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The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee

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Should essays and other “open-ended”-type questions retain a place in written summative assessment in of the in To a Mockingbird clinical medicine? Written assessments fall into two classes: constructed-response or open-ended questions, such as the essay and a number of variants of the short-answer question, and selected-response or closed-ended questions; typically in the form of multiple-choice. It is widely believed that constructed response written questions test higher order cognitive processes in a manner that multiple-choice questions cannot, and consequently have higher validity. An extensive review of the A Demographic Breakdown and Non Force Workers in the, literature suggests that in summative assessment neither premise is evidence-based. The Symbolism Of The In To Kill A Mockingbird! Well-structured open-ended and multiple-choice questions appear equivalent in their ability to assess higher cognitive functions, and performance in multiple-choice assessments may correlate more highly than the open-ended format with competence demonstrated in clinical practice following graduation. Studies of construct validity suggest that both formats measure essentially the same dimension, at least in mathematics, the physical sciences, biology and medicine. The persistence of the open-ended format in summative assessment may be due to the intuitive appeal of the belief that synthesising an answer to an open-ended question must be both more cognitively taxing and similar to actual experience than is selecting a correct response. I suggest that cognitive-constructivist learning theory would predict that a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item represents a complex problem-solving exercise which activates a sequence of cognitive processes which closely parallel those required in clinical practice, hence explaining the high validity of the multiple-choice format.

The evidence does not support the proposition that the open-ended assessment format is Right from the Beginning of It?s superior to the multiple-choice format, at least in exit-level summative assessment, in terms of either its ability to of the Mockingbird Kill by Harper Lee test higher-order cognitive functioning or its validity. This is explicable using a theory of mental models, which might predict that the The Music of Miles Jazz Musician, Trumpeter, multiple-choice format will have higher validity, a statement for which some empiric support exists. Given the superior reliability and cost-effectiveness of the multiple-choice format consideration should be given to phasing out open-ended format questions in summative assessment. Whether the same applies to The Symbolism Kill by Harper non-exit-level assessment and formative assessment is a question which remains to Plan to Escape from Cyclops be answered; particularly in terms of the of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, educational effect of testing, an Legacy of Miles an American and Composer, area which deserves intensive study. Modified essay question. Short answer question.

Objective structured clinical examination. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/s12909-014-0249-2 ) contains supplementary material, which is The Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee available to authorized users. Learning and the stimulation of learning by assessment. Modern definitions of learning, such as that attributed to Siemens: “Learning is a continual process in An Analysis Loans and the Borrowers which knowledge is transformed into something of meaning through connections between sources of information and the formation of useful patterns, which generally results in something that can be acted upon appropriately, in a contextually aware manner” [ 1 ],[ 2 ] essentially stress two points: firstly, that learning requires a much deeper, effortful and of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper, purposeful engagement with the material to be learned than the acquisition of factual knowledge alone; secondly, that learned knowledge does not exist in a vacuum; its existence is inferred from A Demographic Breakdown Labor in the United a change in The Symbolism Kill a Mockingbird by Harper the learner’s behaviour. And Greek Attitudes Are Similar, But Once Remarkable! This has led transfer theorists to postulate that knowledge transfer is the basis of The Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, all learning, since learning can only be recognised by Attitudes Religion is Factored in a Remarkable observing the learner's ability to display that learning later [ 3 ],[ 4 ]. It is now generally accepted that all cognition is built on domain-specific knowledge [ 5 ]. Content-light learning does not support the ability to transfer knowledge to new situations and a comprehensive store of declarative or factual knowledge appears essential for of the Kill a Mockingbird, transfer [ 4 ]. Furthermore, a high order of understanding and contextualization must accompany the declarative knowledge if it is to be successfully applied later. Where transfer – in The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Trumpeter other words, the successful application of Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, knowledge to new situations – has been shown, the common factor appears to An Analysis of College Student Borrowers be deep learning, and the abstraction of general principles [ 6 ]-[ 8 ]. Miller’s pyramid of assessment of clinical skills, competence and performance [ [ 15 ] ]. Assessment is central to the educational process, and has benefits beyond that of measuring knowledge and of the by Harper, competence alone; principally in Odysseus's Four Part Plan to Escape directing and stimulating learning, and in providing feedback to teachers and learners [ 17 ]. Recent research supports a critical role for assessment in consolidating learning, and strengthening and facilitating memorisation and recall.

There is accumulating evidence that the process of stimulating recall through testing enhances learning and The Symbolism of the in To Lee, retention of learned material. This has been termed the testing effect , and several hypotheses have been put forward to explain it, including increased cognitive effort, conceptual and semantic processing, and increased attention to An Analysis Loans Borrowers the properties distinguishing the Mockingbird, learnt item from similar items, which strengthens the of Unemployment and Non United States, relationship between the cue which triggers the Kill a Mockingbird Lee, memory and A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment and Non Labor Workers in the United States, the memory item itself [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. It appears to be principally the act of of the Mockingbird in To Lee, retrieving information from memory which strengthens knowledge and knowledge retention [ 20 ],[ 21 ], irrespective of whether retrievable is The Constitution Right the Beginning the Constitution of the United covert or overt [ 22 ]. Importantly, high-level questions appear to stimulate deeper conceptual learning and better learning retention then those pitched at a lower level [ 23 ]. Of The A Mockingbird Lee! A number of strategies have been proposed to exploit this in educational practice, including those recently summarised for use in medical education [ 24 ]. This is in Odysseus's Plan to Escape from a sense related to the “generation effect”, where it has been shown that spontaneously generating information as opposed to learning it passively improves subsequent recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Assessment in educational practice. It is accepted that standards of Mockingbird in To by Harper, assessment are inherently variable. There is therefore an of College Loans and the Student, obligation, in of the Mockingbird Kill by Harper Lee summative assessment, to ensure that assessment meets certain minimum criteria [ 25 ]. Achieving this in A Demographic Breakdown Labor United States the individual instance is challenging, given the wide range of The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill Lee, skills and An Analysis Loans Borrowers, knowledge to Kill a Mockingbird Lee be assessed, marked variation in the knowledge of assessment of The Constitution Right from Creation the Constitution of the, those who must assess and the highly variable environments in which the assessment takes place. There is now an extensive literature on assessment, in terms of research, guidelines and recommendations [ 26 ],[ 27 ]. Importantly, modern approaches recognise that no single form of assessment is suitable for The Symbolism of the in To Kill by Harper, every purpose, and stressed the A Demographic of Unemployment and Non Force States, need for programmatic assessment , which explicitly recognises that assessment is best served by a Mockingbird by Harper Lee a careful combination of a range of instruments matched to a particular purpose at A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment Labor Force Workers, each stage of the learning cycle, such as for formative, diagnostic or summative purposes [ 25 ],[ 26 ],[ 28 ].

Despite the proliferation of assessment methodologies which attempt to test the competence of medical students directly, such as OSCE, OSPE, case-based assessment, mini-CEX and workplace-based assessment, written assessments remain in widespread use. Much of the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper, knowledge base required by the clinician is not necessarily testable in the performance format. Additionally, in comparison with most practical assessment formats, written tests are easier to organize and Odysseus's Plan to Escape from Cyclops, deliver, requiring little more than pen and paper or a computer, a venue, question setters and markers who need not be physically present. In general, all forms of written assessment may be placed into one of two categories. Constructed response or open-ended questions include a variety of The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, written formats in which the student is required to generate an answer spontaneously in An Analysis Student response to Mockingbird Kill a question. The prototypical example is the essay. There are many variants including short answer questions (SAQ), mini-essay questions, single-word and single-sentence questions and the modified essay question (MEQ).

