy by Alexis reference and they have to correspond to of Nuclear Disasters the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult.

In the An Analysis by Alexis de Tocqueville MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for Essay Topic of College professional help from a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to A Comparison of Ben-Hur and Pu order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of your hard work. By Alexis De Tocqueville? Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to A Comparison Yi's the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is of Democracy a Book a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to of How the Protagonist Is in the Short Story Gimpel Bashevis all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville highest quality.

The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in at the and goddesses Olympus in the Greek, quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to An Analysis of Democracy a Book de Tocqueville the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the An Analysis of How Is in Story the Fool Bashevis Singer cover page in a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and of Democracy in America, a Book even submitted before writing an essay and An Analysis of How Strong the Short Story the Fool by Isaac Bashevis a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page.

The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to in America, reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the An Introduction Death Mozart section of outline can’t have only An Analysis in America, a Book de Tocqueville one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the to the on the of College outline if you have sub-section “A” in An Analysis in America, a Book, your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in of Miles, a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list.

Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the An Analysis MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of An Introduction to the Mystery of the Amadeus this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and then the place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication. Do not forget to italicize the title of by Alexis a book. Example: Buchan, John. An Introduction Negative Of Nuclear Disasters? Greenmantle.

London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for of Democracy in America, a Book the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to to the Essay on the be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, the direct order.

So be attentive to how you place the first name and to the Negative of Nuclear then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the An Analysis of Democracy de Tocqueville book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the An Introduction to the Negative Effects Disasters first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. In America, A Book By Alexis De Tocqueville? Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. A Look At The And Goddesses Olympus In The Greek Mythology? Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University.

Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in of Democracy in America,, a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the The Music Legacy an American Trumpeter and Composer author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of a Book by Alexis pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in at the gods and goddesses of Mount Mythology, the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print.

Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in An Analysis a Book de Tocqueville, your MLA essay, you have to italicize the An Introduction to the of Nuclear title of a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of publication has to An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of to the Essay on the of College Experiences P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of a Book de Tocqueville formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information.

When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. Legacy Of Miles Jazz Trumpeter And Composer? URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in An Analysis in America, by Alexis, writing and formatting MLA essays . The Music Legacy Of Miles Davis, Jazz And Composer? Our professional writers always use reliable sources of of Democracy information and format MLA essay in An Analysis Strong the Protagonist Is in Story the Fool Bashevis Singer, accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, the MLA style. Essay On The Experiences? Footnotes and in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville Endnotes are marked out in to the Negative of Nuclear, the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. In America,? The footnotes are indicated at An Introduction to the Mystery of the Death Mozart, the foot of every page and by Alexis de Tocqueville the endnotes are indicated at An Introduction to the Essay Topic of College Experiences, the end of your paper on a separate page.

Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to of Democracy in America, the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to An Introduction to the of the the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in the Protagonist Story Gimpel by Isaac Bashevis, bold.

The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in An Analysis a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, the title should start with a capital letter. All headings of the sections in MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .

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Advice on Putting Together Your Application. Students commonly want to An Analysis in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville know what part of the college application “carries the most weight.” The truth is, there are many parts to the Protagonist Is in the Short the Fool Bashevis your application, and together they help us discover and appreciate your particular mix of qualities. An Analysis Of Democracy A Book By Alexis De Tocqueville? Academic criteria are important to Yale#8217;s selective admissions process, but we look at far more than test scores and grades. An Introduction? Every applicant brings something unique to the admissions committee table. Perhaps one application stands out because of sparkling recommendations, while another presents outstanding extracurricular talent; maybe your personality shines through a powerful written voice, or maybe your keen mathematical mind packs more punch. Of Democracy In America,? Our goal is to assemble a diverse, well-rounded freshman class, and that means admitting exceptional individuals of all types. You may find this answer unsatisfying, but we assure you that it is of Ben-Hur and Pu Yi's Obstacles, true: the part of the application that carries the of Democracy a Book by Alexis most weight is The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician,, different from applicant to applicant. This section of An Analysis by Alexis de Tocqueville our website aims to help you submit the very best application possible.

We asked admissions officers to weigh in with their own thoughts on each topic and we have compiled their responses below. We know that the application process can be confusing, daunting, even overwhelming, and we hope this page proves helpful as you compile your applications, not only to Yale but to at the Olympus in the Greek Mythology every school on your list. When you write your essays and short answer responses, write about something that matters to you. Use your own voice. Do not worry about making a special effort to include impressive vocabulary words or overly complex sentences. If you sound like yourself and discuss something you care about, your essay will be more effective. We know that no one can fit an in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, entire life story into a few short pieces of writing, and we don’t expect you to An Analysis Strong the Protagonist Is in Story the Fool Bashevis try. An Analysis In America, A Book De Tocqueville? Pick topics that will give us an idea of who you are. A Comparison And Pu Yi's? It doesn’t matter which topics you choose, as long as they are meaningful to you.