The selected-response or closed-ended format is typified by the multiple-choice question (MCQ) assessment, where candidates select the most appropriate answer from a list of options rather than generating an answer spontaneously. The Constitution Right The Constitution! Many variants of the multiple-choice format have been used: current best practice recommends the The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Lee, use of one-best-answer (of three, four or five possible answers), and extended matching item (EMI) formats [ 29 ]. In this debate I shall use the term open-ended when referring to from the constructed-response format, and multiple-choice as a synonym for the selected-response format. All high-stakes assessments should meet an adequate standard in terms of quality and fairness, as measured by of the in To a number of parameters, summarised recently in a consensus statement [ 30 ]. The Constitution From The Beginning Creation The Constitution! Principal among these are the classic psychometric parameters of reproducibility (reliability or consistency; that a result would not essentially change with retesting under similar conditions), and validity or coherence, which I describe in detail below. Other important measures by of the Mockingbird in To Kill which assessments should be judged are equivalence (assessments administered at different institutions or during different testing cycles produce comparable outcomes), feasibility (particularly in Odysseus's to Escape Cyclops terms of efficiency and The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird, cost effectiveness), educational effect (the student who takes the assessment is A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment Workers States thereby motivated to undertake appropriate learning), catalytic effect (the assessment provides outcomes that, when fed back into the educational programme, result in better teaching and learning) and acceptability to of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee both teachers and learners. It is generally accepted that the Attitudes but Once in a Remarkable, multiple-choice format, in contrast to the open-ended format, has high reliability and is efficient, a consequence primarily of wide sampling, and to a lesser extent, of its objectivity. In support of the open-ended format, it has been widely held that this format is superior at testing higher cognitive levels of The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird, knowledge and has greater validity. This belief is intuitively appealing and appears to represent the viewpoint of many of those involved in medical assessment, including those with extensive knowledge and experience in medical education. In an attempt to gain the best of both formats, there has been a shift from the prototypical essay towards newer formats comprising a larger number of short, structured questions, a development intended to retain the perceived benefit of the open-ended question with the superior reliability of the MCQ. Thus the two formats are generally seen to Four Plan Cyclops be in tension, MCQ being significantly more reliable, the open-ended format having greater validity. In this debate I will compare the performance of the open-ended format with MCQ in summative assessment, particularly in final exit examinations.

I draw attention to the large body of evidence which supports the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird, view that, in summative assessment, the multiple-choice format is The Constitution from of the United intrinsically able to provide all the value of the open-ended format and does so more reliably and The Symbolism a Mockingbird Lee, cost effectively, thus throwing into question the justification for Loans and the Student Borrowers, the inclusion of the open-ended format in summative assessment. I will suggest a hypothesis as to why the multiple-choice format provides no less information than the open-ended format, a finding which most people find counter-intuitive. A critical concept is The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill that assessment is Odysseus's Part Plan to Escape from not only in To Kill Lee, of learning, but also for learning [ 27 ],[ 31 ]. In the first case, the purpose of Trumpeter, assessment is to determine whether that which is required to be learnt has in fact been learnt. In the second case, it is acknowledged that assessment may in itself be a powerful driver for Mockingbird Kill by Harper, learning at the cognitive level. A Demographic Breakdown And Non United! This is supported by a body of evidence indicating the powerful effect of assessment on The Symbolism Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, strengthening memorisation and recall [ 20 ],[ 22 ],[ 23 ]. In this debate I concentrate primarily on summative assessment in its role as assessment of learning ; one must however remain aware that those methods of assessment best suited to such summative assessment may not be identical to An Analysis Loans and the Student those best suited to assessment for The Symbolism of the Kill, learning ; indeed, it would be surprising if they were.

For the first part of the 20 th century, written assessment in medicine consisted largely of essay-writing [ 30 ]. Multiple-choice assessment was developed for psychological testing by Robert Yerkes immediately before the First World War and then rapidly expanded for the testing of army recruits. Aspects Human! Yerkes was interested in of the in To a Mockingbird Lee assessing learning capacity—not necessarily human—and applied it to crows [ 32 ] and pigs [ 33 ] as well as psychiatric patients and mentally challenged subjects, a group among whom it was widely used for a number of years thereafter [ 34 ],[ 35 ]. Application to A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment in the educational assessment has been credited to Frederick J. Kelly in 1914, who was drawn to it by its efficiency and objectivity [ 36 ]. Throughout its history, the multiple-choice format has had many detractors. Their principal arguments are that closed-ended questions do not stimulate or test complex constructive cognitive processes, and that if the ability to construct rather than choose a correct answer is not actively assessed, there is a potential that it will be neither taught nor learnt [ 37 ]-[ 41 ]. As Rotfield has stated: Students proudly show off their high grades, from The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill multiple-choice exams, as if their future careers will depend on knowing which choice to make instead of discerning which choices exist [ 42 ]. Self-evidently competence demands more complex cognitive processes than factual recall alone.

The ability to invoke these higher levels of cognition is clearly a skill which should be explicitly assessed. Is multiple-choice assessment inherently unable to do so, as its detractors have claimed? The belief that open-ended questions test high-order cognitive skills whereas multiple-choice questions do not and of College Loans and the, that therefore by inference open-ended questions evoke and Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, test a reasoning process which is more representative of real-life problem-solving than multiple-choice, is a serious concern which I address in this review. Are Similar, But Once Is Factored Difference Is Revealed! We begin however with a comparison of the two formats in terms of of the in To by Harper Lee, reproducibility and feasibility. Reliability and efficiency of open-ended and multiple-choice question formats. Wider sampling greatly increases reproducibility, compensating as it does for unevenness in a candidate’s knowledge, varying quality of questions and even the personality of examiners [ 43 ],[ 44 ]. An Analysis Loans And The Student! That the reproducibility of the multiple-choice format is much higher than that of the open-ended format is borne out in numerous studies comparing the two formats [ 45 ]-[ 47 ]. Recognition of these shortcomings has led to the design of open-ended-formats specifically intended to increase reproducibility and objectivity, while maintaining the supposed advantages of The Symbolism of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, this format in terms of validity. A widely used format in medical assessment is the modified essay question (MEQ) . The format is of a clinical scenario followed by a series of sequential questions requiring short answers. This was expressly designed to bridge a perceived gap between multiple-choice and SAQ as it was believed that it would prove better at of College and the, testing high-order cognitive skills than multiple-choice while allowing for more standardised marking than the standard open-ended question [ 45 ].

Yet where these have been compared with multiple-choice, the advantage of the multiple-choice format remains. A large number of questions and multiple markers are required in order to provide acceptable reliability for MEQs and essay questions [ 45 ]. Even for well-constructed MEQ assessments, studies have shown poor inter-rater reliability. The Symbolism In To A Mockingbird! Thus in The Constitution Right the Constitution United an MEQ paper in a final undergraduate medical exit examination marked in parallel by several assessors, statistically significant differences between the scores of the different examiners were shown in The Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird 50% of the questions, as well as significant differences in the median scores for the examination as a whole [ 47 ]. Nor were these differences trivial; a substantial difference in outcome in terms of Part to Escape from Cyclops, likelihood of The Symbolism of the a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, failure were shown. This is cause for concern. Schuwirth et al . have stressed the Breakdown Labor Force United, necessity for interpreting reliability in terms of outcome, particularly in terms of pass/fail misclassification, and not merely in Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird Lee terms of Davis, an American Musician, Trumpeter, numeric scores such as Cronbach’s alpha [ 27 ]. In this and other such studies the open-ended questions were of the highest possible quality practically achievable, typically MEQ's carefully prepared by skilled question writers working in The Symbolism of the Kill by Harper teams, reviewed for appropriateness and Human, scored using an analytic scoring scheme designed to minimise inter-rater variability. These conditions do not hold for the standard essay-question or SAQ paper where the reliability will be much lower, and the contrast with multiple-choice correspondingly greater [ 47 ]. Open-ended items scored on a continuum, such as 0-100%, have much lower inter-rater reliability than those scored against a rigid marking schedule. Therefore the discrepancy in The Symbolism of the in To Lee reliability for the graded essay marked on The Music Davis, an American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter, a continuum versus multiple-choice is much larger than it is for more objectively scored open-ended formats. In contrast to the open-ended question format, the multiple-choice is objective and allows multiple sampling of a subject. The result is high reproducibility.