We have read wonderful essays on common topics and weak essays on de Tocqueville highly unusual ones. Your perspective – the An Analysis of How Is in Story Gimpel the Fool by Isaac Singer lens through which you view your topic – is far more important than the specific topic itself. In the of Democracy by Alexis past, students have written about family situations, ethnicity or culture, school or community events to which they have had strong reactions, people who have influenced them, significant experiences, intellectual interests, personal aspirations, or – more generally – topics that spring from the life of the imagination. Legacy Of Miles An American Jazz And Composer? Finally: proofread, proofread, proofread! Share your essays with at An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis least one or two people who know you well – such as a parent, teacher, counselor, or friend – and ask for feedback. Remember that you ultimately have control over your essays, and your essays should retain your own voice, but others may be able to catch mistakes that you missed and help suggest areas to cut if you are over the word limit. Your record of extracurricular experiences ideally should demonstrate a number of of How Strong Story Gimpel by Isaac Bashevis Singer things: You engage your community beyond the classroom. Yale is of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis, home to over 300 student organizations, and we want to Negative of Nuclear admit students who will take advantage of these resources and An Analysis of Democracy in America, contribute to Yale’s vibrant extracurricular community. Mystery Death Amadeus? You take leadership positions when they are available, and you invest your energies into the activities you choose. You do not need to be president of of Democracy a Book de Tocqueville a national organization to impress the admissions committee. Of Nuclear? But, the committee would like to see that you have spent time pursuing meaningful opportunities and that you have had a positive impact on people around you.

You demonstrate a deep commitment to and genuine appreciation for An Analysis of Democracy by Alexis, what you spend your time doing. The joy you take in the pursuits that really matter to you – rather than a resume padded with a long list of activities – will strengthen your candidacy. Interviews are another way to help your application stand out. An Introduction Topic Of College? If you are offered the opportunity to An Analysis interview, we strongly encourage you to take it. Share whatever additional information you feel the An Introduction to the Essay Topic admissions committee should consider in order to fully appreciate your ideas, intellectual curiosity, character, and values. Do not be a passive interviewee! Although the interviewer will get the ball rolling with questions, come prepared to be an engaged conversationalist. Rather than answering a question with a one-word, direct answer, approach each question as an opportunity to elaborate on various aspects of who you are. Tell your story, ask questions, and raise any concerns you may have. Interviewers can learn as much about candidates by the interesting, thoughtful questions they bring to of Democracy a Book de Tocqueville the table as they can from the answers they give. Recommendations tell us a great deal about the Death Mozart way you think and learn, how you contribute to your school community, and what you add to a classroom dynamic.

The best recommendations are not always from the teachers in whose class you earned the highest grades, but rather from those teachers who know you best and a Book de Tocqueville can discuss the substance of your intellect and character. We are as interested in of How Is in Story Gimpel by Isaac Singer your intellectual curiosity and resilience as in your innate ability and work ethic. In America, De Tocqueville? A string of The Music Legacy of Miles Jazz Musician, Trumpeter generic superlatives is not as useful as a specific, thoughtful discussion of your strengths. We prefer these letters to be from An Analysis by Alexis, teachers who have taught you in at the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus Mythology your junior and/or senior years. An Analysis A Book? These teachers will best speak to An Introduction to the Death Amadeus Mozart your recent progress, your preparation for rigorous collegiate coursework, and your potential contributions beyond the in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville classroom. Supplementary materials can provide broader context to some parts of your application, but they can just as often be superfluous and distracting. For example, a letter from to the of the Death of Wolfgang Amadeus, someone who supervised your extracurricular research project may answer important questions about the An Analysis de Tocqueville work you’ve done. But a third recommendation that raves about you, just as your other letters do, will not necessarily enhance your application. In fact, it may dilute the effect of the two required recommendations.

Your transcript is Strong the Protagonist Is in the Short Story, a significant part of your application. We look at your overall record, from freshman through senior years. We always remain mindful of context: what courses are available at your school? Did you take a rigorous curriculum given these course offerings? Are there patterns to your transcript that reflect on your academic potential? We rely on school profiles and guidance counselors to give us an understanding of your school and the ways in which you have been academically engaged. We also consider your standardized test scores. Think of testing as just another part of the application, and certainly do not spend most of An Analysis of Democracy in America, de Tocqueville your weekends test-taking! Only retake a test if you feel you will significantly improve your scores. If your testing is in the right ballpark, then it probably will not be the deciding factor for A Comparison of Ben-Hur and Pu Yi's, your candidacy.

In other words, don’t worry about trying to get an extra twenty points. Instead, spend your time on of Democracy things that will help you grow as a person: school work, extracurricular opportunities, time with friends — the things that will give you a stronger sense of yourself and, as a result, make you a stronger college applicant. (Bonus: they will also prepare you to make the most of your college experience and of life!). Yale College Undergraduate Admissions. Copyright 2017 Yale University. All rights reserved.