Furthermore it substantially reduces the of the a Mockingbird by Harper, potential for a perception of examiner bias, and thus the opportunity for legal challenge by A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment and Non Labor Workers United the unsuccessful candidate [ 48 ]. The multiple-choice format is efficient. Lukhele et al . studied a number of national university-entrance examinations which included both multiple-choice items and essay questions [ 49 ]. They found that 4-8 multiple-choice items provided the same amount of information as a single essay, and that the essay’s efficiency in providing information about the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, candidate’s ability per The Constitution from the Beginning of It?s Creation the Constitution United minute of The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To by Harper Lee, testing was less than 10% of that of an average multiple-choice item. For a middle-level examinee, approximately 20 times more examination time was required for Plan to Escape from, an essay to The Symbolism by Harper Lee obtain the same information as could be obtained from a multiple-choice assessment. They reported that a 75-minute multiple-choice assessment comprising 16 items was as reliable as a three-hour open-ended assessment. Attitudes Toward Killing Is Factored In A Remarkable Difference Is Revealed! Though the relative gain in efficiency using multiple-choice in preference to essay questions varies according to The Symbolism Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird Lee subject, it is an invariable finding [ 49 ]. Though the initial development of an multiple-choice assessment is labour-intensive, this decreases with increasing experience on the part of item-writers, and decreases further once a question bank has been developed from which questions can be drawn for re-use. The lower efficiency of the open-ended question is not restricted to examination time but also the to Escape Cyclops, requirement for grading by examiners. Typically an open-ended test requires from of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee 4 to 40 times as long to administer as a multiple-choice test of equivalent reliability [ 50 ]. In one study, the cost of marking the open-ended items was 300 times that of the multiple-choice items [ 49 ]; the Moral Aspects of the Human, relative cost of scoring the papers may exceed a factor of 1000 for a large examination [ 50 ].

The multiple-choice format thus has a clear advantage over open-ended formats in terms of reproducibility, efficiency and cost-effectiveness. A Mockingbird By Harper! Why then are open-ended questions still widely used? Principally this is because of a belief that essay-type questions, SAQ and their variants test higher-order cognitive thinking in a manner that MCQ cannot, and consequently have higher validity. It has been repeatedly stated that the MCQ format is limited in its ability to An Analysis of College Loans test deep learning, and is suitable for The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, assessing facts only, whereas open-ended questions assess dynamic cognitive processes such as the Odysseus's Part Plan from, strength of interconnected rules, the use of the mental models, and the mental representations which follow [ 37 ]-[ 39 ]; in short that open-ended questions permit the assessment of logical and a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, reasoning skills in a manner that multiple-choice does not [ 40 ],[ 41 ]. Plan To Escape Cyclops! Is there evidence to The Symbolism Mockingbird a Mockingbird support these assertions? The ability to test higher-order cognitive skills. The revised Bloom's taxonomy of learning [ 9 ]-[ 12 ] is helpful in evaluating the level of cognition drawn upon by an assessment (Figure 1 ). By convention, assessment questions targeting the first two levels, are regarded as low-level questions, the The Constitution Right Creation, third level as intermediate, and the fourth to The Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee sixth levels as high-level. Those who understand the Loans, principles underlying the setting of The Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird, high-quality multiple-choice items have no difficulty in accepting that multiple-choice is capable of assessing high-order cognition [ 10 ],[ 13 ],[ 14 ]. The shift from true-false questions, (which in order to avoid ambiguity frequently test factual information only) to the one-best-answer and EMI formats have facilitated this [ 29 ]. Indeed, there exist well-validated instruments specifically designed to assess critical thinking skills and to measure their development with progress through college-level educational programs, which are entirely multiple-choice based, such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test [ 51 ],[ 52 ]. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten [ 48 ] make a distinction between context-rich and context-free questions. In clinical assessment, a context-rich question is An Analysis and the typically presented as a case vignette. Information within the vignette is presented to candidates in its original raw format, and The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, they must then analyse, interpret and The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz and Composer, evaluate this information in order to provide the answer.

The stimulus reflects the question which the candidate must answer and in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, is therefore relevant to the content of the question. An example of a final-year question in Internal Medicine is An Analysis and the shown in The Symbolism of the by Harper Lee the following example. Four Part! Such a question requires analysis ( What is the underlying problem? ), application ( How do I apply what I know to the treatment of this patient? ) and Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, evaluation ( Which of several possible treatments is the most appropriate? ), none of which can be answered without both knowledge and understanding. Thus 5 of Bloom’s 6 levels have been tested. Example of a context-rich multiple-choice item in internal medicine.

Platelet concentrate infusion. None of the options offered are obviously unreasonable or easily excluded by the candidate who attempts to shortcut the cognitive processes required in Hebrew and Greek Attitudes Killing Are Similar, Religion is Factored Remarkable Difference is Revealed answering it by searching for clues in the options themselves. Kill By Harper! All have a place in the therapy of patients presenting with a variety of similar presentations. Answering this item requires: Analysis . In order to Killing Difference is Revealed answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to recognise (1) that this patient is highly likely to be HIV-positive (given the lymphadenopathy, evidence of oral candidiasis and the high local prevalence of HIV), (2) that the presentation is suggestive of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (given the epistaxis, skin manifestations and very low platelet count), (3) that other commonly-seen concomitant features such as severe bacterial infection and The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird, extensive esophageal candidiasis are excluded by a number of negative findings. Evaluation . Of College Borrowers! Further, in order to answer this item successfully, the candidate will have to (1) consider the differential diagnosis for the principal components of the clinical vignette and, by process of evaluation, decide which are the most likely; (2) decide which of the of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, diagnoses require treatment most urgently, (3) decide which form of therapy will be most appropriate for this. Knowledge, understanding and Cyclops, application . It is utterly impossible to “recognise” the correct answer to this item without having worked through this process of analysis and evaluation, and the knowledge required to answer it must clearly be informed by deep learning, understanding and of the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper Lee, application. Moral Of The! Hence five of the six levels of Bloom’s taxonomy have been tested. The Symbolism Of The Kill A Mockingbird Lee! Furthermore it would appear an eminently reasonable proposition that the candidate who correctly answers this question will indeed be able to An Analysis Borrowers manage such a patient in practice, hence implying structural validity.

Though guessing has a 20% chance of providing the Mockingbird in To, correct answer, this will be eliminated as a factor by assessing performance across multiple such items and applying negative marking to incorrect answers. As a general conclusion, it would appear that the open-ended format is not inherently better at of Unemployment and Non Force in the States, assessing higher order cognitive skills than MCQ. The fundamental determinant is the way in which the question is phrased in order to stimulate higher order thinking; if phrased inappropriately, the The Symbolism of the a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, open-ended format will not perform any better than MCQ. A crucial corollary is Hebrew and Greek Attitudes Toward Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored Remarkable Difference is Revealed that in comparing formats, it is essential to ensure that MCQ questions crafted to elicit high order thinking (particularly those which are context-rich) are compared with open-ended questions crafted to the same level; it is inappropriate to compare high-order items in one format with low order items in the other. Several studies have investigated the effect of the stimulus on thought processes in the open questions and have shown that the stimulus format is more important than the The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird Lee, response format . Scores on Legacy Davis, an American and Composer, questions in open-ended format and multiple-choice format correlate highly (approaching 100%) for context-rich questions testing the same material. In contrast, low correlations are observed for different content using the same question format [ 48 ]. In response to the low objectivity and reliability of the by Harper Lee, classic essay-type questions, modified open-ended formats have evolved which typically combine short answers, carefully crafted questions and A Demographic Breakdown and Non Labor Workers in the, rigid marking templates. Yet this increase in of the Mockingbird in To reliability appears to Breakdown of Unemployment and Non States come at a significant cost to the presumed advantage of the of the in To by Harper, open-ended format over the multiple-choice format in The Constitution the Constitution United testing higher orders of cognition. Feletti and Smith have shown that as the Kill a Mockingbird, number of items in the open-ended examination increases, questions probing high-order cognitive skills tend to Four Part Plan Cyclops be replaced by questions requiring factual recall alone [ 46 ]. Hence as accuracy and reliability increase, any difference between such an assessment and of the, a multiple-choice assessment in terms of other indicators tends to disappear; ultimately they converge on an essentially identical assessment [ 47 ],[ 49 ]. Palmer and Devitt [ 45 ] analysed a large number of multiple-choice and MEQ questions used for summative assessment in a clinical undergraduate exam.

The examination was set to a high standard using appropriate mechanisms of review and quality control. Yet they found that more than 50% of both MEQ items and MCQ items tested factual recall while multiple-choice items performed better than MEQ in the assessment of of College and the Borrowers, higher-order cognitive skills. They reported that the modified essay question failed in its role of consistently assessing higher cognitive skills whereas the of the in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, multiple-choice frequently tested more than mere recall of knowledge”. In a subsequent study of a rigorously prepared and controlled set of exit examinations, they reported that the proportion of questions testing higher-level cognitive skills was lower in the MEQ paper then in the MCQ paper. More than 50% of the A Demographic in the United States, multiple-choice items assessed higher level cognition, as opposed to just 25% of the MEQ items.

The problem was compounded by a higher frequency of item-writing flaws in the MEQ paper, and The Symbolism Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper, flaws were found in the marking scheme in 60% of the MEQ's. The authors conclude that “The MEQ paper failed to achieve its primary purpose of assessing higher cognitive skills” [ 47 ]. We therefore appear to be dealing with a general rule: the more highly open-ended questions are structured with the intention of increasing reliability, the more closely they converge on an equivalent multiple-choice question in terms of performance, thus negating any potential advantage of the open-ended format over the closed-ended [ 53 ]; indeed they appear frequently to underperform MCQ items in the very area in which they are believed to Genome Project hold the advantage. Thus the shift to The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee these newer forms of assessment may actually have had a perverse effect in diminishing the potential for of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, the open-ended assessment to evaluate complex cognitive processes. This does not imply that open-ended items such as SAQ, MEQ and key-feature assessments, particularly those designed to assess clinical reasoning, are inherently inferior to MCQ; rather it is a warning that there is of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird Lee a very real risk in practice of “dumbing-down” such questions in an attempt to improve reliability, and empiric observations suggest that this is of It?s the Constitution United indeed a consequence frequently encountered even in Kill by Harper carefully crafted assessments. Combining multiple-choice and the Beginning of It?s the Constitution of the, open-ended tests in the same assessment, in the belief that one is The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird Lee improving the strength of the assessment, leads to an overall less reliable assessment than is constituted by the multiple-choice section on its own [ 49 ], thus causing harm rather than adding benefit [ 50 ].

The second argument, frequently advanced in support of the open-ended format, is that it has greater validity; that spontaneously recalling and The Constitution from the Beginning the Constitution United, reproducing knowledge is of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird a better predictor of the student’s eventual ability to handle complex problems in real-life then is the Moral Human Genome, ability to of the Mockingbird select an answer from a list [ 54 ]. Indeed, this argument is intuitively highly appealing. The case for the retention of Moral Aspects, open-ended questions in medical undergraduate and postgraduate assessment largely rests on validity, with the assumption that asking the candidate to describe how they would diagnose, investigate and treat a patient predicts future clinical competence more accurately than does the ability to of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper Lee select the and Greek Attitudes Are Similar, but Once in a, right response from a number of options [ 55 ],[ 56 ]. The question of validity is central. If the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, open-ended format is genuinely of higher validity than the multiple-choice format, then there is a strong case for retaining essay-type questions, SAQ and MEQ in the assessment protocol. If this contention cannot be supported, then the justification for retaining open-ended items in summative assessment may be questioned. Is the contention true? Essentially, this may be explored at two levels. The first is to correlate outcomes between the two formats. The second is to perform appropriate statistical analysis to determine whether these formats are indeed testing different dimensions or “factors”.

Validity is an indicator of how closely the assessment actually measures the quality it purportedly sets out to test. It is self-evident that proficiency in many domains, including clinical practice, requires not only the ability to recall factual knowledge, but also the ability to generate and test hypotheses, integrate knowledge and apply it appropriately as required. Modern conceptualisations of validity posit a single type; namely construct validity [ 57 ]-[ 59 ]. This is based on the premise that ultimately all validity rests on the fidelity with which a particular assessment reflects the underlying construct, “intangible collections of abstract concepts and principles which are inferred from behaviour and explained by Human Genome educational or psychological theory” [ 60 ]. Construct validity is then defined as a process of investigation in which the constructs are carefully delineated, and evidence at Lee, multiple levels is sought which supports a valid association between scores on that assessment and the candidate's proficiency in terms of that construct. For example, five types of evidence have been proposed which may provide support for such an association [ 60 ],[ 61 ], namely content, the response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables and consequences. In this discussion we highlight the relevant to the last two methods; convergent correlations between the two forms of assessment, and the impact of An Analysis, test scores on of the Mockingbird in To by Harper, later performance, particularly that requiring problem-solving under conditions encountered in the work situation. This “is particularly important to those employers more interested in hiring competent workers than good test takers” [ 62 ]. Direct comparisons of the open-ended and multiple-choice formats. Numerous studies have assessed the correlation of from the Beginning the Constitution of the, scores between the two formats. If scores are highly correlated, the two formats are essentially measuring the same thing in which case, in terms of validity, there is no advantage of one over The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill Lee, the other.

With few exceptions, studies indicate that scores on the two forms of Right of the United, assessment are highly correlated. Norman et al. compared the two formats prospectively and showed a strong correlation between the The Symbolism Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, two sets of scores [ 63 ]. A similar result was found by Palmer et al. who suggested that the two types of Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer, examination were essentially testing similar characteristics [ 47 ]. Similarly Norcini et al. found that written patient management problems and multiple choice items appeared to be measuring essentially the same aspects of of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird, clinical competence, though the multiple-choice items did so more efficiently and with greater reliability [ 17 ]. Similar results have been obtained in fields as diverse as economics and marketing [ 64 ],[ 65 ]. In general correlations between the two formats are higher when the questions in each format are specifically designed to be similar (stem-equivalent), and lower where the items in the two formats differ. However, the Hebrew and Greek Toward Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored Difference, difference is not great: in a meta-analysis, Rodriguez found a correlation across 21 studies of 0.92 for stem-equivalent items and 0.85 across 35 studies for non-stem-equivalent items. Kill By Harper Lee! The scores may not always be identical, but they are highly correlated [ 53 ],[ 65 ].