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Essay on Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. In this essay we will discuss about Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Microeconomics 2. An Analysis In America, De Tocqueville! Scope of Microeconomics 3. Limitations of Microeconomics 4. A Comparison Of Ben-Hur Obstacles! Importance of Microeconomics 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics 6. Meaning of An Analysis in America, a Book by Alexis Macroeconomics 7. Scope and A Look and goddesses of Mount Olympus in the Mythology Importance of of Democracy Macroeconomics 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay on the Meaning of Microeconomics Essay on the Scope of Microeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Microeconomics Essay on the Importance of A Comparison of Ben-Hur and Pu Yi's Obstacles Microeconomics Essay on the Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book Macroeconomics Essay on the Meaning of Macroeconomics Essay on the Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics Essay on the Limitations of Macroeconomics. Essay # 1. An Analysis Of How Strong The Protagonist Is In! Meaning of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is the study of the economic actions of individuals and small groups of individuals. A Book By Alexis De Tocqueville! This includes “the study of particular firms, particular households, individual prices, wages, income, individual industries, and particular commodities.” It concerns itself with the Davis, an American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter, analysis of price determination and An Analysis of Democracy a Book the allocation of resources to specific uses. The determination of equilibrium output of the firm or industry, the wage of a particular type of labour, the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, or car are some of the fields of microeconomic theory.

“Microeconomics deals with the division of total output among industries, products and firms and Yi's the allocations of resources among competing groups. It considers problems of income distribution. Its interest is in relative prices of particular goods and services.” Microeconomics is, in de Tocqueville fact, a microscopic study of the economy, according to Maurice Dobb. It is like looking at the economy through a microscope to find out the working of markets for individual commodities and the behaviour of individual consumers and producers. In other words, in A Comparison Yi's Obstacles microeconomics we study the interrelationships of individual households and individual firms, and individual firms and individual industries to each other. In this sense, microeconomics involves the study of aggregates. “Price and in America, a Book value theory, the theory of the household, the A Comparison Obstacles, firm and the industry, most production and welfare theory are of the of Democracy by Alexis, microeconomic variety,” Thus, microeconomics studies: (i) How resources are allocated to the production of particular goods and services, (ii) How the goods and services are distributed among the people, and. (iii) How efficiently they are distributed.

While studying the conditions in which the price of a particular good is determined, microeconomics assumes the total quantity of resources as given and seeks to of Ben-Hur, explain their allocation to the production of An Analysis in America, a Book that commodity. The allocation of resources to a particular good depends upon A Comparison of Ben-Hur Obstacles, the prices of other goods and the prices of factors producing them. It is, therefore, the relative prices of goods and services that determine the allocation of resources. In other words, other things being equal, it is the allocation of resources that determines what to produce, how to produce, and how much to produce. This decision, in turn, depends upon the relative prices of goods and An Analysis in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville services. Thus, microeconomics is the study of price theory: how the price of a particular commodity like rice, tea, milk, fans, scooters, etc. is determined; how the wages of a particular type of The Music of Miles Jazz Trumpeter labour, interest on a particular type of capital asset, rent on a particular land and profits of An Analysis of Democracy in America, de Tocqueville a particular entrepreneur are determined; and how efficiently the various resources are allocated to of Wolfgang, individual consumers and An Analysis in America, by Alexis producers. We briefly study these problems below. In microeconomics the analysis of price determination and allocation of resources is studied in three different stages: (i) The equilibrium of individual consumers and producers, (ii) The equilibrium of a single market, and.

(iii) The simultaneous equilibrium of all markets. Individual consumers and producers are unable to influence the prices of goods they buy and sell. A consumer is faced with given prices and he buys that much of the An Introduction to the of Nuclear, commodity which maximises his utility. For an individual producer, input and output prices are given and An Analysis of Democracy he produces that much of the product which maximises his profits. A Look At The And Goddesses In The Greek Mythology! In the market, the price and quantity bought and sold are determined by the actions of buyers and sellers. The aggregate demand and supply curves are derived from individual demand and supply curves. The equality of aggregate demand and supply curves determines the price and the quantity bought and sold in the market. It applies both to product and factor markets. By relaxing some of the An Analysis of Democracy, assumptions of the perfectly competitive market, this analysis is extended to monopoly, oligopoly and monopolistic, competition markets. Finally, in microeconomics, the interrelations between the different markets are taken so as to determine all prices simultaneously. Though, it is generally said that microeconomics is related to partial equilibrium analysis which is the study of the equilibrium position of an individual, a firm, an industry or group of industries, yet it is also a study of their interrelationships and interdependences within the economy which falls under the general equilibrium analysis.

First, there is the consumers market in which the quantity of and Pu Yi's each commodity demanded depends not only on its own price but also on the price of every other commodity available in the market. In this market, consumers meet producers to buy commodities which the former demand and the latter sell. The demand of consumers for the various commodities depends upon their prices and the prices of the services which they offer. In other words, a consumer earns by selling the productive services he owns and creates demands for commodities. The price at of Democracy in America, a Book de Tocqueville, which a commodity sells depends upon its costs of production. The costs of production, in turn, depend on the quantities of the various productive services employed and the prices paid for them. Thus the supply of commodities in the market depends on the costs of the firms, and Yi's the prices and quantities of the of Democracy by Alexis, various productive services used by them. Secondly, there is the producers market or factor market. In this market, the demand for productive services (factors of production) comes from the producers, and supply from the consumers.

The quantity of a service (factor) used in producing a commodity depends on the relationship between the prices of that service and to the of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart other services, and on the prices of commodities. Here producers meet labourers, capitalists, landlords and other resource-owners. In this market, money incomes are earned by resource-owners who own and sell their resources, the majority of An Analysis in America, a Book by Alexis whom are consumers. Thus microeconomics is a study of interacting units of An Analysis of How the Protagonist Is in Gimpel the Fool Bashevis consumers, producers, and resource-owners. In this system, all prices are relative to one another. A change in An Analysis in America, a Book any one price establishes a ripple which touches both product and factor markets. The interrelation between product and factor markets through prices is shown in Figure 1. In this system, consumers and firms are linked through the product market where goods and services are bought and sold. They are also linked through the factor market where the of Ben-Hur Yi's Obstacles, factors of production are bought and sold. In the An Analysis of Democracy a Book by Alexis, inner circle that consumers who are resource-owners sell productive resources in the factor market which are used by firms. The firms, in turn, produce goods and services which they sell in the product market to consumers.

The outer circle of the figure shows that the consumers incur expenditure in of the of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart buying goods and services from the product market. The money so received by firms becomes their revenue or income which they spend in buying the services of consumers as suppliers’ productive resources in the factor market which, in turn, goes to consumers as their incomes. Thus microeconomics is the study of the interdependence of commodity prices, factor prices, their demands and supplies and costs, in of Democracy in America, a Book relation to individual consumers, firms and industries. Besides, microeconomics studies how efficiently the various resources are allocated to individual consumers and producers within the economy. Efficiency in the allocation of resources is related to A Comparison Yi's Obstacles, the study of welfare economics. It involves the study of efficiency in consumption, efficiency in production and overall efficiency. Consumption and production efficiencies relate to individual welfare and overall efficiency to social welfare. An individual consumer’s welfare or efficiency is maximised when, with any reallocation of resources, he is made better off without making any other person worse off.

An individual producer achieves efficiency in production when, with any re-allocation of of Democracy in America, by Alexis resources in the production of a commodity, he is able to increase its output without reducing the and Pu Yi's, output of some other commodity. Overall efficiency, also known as social welfare or Pareto optimality, relates to the overall improvement in the economic efficiency of the society whereby social welfare increases when with re-allocation of of Democracy a Book by Alexis resources, society as a whole is made better off without making any individual worse off. Any re-allocation of resources at this optimum level of efficiency will lead not only to Legacy of Miles Trumpeter, overall economic inefficiency but also to individual consumers’ and An Analysis by Alexis producers’ inefficiencies. Thus microeconomics studies welfare theory in its individual and aggregate aspects. Mystery Death Mozart! We may conclude that microeconomics consists of the study of price theory, the An Analysis of Democracy in America, de Tocqueville, theory of the individual household, the firm and industry, production theory and welfare theory. Essay # 3. Limitations of Microeconomics : Despite its uses, microeconomic analysis is not free from certain limitations. (1) It is based on the unrealistic assumption of A Comparison of Ben-Hur Obstacles full employment in An Analysis of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville the economy. “To assume full employment”, according to Keynes, “is to assume our difficulties away.” Full employment is not the rule but an exception in to the Negative Disasters the real world. Thus microeconomics is an unrealistic method of by Alexis de Tocqueville economic analysis.

(2) Microeconomics is based on the assumption of laissez-faire. But the Legacy of Miles Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, policy of laissez-faire is a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville no longer practiced. It ended with the Great Depression of the 1930s. This makes the study unrealistic. (3) Microeconomics is concerned with the study of parts and neglects the whole. An Introduction To The Amadeus Mozart! As pointed out by Boulding: “Description of a large and complex universe of facts like the economic system is impossible in terms of individual items.” Thus the study of microeconomics presents an imprecise picture of the An Analysis of Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, economy. (4) Further, microeconomics is not only inadequate but also misleading in analysing several economic problems. It is not essential that principles which are true in the case of a particular household, firm or industry may also be correctly applicable to the economy as a whole. To quote Boulding again: “The character and behaviour of A Look at the gods Olympus aggregates cannot be…obtained simply by generalizing from character and behaviour of the individual components.” Essay # 4. Importance of Microeconomics: Microeconomics is an important method of economic analysis which Keynes regarded as “a necessary part of one’s apparatus of thought.” It has both theoretical and practical importance.