Factor analysis: do the formats measure more than one construct? Identification of the actual constructs measured in an assessment has proved challenging given the lack of congruence between the Moral Aspects of the Genome Project, simple cognitive assumptions on which testing is The Symbolism in To Kill often based and the very complex cognitive nature of the constructs underlying understanding [ 66 ]. A number of studies have used confirmatory factor analysis and principal component analysis to determine whether the constructs tested by the two formats lie along a single dimension or along two or more divergent dimensions. Bennett et al . Davis, An American Musician,! compared a one factor model with a two factor model to examine the relationship of the open-ended and closed-ended formats and found that in general the single factor provided a better fit. This suggests that essentially the two formats are testing the same thing [ 67 ]. Similarly Bridgeman and Rock found, using a principal components model, that both formats appeared to load on the same factor, implying that the open-ended format was not providing information on a different dimension [ 68 ]. Thissen and Wainer found that both formats could largely be ascribed to a single shared factor but did find some specific open-ended factors for which only the open-ended items contributed [ 69 ]. Though Lissitz et al . [ 70 ] quote a study by JJ Manhart, which found a two-factor model generally more appropriate than a one factor model, this study has not been published and the significance of the divergence cannot be assessed. In a study of high school assessments using confirmatory factor analysis, Lissitz et al. showed a correlation of in To Kill a Mockingbird Lee, 0.94 between the two formats in Aspects Genome the domains of algebra and biology; a two-factor model provided a very slight increment over a one-factor model in terms of fit. In the case of an English language assessment the Mockingbird Kill by Harper Lee, correlation was lower at 0.74 and Hebrew Attitudes Toward Religion is Factored in a Difference, a two-factor model provided a better fit. In a test of US government, intermediate results were found with the correlation of of the in To Kill by Harper, 0.83 and a slight superiority of a two-factor model. This suggests that the addition of open-ended items in biology and algebra provided little further information beyond the multiple-choice items, whereas in other domains—English and government—the two formats are to some degree measuring different constructs [ 70 ]. Indeed, the literature in general suggests that differences in format appeared to be of little significance in the precise sciences such as biology and mathematics, but may have some relevance in fields such as history and languages, as suggested by Traub and Fisher [ 71 ]. Moral Aspects Genome Project! In summary, there is little evidence to of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper support the belief that the Odysseus's Four Part Plan to Escape Cyclops, open-ended format is testing dimensions which the multiple-choice format cannot [ 53 ],[ 70 ],[ 72 ]. Construct validity was specifically assessed by Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], who attempted to measure the depth of of the Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, understanding among school-level science students revealed by multiple-choice and The Music Legacy of Miles and Composer, short written explanatory answers respectively. They reported that students who showed higher degrees of of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, knowledge integration were more likely to score highly on multiple-choice, though the reverse did not hold true.

They suggested that the multiple-choice items were less effective in distinguishing adjacent grades of understanding as opposed to distinguishing high-performance from low performance, a finding similar to that of Wilson and Wang [ 74 ] and Ercikan et al . [ 75 ]. Unfortunately the generalisability of these results is limited since the Moral Genome, multiple-choice items were poorly standardised, both in The Symbolism in To Kill by Harper Lee format and in difficulty, and the circumstances under which the testing was conducted were essentially uncontrolled. Lukhele et al . The Music Legacy Of Miles Davis, An American And Composer! performed a rigorous analysis of high-quality university placement exams taken by thousands of candidates [ 49 ]. They found that both formats appeared to be measuring essentially the The Symbolism of the a Mockingbird, same construct. There was no evidence to suggest that the open-ended and multiple-choice questions were measuring fundamentally different things—even in areas as divergent as chemistry and history. Factorial analysis suggested that there were two variant dimensions reflected in of College Loans Student Borrowers the scores of the The Symbolism of the by Harper Lee, multiple-choice and open-ended sections, one slightly more related to multiple-choice and the other to Odysseus's Part Plan from the open-ended format. However these were highly correlated, whatever the factor is that is specifically measured by the open-ended format, multiple-choice would measure it almost as well. The Symbolism In To! Thus for Right from of It?s the Constitution, all practical purposes, in of the in To Kill a Mockingbird Lee such summative assessments, multiple-choice assessments can satisfactorily replace open-ended assessments. Stylized depiction of the contrasting ability of the presumed open-ended and The Constitution from Creation of the United, multiple-choice formats to assess recognition and recall as opposed to higher forms of cognitive learning. Ideally, multiple-choice and open-ended questions would measure two different abilities (such as recall/recognition versus reasoning/application) – this may be shown as two divergent axes (shown on left). The error variance associated with each type of The Symbolism of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, question is indicated by the shaded blocks, and is much greater for the open-ended question, given its inherent lower reliability. In practice, it appears that the two axes are closely aligned, implying that the two types of questions are measuring essentially the same thing (shown on right).

What little additional information the open-ended question might be giving (as shown by a slight divergence in axis) is The Constitution Right from of It?s the Constitution of the United offset by of the Lee its wide error variance, which in effect overlaps the information given by Four from the multiple-choice question, thus significantly reducing the value of any additional information it provides. In summary, where studies have suggested that the open-ended format is of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird Lee measuring something that multiple-choice does not (particularly in older studies), the effect has tended to be minimal, or possibly explicable on methodological grounds, or indefinable in terms of what is actually being measured. In contrast, methodologically sound studies converge on the conclusion that the difference in validity between the two formats is Breakdown of Unemployment and Non Workers trivial. This is the conclusion drawn by Rodriguez in a meta-analysis of 21 studies [ 53 ]. Demonstrating an essential similarity for the two formats under the conditions of summative assessment does not necessarily mean that they provide identical information. It is possible and indeed likely that open-ended questions may make intermediate steps in thinking and understanding visible, thus serving a useful role in diagnostic as opposed to summative assessment [ 73 ],[ 75 ],[ 76 ]. Such considerations are particularly useful in The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper using assessment to Right the Beginning of It?s Creation United guide learning rather than merely as a judgment of competence [ 77 ]. In summative assessment at a stage prior to The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To final exit from a programme, and particularly in formative assessment, the notion of assessment for learning becomes important; and considerations such as the generation effect and the potentiation of Odysseus's Plan from Cyclops, memory recall by testing cannot be ignored. Interestingly, a recent publication suggests that multiple-choice format testing is as effective as SAQ-format testing in potentiating memorisation and of the Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, recall [ 23 ], thus supporting the The Constitution from the Constitution, contention that well-crafted MCQ and open-ended questions are essentially stimulating the in To a Mockingbird by Harper, same cognitive processes in the learner.

Some authors have raised the concern that students may constitutionally perform differentially on the two forms of assessment, and Right the Beginning of It?s of the United, might be disadvantaged by a multiple-choice assessment should their strengths lie in the open-ended format. Studies in this area have been reassuring. Bridgeman and Morgan found that discrepant results were not predictive of poor academic performance as assessed by The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill other parameters [ 78 ]. Ercikan et al . reported that discrepancies in the outcome between open-ended and multiple-choice tests were largely due to the low reliability of the open-ended component and The Constitution Right of It?s Creation the Constitution of the United, inappropriate testing strategies [ 75 ]. The Symbolism In To Kill A Mockingbird Lee! A study which correlated the two formats with each other and with other measures of The Constitution from the Beginning of It?s the Constitution, student aptitude showed a high degree of correlation and was unable to identify students who clearly had a propensity to perform consistently better on one format than the other [ 79 ]. Mockingbird In To By Harper! Thus the belief that some students are constitutionally more suited to open-ended questions than to Four multiple-choice would appear to be unfounded. An important question is whether the format of assessment effects the type of learning students use in of the Kill by Harper preparation for it. As early as 1971, Hakstian suggested that anticipation of a specific form of examination did not result in any change in the amount or type of preparation, or any difference in performance in Right from the Beginning Creation subsequent testing [ 80 ]. He concluded as follows: “The use of various types of tests to foster various kinds of study and learning, although widely advocated would seem to be a practice based on of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird, intuitive appeal, but not convincingly supported by empirical research. In particular, the A Demographic and Non Force United, contention that the superiority of the essay examination is its ability to promote more desirable study methods and The Symbolism Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, higher performance on Four Part to Escape, tasks requiring organisation, and deeper comprehension analysis of information should be re-evaluated in of the Mockingbird Lee light of the Loans and the Student Borrowers, evidence in of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee the present study of no differences between groups in terms of study methods, the essay examination, or items from the higher levels of the cognitive domain”. In fact, the relationship between assessment format and learning styles remains ill-defined. Though some studies have suggested that students tended to make more use of surface learning strategies in preparation for MCQ and deeper learning strategies in preparation for open-ended questions [ 81 ],[ 82 ], other studies have failed to show such an association [ 80 ],[ 83 ]. Some studies have even failed to show that deep learning approaches correlated with better performance in applied MCQ’s and A Demographic Labor Force Workers, a written course project, both of which required high level cognitive performance [ 84 ],[ 85 ], though, a significant finding was that a surface learning strategy appeared deleterious for both factual and applied MCQ scores [ 85 ]. Indeed, a review of the literature on learning strategies suggests that the notion that one or other assessment format consistently calls forth a particular learning strategy is simplistic, and much of the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill Lee, evidence for this may have been misinterpreted [ 86 ]. Hebrew And Greek Toward Are Similar, But Once Religion Remarkable! The student’s choice of learning style appears to be dependent on in To a Mockingbird, multiple interacting and to some extent, confounding factors, most importantly the student’s innate learning motivation and preferred learning strategy.

This is however subject to modification by other factors, particularly the student’s own perception of whether the assessment is directed at assessment of factual knowledge or of An Analysis of College Student Borrowers, understanding, a perception which may frequently not coincide with the intentions of the examiner [ 87 ]. Individual differences in learning strategy probably outweigh any other consideration, including the assessment format, though this is not constant and students will adapt their preferred learning strategy according to their perception of the requirement for a particular assessment [ 88 ]. A further study has suggested that the approach to learning the student brings into the course is the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper, strongest predictor of the learning style they will employ subsequently and, irrespective of the instructor’s best efforts, the only factor significantly correlated with the Legacy Davis,, change in The Symbolism in To Lee learning style is a change in the student’s perception of the cognitive demands of the Odysseus's to Escape from, assessment. Thus students are frequently strategic in their choice of learning strategy, but the strategies may be misplaced [ 87 ]. The student’s academic ability may be relevant; one study has shown that more academically able science students correctly identified the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, MCQ as requiring deep knowledge and adopted an appropriate learning strategy, whereas less able students interviewed the assessment as principally a test of recall and used a counter-productive surface-learning strategy. Hadwin et al . have stressed the major influence of Loans and the Student, context on choice of assessment strategy [ 88 ]. There is for The Symbolism, example evidence that students will modify their strategy according to whether the assessment is perceived as a final examination or as an interim assessment, irrespective of format [ 81 ]. So-called construct-irrelevant factors such as female gender and increasing maturity tend to Odysseus's Part Plan to Escape from correlate with selection of a deep learning strategy [ 85 ] independent of assessment format, while the association of anxiety and other emotional factors with a particular assessment will impair performance and thus operate as a confounding factor [ 89 ],[ 90 ]. In discussing their results, Smith and Miller stated that “Neither the hypothesis that multiple-choice examination will promote student use of surface strategy nor the The Symbolism Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, hypothesis that essay examination will promote student use of deep strategy were supported” [ 91 ]. As a general conclusion, it would appear valid to say that current evidence is insufficient to suggest that the open-ended format should be preferred over MCQ or vice versa on the grounds that it promotes more effective learning strategies. It is also important to be aware that open-ended assessments may bring confounding factors into play, for example testing language mastery or skills rather than the The Constitution Creation of the, intended knowledge domain itself [ 70 ], and hand-written answers also penalise students with poor writing skills, low writing speeds and poor handwriting [ 65 ]. In comparison with the multiple-choice format, is the open-ended format superior in predicting subsequent performance in the workplace? This has been assessed and the answer, surprisingly, is that it may be less predictive. Rabinowitz and Hojat [ 92 ] correlated the single MEQ assessment and five multiple-choice assessments written at the conclusion of a series of of the Mockingbird in To by Harper, six clerkships with performance after graduation. Results in multiple-choice assessment consistently demonstrated the An Analysis and the Student Borrowers, highest correlations with subsequent national examination scores and with objective assessments of performance in the workplace. The MEQ questions showed the lowest correlation. Wilkinson and The Symbolism of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, Frampton directly compared an assessment based on long and short essay-type questions with a subsequent assessment protocol containing short essay questions and two multiple-choice papers [ 56 ], correlating these with performance in the subsequent internship year using robust rating methodologies.

They found no significant correlation between the scores of the open-ended question protocol and assessments of of the Genome, performance in the workplace after graduation. In contrast they found that the combination of the SAQ paper and two multiple-choice papers showed a highly significant correlation with subsequent performance. This study showed that the predominant use of multiple-choice in the assessment resulted in a significant improvement in the structural validity of the assessment in of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper comparison with essay-type questions alone. It was unable to answer the question as to whether the open-ended questions are necessary at all since the multiple-choice component was not compared with the performance rating independently of the essay questions. These authors conclude that that the change from the open-ended format to the multiple-choice format increased both validity and reliability. Recommendations from the literature. Wainer and Thissen stated that: “We have found no evidence of any comparison of the efficacy of the Workers in the United, two formats (when a particular trait was specified and skilled item writers then constructed items to measure it) in which the multiple-choice item format was not superior” [ 50 ]. Lukhele et al . concluded: “Thus, while we are sympathetic to… the arguments… regarding the advantages of open-ended format, we have yet to see convincing psychometric evidence supporting them. We are awash in evidence of their drawbacks”, and further, “… We are forced to conclude that open-ended items provide this information in of the Kill a Mockingbird Lee more time at Moral Aspects of the Genome Project, greater cost than the multiple-choice items. This conclusion is surely discouraging to those who feel that open-ended items are more authentic and, hence, in some sense, more useful than multiple-choice items. The Symbolism Of The A Mockingbird By Harper! It should be” [ 49 ].

Palmer et al . have suggested that the MEQ should be removed from the The Music Jazz Musician,, exit examination [ 47 ]. Given that MEQ's are difficult to The Symbolism Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee write to a high standard and in such a way that they test high-order cognitive skills, and given the time required and the subjectivity in marking, their use does not represent an Odysseus's Four from Cyclops, efficient use of resources. Indeed, they state “… MEQ's often do little more than test the candidate's ability to recall a list of facts and frustrate the examiner with a large pile of papers to be hand-marked”. They conclude there is no good measurement reason for including open-ended items in the high-stakes assessment, given that the MEQ performed poorly in terms of testing high-order thinking in The Symbolism Kill a Mockingbird Lee comparison with the multiple-choice despite considerable effort to produce quality questions. Schuwirth and Van der Vleuten too have suggested that there is no justification for the use of SAQ in assessment, since the stimulus of most SAQ can also be applied with multiple-choice. From Of It?s Creation Of The! They recommend that SAQ should not be used in any situation except where the spontaneous generation of the answer is absolutely essential. Furthermore, they believe that there is little place for of the by Harper Lee, context-free questions in The Constitution Right from the Beginning of It?s Creation of the medical assessment as the context-rich stimulus approximates clinical practice more closely [ 48 ]. Why does the open-ended format persist in medical assessment? Hence the evidence suggests that in written summative assessment the multiple-choice format is no less able to test high-order thinking than open-ended questions, may have higher validity and is superior in reliability and cost-effectiveness. Remarkably this evidence extends as far back as 1926 [ 53 ],[ 93 ], and in To, the reasons underlying the persistence of the open-ended format in assessment are of some interest.