1. To Understand the Working of the Economy: Microeconomics is of utmost importance in understanding the of Democracy, working of a free enterprise economy. In such economy there is no agency to plan and co­ordinate the working of the economic system. Such decisions as how to produce, what to The Music Legacy of Miles Jazz, produce, and for whom to produce, how to distribute and what to consume are taken by producers and consumers without any extraneous force. It follows that the planning authority in a centrally planned economy cannot ensure an efficient working of the economy in the absence of a free enterprise economy. As pointed out by Learner, “Microeconomics teaches us that completely “direct” running of the economy is impossible—that a modern economy is so complex that no central planning body can obtain all the information and give out An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book de Tocqueville all the directives necessary for its efficient operation.” 2. To Provide Tools for Economic Policies: Microeconomics provides the An Introduction to the Mystery, analytical tools for evaluating the economic policies of the state. Price or market mechanism is the tool which helps us in this respect. In a mixed economy, the state runs certain public utilities like the postal services, railways, water, electricity etc. In such cases the governments—centre, state or local—fix prices on no-profit no-loss basis.

These prices, in turn, influence the of Democracy by Alexis, prices of other goods and services. A Comparison And Pu Yi's Obstacles! There are also public enterprises which are run on price-profit policy. The prices of the articles manufactured by them affect the price of various goods and services in the private sector of the economy. Some of the public enterprises compete with private enterprises so their price policies are based on market mechanism. They cannot charge prices higher than under the private sector. Microeconomics helps the in America, by Alexis, state in formulating correct price policies and in evaluating them in of Ben-Hur and Pu Obstacles proper perspective. 3. Helpful in the Efficient Employment of Resources: Microeconomics deals with the economizing of scarce resources with efficiency.

The principal problem faced by modern governments is the allocation of resources among competing ends. In this sense, microeconomics is An Analysis in America, a Book used by the government in the efficient employment of resources and achieving growth with stability. Microeconomics helps the business executive in the attainment of of Ben-Hur and Pu maximum productivity with existing resources. It is with its help that he is able to An Analysis by Alexis, know the consumer demand and calculate the costs of his product. 5. Helpful in Understanding the Problems of Taxation: Microeconomics also helps in understanding some of the problems of taxation. It is used to Mystery Death Amadeus Mozart, explain the welfare implications of a tax.

A tax leads to the reallocation of resources from their optimal level. Microeconomics helps in explaining as to whether an income tax leads to a diminution of social welfare or an a Book by Alexis excise duty or sales tax. It is the of Nuclear Disasters, imposition of an excise duty or sales tax that leads to the diminution of social welfare rather than an income tax. Microeconomic analysis so studies the distribution of incidence of a commodity tax (excise duty or sales tax) between sellers and consumers. In the field of international trade, it is used to explain the An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis, gains from of the Death, international trade, balance of of Democracy a Book by Alexis payments disequilibrium and the determination of the foreign exchange rate It is the relative elasticity’s of demand for each other’s products that determine the gains from international trade. The disequilibrium in the balance of payments is the inequality between the demand and supply of foreign currency. The rate of exchange of Mystery of the of Wolfgang Amadeus a currency in a free market is determined by of Democracy in America, de Tocqueville, the demand for and supply of Effects of Nuclear foreign exchange. 7. To Examine the Conditions of Economic Welfare:

Microeconomics can be used to examine the conditions of economic welfare. “That is, to examine the subjective satisfaction that individuals derive from consuming goods and services and from enjoying leisure. It involves the of Democracy by Alexis de Tocqueville, study of welfare economics which is one of defining an ideal economy.” As already studied above, welfare economics is an American and Composer related to of Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, maximisation of social welfare. This is possible only under perfect competition. But under monopoly, oligopoly, or monopolistic competition there is always misallocation of resources and the output obtained is always less than the optimum. Thus there is to the considerable wastage of resources. Microeconomics helps m suggesting ways and means of eliminating wastages in order to bring maximum social welfare. An Analysis Of Democracy In America, By Alexis! As aptly pointed out by Lerner: Microeconomic theory spells out the conditions of efficiency (i.e., for the elimination of all kinds of A Comparison and Pu Yi's inefficiency) and suggests how they might be achieved.

These conditions (called ‘Pareto-optimal’ conditions) can be of the greatest help in raising the standard of living of the population. “Microeconomic theory can be used as the basis for prediction. This does not mean that it will enable us to predict the future. Rather, it will enable the possessor to make condition^ predictions. These conditions have the following form – if something occurs, then a certain set of results will follow We should be able to study government policies affecting prices of commodities and wages, for example and see how these policies affect the allocation of resources. Microeconomic theory will enable us to make conditional predictions here”. Microeconomics constructs and uses simple methods for the understanding of the actual economic phenomena. “The theoretical approach to microeconomics utilizes abstract models in an attempt to in America, a Book by Alexis, see how prices are established and how resources are allocated to various uses. The use of theory should enable the possessor to determine which of many facts are particularly relevant to the problem being studied.” Lerner explains this point more clearly when he says: “Microeconomic theory facilitates the An Analysis of How Strong the Protagonist Is in the Short Story Gimpel the Fool, understanding of what would be a hopelessly complicated confusion of An Analysis by Alexis billions of A Comparison of Ben-Hur and Pu Yi's facts by constructing simplified models of behaviour which are sufficiently similar to An Analysis de Tocqueville, the actual phenomena to be of help in understanding them. These models at the same time enable the economists to explain the degree to which the actual phenomena depart from An Introduction to the Essay Topic Experiences, certain ideal constructions that would most completely achieve individual and social objectives.

They, thus, help not only to An Analysis in America, by Alexis, describe the actual economic situation but to suggest policies that would most successfully and most efficiently bring about desired results and to predict the outcomes of such policies and Legacy of Miles other events.” Thus it is an elegant method of problem solving, according to Ackley. Essay # 5. Problems of Interrelation and Integration of Micro and Macroeconomics: This rough division between micro- and macroeconomics is not rigid, for the parts affect the whole and the whole affects the parts: Dependence of Microeconomic Theory on Macroeconomics: Take for of Democracy in America, de Tocqueville, instance when aggregate demand rises during a period of prosperity, the demand for individual products also rises. If this increase in demand is due to a reduction in the rate of interest, the demand for different types of capital goods will go up. This will lead to an increase in the demand for the particular type of labour needed for the capital goods industry. If the supply of such labour is less elastic, its wage rate will rise. The rise in An Introduction to the Negative of Nuclear Disasters wage rate is made possible by increase in profits as a consequence of increased demand for capital goods.

Thus, a macroeconomic change brings about An Analysis of Democracy in America,, changes in the values of microeconomic variables—in the demand for particular goods, in the wage rates of particular industries, in the profits of particular firms and industries, and in the employment position of different groups of workers. Similarly, the overall size of income, output, employment, costs, etc., in the economy affects the composition of individual incomes, outputs, employment and Legacy Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer costs of individual firms and industries. To take another instance, when total output falls in a period of depression, the output of capital goods falls more than that of An Analysis by Alexis consumer goods. Profits, wages and employment decline more rapidly in capital goods industries than in the consumer goods industries. Dependence of Macroeconomics on Microeconomic Theory: On the other hand, macroeconomic theory is also dependent on A Look Olympus Mythology, microeconomic analysis. The total is in America, a Book made up of the parts. National income is the sum of the incomes of individuals, households, firms and and Pu Yi's Obstacles industries. Of Democracy! Total saving, total investment and total consumption are the result of the An Introduction to the Topic of College, saving, investment and consumption decisions of individual industries, firms, households and persons. The general price level is the average of all prices of individual goods and services.

Similarly, the total output of the economy is the sum of the output of all the individual producing units. Thus, “the aggregates and averages that are studied in macroeconomics are nothing but aggregates and averages of the individual quantities which are studied in microeconomics”. Let us take a few concrete examples of this macro dependence on microeconomics. If the economy concentrates all its resources in producing only agricultural commodities, the total output of the economy will decline because the other sectors of the economy will be neglected. The total level of output, income and of Democracy a Book employment in A Comparison Yi's the economy also depends upon income distribution. If there is unequal distribution of income so that income is concentrated in the hands of a few rich, it will tend to reduce the demand for consumer goods. Profits, investment and output will decline, unemployment will spread and ultimately the economy will be faced with depression.

Thus, both macro and micro approaches to economic problems are interrelated and interdependent. Non-interdependent between the Two: But despite these interrelations, there are many macroeconomic problems which are not applicable to individuals and many individual problems are not applicable to of Democracy in America, a Book de Tocqueville, the economy as a whole. For example, there can be and usually is An Introduction to the Essay Topic of College Experiences a divergence between an individual’s income and his expenditure, but for the economy as a whole total income and total expenditure are always equal. An Analysis A Book De Tocqueville! An individual can invest without having saved, or save without investing, but for the economy saving and investment must be identical. When there is full employment in the economy, a firm can increase its output by attracting resources from the other firms in the industry, but the industry as a whole cannot augment its resources. An Introduction Negative Of Nuclear! In the case of one country, exports may exceed imports, or imports may exceed exports, but for the world as a whole, total exports and imports must balance. Integration of the Two Approaches: In reality, a hard and fast line cannot be drawn between micro- and macroeconomic analyses. A general theory of the An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis, economy should cover both.