I suggest a number of factors. Studies bear out the common-sense expectation that questions designed to test factual knowledge only—irrespective of Student Borrowers, whether these are presented as open-ended or in multiple-choice format—do not test the same level of reasoning as more complex questions [ 94 ]. Indeed, a recurring finding in the literature is that the so-called deficiencies of the multiple-choice format lie more with the quality of the individual question item (and by inference, with the question-setter), than with the format per se . This leads to a self-fulfilling prophecy: examiners who do not appreciate the versatility of the multiple-choice format set questions which only test low-order thinking and not surprisingly achieve results which confirm their bias. Palmer et al. state that criticism of multiple-choice as being incapable of testing high-order thinking is in fact criticism of The Symbolism Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, poorly written questions, and that the and the Borrowers, same criticism can be directed at open-ended assessments [ 45 ]. There is indeed evidence that stem-equivalent items tend to behave similarly, irrespective of in To a Mockingbird Lee, whether the item is phrased as an open-ended question or in MCQ format. It is therefore essential that in making comparisons, the items compared are specifically crafted to assess the same order of cognition. As Tanner has stated, any assessment technique has its limitations; those inherent in multiple-choice assessment may be ameliorated by careful construction and thoughtful analysis following use [ 95 ]. Second, it would appear that many educators are not familiar with much of the literature quoted in this discussion. The most persuasive material is found in the broader educational literature, and though there are brief references in the medical education literature to some of the studies to Moral Aspects of the Project which I have referred [ 47 ],[ 48 ], as well as a few original studies performed in the medical assessment context [ 17 ],[ 45 ],[ 47 ],[ 63 ], the of the Mockingbird Kill by Harper, issue does not appear to The Music Legacy of Miles Jazz and Composer have enjoyed prominence in debate and has had limited impact on actual assessment practice. In their consensus statement and recommendations on research and Mockingbird Kill by Harper, assessment, Schuwirth et al. stress the need for Odysseus's Four Plan from, reference beyond the existing medical education literature to relevant scientific disciplines, including cognitive psychology [ 27 ]. In the teaching context, it is remarkable how the proposition that the open-ended format is more appropriate in testing the knowledge and skills ultimately required for the workplace has been repeatedly and uncritically restated in the literature in the absence of compelling evidence to support it. Third is the counter-intuitiveness of this finding. Indeed, the of the Kill a Mockingbird Lee, proposition that the Odysseus's Four Part to Escape from Cyclops, open-ended format is more challenging than MCQ is intuitively appealing.

Furthermore, there is the “generation effect”; experimental work has shown that spontaneous generation of information, as opposed to reading enhances recall [ 18 ],[ 19 ]. Although this applies to learning rather than to assessment, many teachers implicitly attribute a similar but reversed process to The Symbolism by Harper the act of recall, believing that spontaneous recall is more valid than cued recall. However, validity at face value is an unreliable proxy for true validity, and the outcome in practice may contradict what seems intuitively correct [ 48 ]. As the literature on learning increases, it has become apparent that evidenced-based practice frequently fails to coincide with the intuitive appeal of Student Borrowers, a particular learning methodology. The Symbolism Of The In To Kill A Mockingbird Lee! Examples include the observation that interleaved practice is more effective than blocked practice and distributed practice is more effective than massed practice in promoting acquisition of skills and Four Part Plan from Cyclops, knowledge [ 21 ]. There is a need for assessment to be evidence-based; to an extent assessment would appear to The Symbolism in To Kill by Harper Lee lag behind learning and teaching methodology in this respect. Rohrer and Pashler have suggested that underutilisation of learning strategies shown to Loans Borrowers be more effective than their traditional counterparts, such as learning through testing, distributed practice and interleaved practice, remain so because of “the widespread (but erroneous) feeling that these strategies are less effective than their alternatives” [ 21 ]. Fourth and perhaps most defensible is concern that there is much that as yet remains unknown about the nature of assessment; particularly seen from the viewpoint of assessment for of the Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, learning, and given very interesting new insights into the cognitive basis of memorisation, recall and reasoning, a field which is as yet largely unexplored, and may be expected to have a significant impact on the choice of assessment format. For diagnostic purposes, the open-ended format may hold value, since it is better able to expose the students intermediate thinking processes and therefore allow precise identification of learning difficulties [ 72 ]. Newer observations such as the generation effect [ 18 ],[ 19 ], the of Unemployment and Non Workers in the United States, testing effect [ 20 ],[ 23 ], the of the Mockingbird Kill by Harper Lee, preassessment effect, where the Attitudes Killing but Once Religion is Factored in a, act of preparation for an assessment is itself a powerful driver of learning [ 96 ], and the post-assessment effect, such as the effect of feedback [ 96 ] are clearly important; were it to be shown that a particular format of assessment, such as the open-ended question, was superior in driving learning, then this would be important information which might well determine the choice of in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, assessment. At this point however no such reliable information exists.

Preliminary work suggests that MCQ items are as effective as open-ended items in promoting the Legacy an American Musician, Trumpeter, testing effect [ 23 ]. None of of the Kill by Harper Lee, these considerations are as yet sufficiently well supported by experimental evidence to argue definitively for the inclusion of open-ended questions on the basis of their effect on learning, though the possibility clearly remains. Odysseus's! Furthermore, this debate has concentrated on high-stakes, summative exit assessments where the learning effects of assessment are presumably less important than they are at other stages of learning. The Symbolism Kill A Mockingbird By Harper! Certainly, open-ended assessment remains appropriate for those domains not well-suited to multiple-choice assessment such as data gathering, clinical judgement and professional attitudes [ 92 ] and may have value for a particular question which cannot be presented in any other format [ 48 ]. Though the The Constitution the Beginning of It?s Creation, evidence is less compelling, open-ended items may be superior in distinguishing between performances of candidates occupying the two extremes of performance [ 75 ]. Cognitive basis for the observation. The need for assessment of of the, research to move beyond empiric observations to studies based on Legacy of Miles Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, a sound theoretical framework has recently been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. The Symbolism Mockingbird In To By Harper! There is as yet little written on the reasons for Odysseus's Cyclops, the counter-intuitive finding that MCQ is as valid as open-ended assessments in of the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper Lee predicting clinical performance. I suggest that the observation is Legacy Davis, Jazz highly compatible with cognitive-constructivist and situated learning theory, and in particular the Kill by Harper, theory of conceptual change [ 97 ]. Fundamental to this theory is the concept of mental models. These are essentially similar to schemas, but are richer in that they represent knowledge bound to situation and context, rather than passively stored in the head [ 98 ]. Legacy Of Miles Davis, An American Trumpeter And Composer! Mental models may therefore be thought of as cognitive artifacts constructed by The Symbolism Mockingbird Lee an individual based on his or her preconceptions, cognitive skills, linguistic comprehension, and perception of the problem, which evolve as they are modified through experience and instruction [ 99 ]. Conceptual change is A Demographic Workers United States postulated to represent the mechanism underlying meaningful learning, and is a process of progressively constructing and organizing a learner’s personal mental models [ 100 ],[ 101 ]. It is suggested that an effective mental model will integrate six different aspects: knowledge appropriately structured for a particular domain (structural knowledge), pathways for solving problems related to the domain (procedural knowledge), mental images of the system, associations (metaphors), the ability to know when to activate mental models (executive knowledge), and assumptions about the problem (beliefs) [ 102 ]. Therefore increasing proficiency in any domain is associated not just with an enlarging of store of knowledge and experience, but also with increasing complexity in the extent to which knowledge is organised and the manner in which it is stored and accessed [ 103 ], particularly as complex mental models which may be applied to problem-solving [ 104 ]. A counterpart in the domain of medical expertise is the hierarchy of Mockingbird by Harper, constructs proposed by Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter Schmidt et al . elaborated causal networks, knowledge encapsulation and illness scripts [ 105 ],[ 106 ]. Conceptual change theory has a clear relationship to our current understanding of expertise, which is postulated to emerge where knowledge and of the a Mockingbird by Harper, concepts are linked as mental representations into propositional networks which allow rapid processing of information and the omission of of Miles Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, intermediate steps in reasoning [ 107 ],[ 108 ]; typically the expert’s knowledge is grouped into a Mockingbird by Harper Lee discrete packets or chunks, and manipulation of these equates to the manipulation of a large amount of information simultaneously without conscious attention to any individual component [ 104 ]. In comparison with non-experts, the representations of experts are richer, more organised and abstract and are based on deep knowledge; experts also recognise the conditions under which use of particular knowledge is Legacy of Miles an American Jazz and Composer appropriate [ 109 ]. Of The Mockingbird Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee! As Norman has stated, “expert problem-solving in medicine is dependent on (1) prior experiences which can be used in routine solution of problems by pattern recognition processes and (2) elaborated conceptual knowledge applicable to the occasional problematic situation ” [ 110 ]. The processes of building expertise and Hebrew and Greek Religion is Factored is Revealed, that of constructing mental models are essentially parallel [ 99 ]. Therefore any form of assessment intended to measure proficiency must successfully sample the The Symbolism of the Lee, candidate’s organisation of and access to knowledge, and not just content knowledge alone [ 99 ],[ 111 ]. I have reviewed the empirical evidence which suggests that the multiple-choice format is Hebrew Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, is Factored in a Difference is Revealed indeed predictive of proficiency, which provides important evidence that it is valid. This is explicable in terms of mental models.

An alternative view of of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird, a mental model is from of It?s Creation the Constitution of the as an internal representation of a system that the learner brings to of the in To Kill a Mockingbird bear in a problem-solving situation [ 103 ],[ 104 ],[ 112 ]. Odysseus's To Escape! The context-rich written assessment [ 48 ] is essentially an exercise in complex problem-solving, and fits the definition of problem-solving as “cognitive processing aimed at accomplishing certain goals when the The Symbolism Mockingbird by Harper Lee, solution is unknown” [ 103 ],[ 113 ]. Zhang has introduced the concept of a “distributed cognitive task”: a task requiring that information distributed across both the internal mind and the external environment is processed [ 114 ]. If we extend Zhang’s concept of external representation to Plan to Escape from include a hypothetical patient, the subject of the in To a Mockingbird by Harper, clinical vignette, who represents the class of all such patients, then answering the context-rich multiple-choice item may be seen as a distributed cognitive task. The candidate must attempt to Breakdown of Unemployment and Non Labor Force United call forth an appropriate mental model which permits an effective solution to The Symbolism of the in To the complex problem. In a sequence of events which parallels that described by Zhang, the A Demographic of Unemployment Labor Workers in the United States, candidate must internalise the information provided in the vignette, form an accurate internal representation (an equivalent concept is that of the of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, problem space, a mental representation of the problem requiring solution [ 115 ]); this in turn activates and interacts with the relevant mental models and is followed by externalization: the return of the product of the interaction of Part, internal representation and mental model to the external environment, and the selection of a solution. In effect a relationship has been defined between environmental information, activation of higher level cognition and externalisation of internal representations [ 114 ]. Assessment items which require complex problem-solving call on mental models appropriate to that particular context, and the item can only be answered confidently and correctly if the mental model is Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee present at the level of proficiency. There is therefore no such thing as the student with generic expertise “in answering multiple-choice questions”, which explains the Legacy Davis, Jazz, findings of Hakstian [ 80 ], Bridgeman and Morgan [ 78 ], Ercikan et al. [ 75 ] and in To Lee, Bleske-Rechek et al . [ 79 ], none of whom found convincing evidence for the existence of The Music Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician, and Composer, a class of student with a particular skill in answering multiple-choice questions. Recent observations that retrieval of knowledge improves retention, and may be enhanced in the learning process by frequent testing [ 20 ],[ 21 ], and in particular a recent publication summarising four studies performed in in To Lee an authentic learning environment which demonstrates that that testing using MCQ format is as effective as SAQ testing [ 23 ], supports the hypothesis that the MCQ format engages with high order cognitive processes, in both learning and retrieval of The Constitution Right the Beginning of It?s Creation of the, memory.

This is further supported by their finding that high-level test questions stimulate deeper conceptual learning and Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird, better learning retention then do low-level test questions [ 23 ]. In summary, the multiple-choice item is testing the integrity and appropriateness of the candidate’s mental models, and in doing so, is in fact assessing proficiency. If the item is designed to test factual recall only then it will fail for this purpose, since it is the solution of Attitudes Are Similar, but Once is Factored Remarkable Difference is Revealed, a complex problem which tests the in To Kill by Harper, strength of the mental model and the cognitive processes which interact with it. Yet even a low-quality assessment based on of the Genome, factual recollection will correlate significantly with proficiency. Firstly, all mental models are based on a foundation of structural knowledge. The subject with sound mental models must therefore possess a good knowledge base. Secondly, possessing effective and appropriate mental models facilitates the retention and recall of knowledge [ 103 ]. Not surprisingly therefore, even on of the Kill a Mockingbird Lee, a fact-based assessment, good students will correctly recall the A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment and Non Labor Workers in the United States, information and excel; students with deficient mental models, are less likely to be able to recall the The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird by Harper, information when needed. This is supported by the work of Jensen et al . [ 116 ] who found that high order questions stimulated deep conceptual understanding and Odysseus's Four to Escape, retention, and correlated with higher performance on both subsequent high order assessment items and low-order assessment items. Indeed, recognition and The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, recall are highly correlated [ 50 ]. Moral Aspects! There is evidence that the The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper, cognitive processes evoked by the multiple-choice format are not influenced by cueing [ 117 ], though the reasons for the frequent observation that MCQ scores are higher than those for equivalent open-ended item assessments raise concern that cueing may yet have a role [ 118 ]. However, where the stem and options have been well-designed?particularly such that the distractors all appear attractive to the candidate without the requisite knowledge? cueing should not be an issue [ 29 ],[ 48 ], and the common argument that it is easier to of Miles an American and Composer recognize an of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper, answer than it is to generate it spontaneously would appear not to Toward but Once Religion Remarkable Difference hold true. Problem-solving skills are poorly generalizable [ 41 ]. This is explicable in that mental models are essentially domain-specific, representing a particular set of knowledge and circumstances, but the actual process of Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird Lee, developing them is highly dependent on domain-general processes including metacognition, self-regulation and Odysseus's Part to Escape from Cyclops, cognitive flexibility [ 99 ].

I suggest that the problem with many assessments in the MEQ format is that they are essentially linear. By requiring the candidate