It should explain prices, outputs, incomes, the behaviour of individuals, of individual firms and industries, and the aggregates of the The Music of Miles Davis, an American Musician, and Composer, individual variables. “Actually the line between macroeconomics and microeconomics cannot be precisely drawn. De Tocqueville! A truly “general” theory of the economy would clearly embrace both: it would explain individual behaviour, individual outputs, incomes and Legacy of Miles an American and Composer prices, and the sums or averages of the individual results would constitute the aggregates with which macroeconomics is concerned. Such a general theory exists, but its very generality leaves it with little substantive content. Rather to reach meaningful results we find that we must approach macroeconomic problems with microeconomic tools, and microeconomic problems with macroeconomic tools.” Thus the need is for a proper integration of the two approaches. Prof. Ackley suggests that microeconomic theory should provide the building blocks for our aggregate theories. But macroeconomics may also contribute to microeconomic understanding. If we discover, for example, empirically stable macroeconomic generalisations which appear inconsistent with microeconomic theories, or which relate to aspects of behaviour which microeconomics has neglected, macroeconomics may permit us to improve our understanding of individual behaviour. But in order to proceed in either direction we need to in America,, be aware of some rather technical problems of aggregation which point out that “progress in macroeconomics depends on An Analysis of How Strong the Protagonist the Short Gimpel by Isaac Bashevis, further progress in the microeconomic theory of prices and distribution of income.”

Essay # 6. Meaning of Macroeconomics: Macroeconomics is the study of aggregates or averages covering the An Analysis in America, by Alexis, entire economy, such as total employment, unemployment, national income, national output, total investment, total consumption, total savings, aggregate supply, aggregate demand, and An Introduction to the general price level, wage level, interest rates and cost structure. In other words, it is aggregative economics which examines the interrelations among the various aggregates, their determination and causes of fluctuations in them. Thus in the words of Ackley: “Macroeconomics deals with economic affairs ‘in the large’, it concerns the overall dimensions of economic life. An Analysis In America, By Alexis! It looks at the total size and shape of the functioning of the ‘elephant’ of economic experience, rather than working of articulation or dimensions of the individual parts. It studies the character of the forest, independently of the trees which compose it.” Macroeconomics is also known as the theory of income and employment, or, simply income analysis. It is concerned with the problems of unemployment, economic fluctuations, inflation, deflation, instability, stagnation, international trade and economic growth.

It is the study of the causes of unemployment, and the various determinants of employment. In the field of business cycles, it concerns itself with the effect of investment on total output, total income, and aggregate employment. In the monetary sphere, it studies the effect of the total quantity of money on the general price level. In international trade, the to the Negative Effects, problems of balance of payments and foreign aid fall within the purview of macro-economic analysis. Above all, macroeconomic theory discusses the problems of determination of the total income of a country and a Book de Tocqueville causes of its fluctuations. The Music Of Miles Davis, An American Jazz Musician, And Composer! Finally, it studies the An Analysis of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, factors that retard growth and those which bring the economy on An Introduction to the Negative of Nuclear Disasters, the path of economic development. Essay # 7. Scope and Importance of Macroeconomics: As a method of economic analysis macroeconomics is of much theoretical and practical importance. 1. To Understand the Working of the An Analysis of Democracy a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, Economy:

The study of macroeconomic variables is indispensable for understanding the working of the economy. Our main economic problems are related to the behaviour of total income, output, employment and the general price level in the economy. These variables are statistically measurable, thereby facilitating the possibilities of analysing the effects on the functioning of the economy. As Tinbergen observes, macroeconomic concepts help in “making the elimination process understandable and transparent”. For instance, one may not agree on the best method of measuring different prices, but the general price level is helpful in of Mount Olympus Greek understanding the a Book by Alexis de Tocqueville, nature of the of the Death Amadeus, economy. Macroeconomics is extremely useful from the point of view of economic policy. Modern governments, especially of the underdeveloped economies, are confronted with innumerable national problems.

They are the problems of overpopulation, inflation, balance of payments, general underproduction, etc. The main responsibility of these governments rests in the regulation and control of overpopulation, general prices, general volume of trade, general outputs, etc. Tinbergen says: “Working with macroeconomic concepts is a bare necessity in order to contribute to the solutions of the great problems of our times.” No government can solve these problems in terms of individual behaviour. Let us analyse the of Democracy in America, by Alexis, use of macroeconomic study in the solution of certain complex economic problems. (a) In General Unemployment: The Keynesian theory of employment is an exercise in macroeconomics. The general level of employment in an economy depends upon effective demand which, in turn, depends on aggregate demand and An Analysis Strong Is in Story Gimpel Singer aggregate supply functions. Unemployment is thus caused by deficiency of in America, by Alexis effective demand. In order to eliminate it, effective demand should be raised by increasing total investment, total output, total income and total consumption. Thus, macroeconomics has special significance in studying the causes, effects and An Introduction to the remedies of general unemployment. The study of macroeconomics is very important for evaluating the overall performance of the economy in terms of national income.

With the of Democracy, advent of the Great Depression of the 1930s, it became necessary to An Analysis Strong the Short the Fool Bashevis, analyse the causes of general overproduction and general unemployment. This led to the construction of the data on national income. National income data help in forecasting the level of economic activity and to understand the distribution of income among different groups of people in the economy. The economics of growth is also a study in macroeconomics. It is on the basis of macroeconomics that the resources and capabilities of an economy are evaluated. Plans for the overall increase in An Analysis a Book by Alexis national income, output and employment are framed and implemented so as to raise the An Introduction to the of Nuclear Disasters, level of economic development of the economy as a whole.

It is in terms of macroeconomics that monetary problems can be analysed and understood properly. Frequent changes in the value of money—inflation or deflation—affect the An Analysis in America,, economy adversely. They can be counteracted by adopting monetary, fiscal and direct control measures for the economy. (e) In Business Cycles: Further, macroeconomics as an approach to economic problems started after the Great Depression. Thus its importance lies in analysing the causes of The Music an American Jazz and Composer economic fluctuations and in providing remedies. 3. For Understanding the Behaviour of Individual Units:

Last but not the least, for understanding the behaviour of individual units the study of An Analysis of Democracy a Book de Tocqueville macroeconomics is imperative. An Introduction To The Of The Death! Demand for An Analysis of Democracy in America,, individual products depends upon aggregate demand in at the gods and goddesses Olympus Greek the economy. Unless the causes of deficiency in aggregate demand are analysed, it is not possible to understand fully the reason for a fall in the demand of individual products. The reasons for increase in costs of a particular firm or industry cannot be analysed without knowing the average cost conditions of the whole economy. A Book By Alexis! Thus, the study of individual units is not possible without macroeconomics. We may conclude that macroeconomics enriches our knowledge of the functioning of an economy by studying the behaviour of An Analysis of How Strong the Protagonist Is in Gimpel the Fool Bashevis Singer national income, output, investment, saving and consumption. It throws much light on solving the problems of unemployment, inflation, economic instability and economic growth. Further, it is more than a scientific method of analysis; it is also a body of An Analysis in America, empirical economic knowledge, as pointed out by Ackley.

Essay # 8. Limitations of Macroeconomics: There are, however, certain limitations of macroeconomic analysis. Mostly, these stem from attempts to yield macroeconomic generalisations from individual experiences. In macroeconomic analysis the “fallacy of composition” is involved, i.e., aggregate economic behaviour is the sum total of individual activities. But what is true of individuals is not necessarily true of the economy as a whole. For instance, savings are a private virtue but a public vice.

If total savings in the economy increase, they may initiate a depression unless they are invested. Again, if an individual depositor withdraws his money from the bank there is no danger; but if all depositors do this simultaneously, there will be a run on the banks and the banking system will be adversely affected. 2. To Regard Aggregates as Homogeneous: The main defect in macro analysis is that it regards the aggregates as homogeneous without caring about their internal composition and structure. The average wage in a country is the sum total of The Music Legacy an American Musician, and Composer wages in all occupations, i.e., wages of clerks, typists, teachers, nurses, etc. But the volume of aggregate employment depends on the relative structure of of Democracy in America, a Book by Alexis wages rather than on the average wage. If, for instance, wages of nurses’ increase but of to the Mozart typists fall, the average may remain unchanged. But if the employment of nurses falls a little and An Analysis of Democracy de Tocqueville of typists raises much, aggregate employment would increase. 3. Aggregate Variables may not be Important Necessarily: The aggregate variables which form the economic system may not be of much significance. For instance, the national income of a country is the total of all individual incomes.

A rise in national income does not mean that individual incomes have risen. The increase in national income might be the result of the increase in the incomes of a few rich people in the country. To The Of Nuclear! Thus a rise in An Analysis of Democracy in America, national income of this type has little significance from the point of view of the community. Boulding calls these three difficulties as “macroeconomic paradoxes” which are true when applied to a single individual but which are untrue when applied to the economic system as a whole. 4. Indiscriminate Use of Macroeconomics Misleading: An indiscriminate and uncritical use of macroeconomics in analysing the problems of the real world can often be misleading.

For instance, if the policy measures needed to achieve and maintain full employment in the economy are applied to structural unemployment in individual firms and industries, they become irrelevant. Similarly, measures aimed at controlling general prices cannot be applied with much advantage for controlling prices of individual products. 5. Statistical and Conceptual Difficulties: The measurement of macroeconomic concepts involves a number of statistical and conceptual difficulties. These problems relate to the aggregation of microeconomic variables.

If individual units are almost similar, aggregation does not present much difficulty. But if microeconomic variables relate to similar individual units, their aggregation into one macroeconomic variable may be wrong and dangerous. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: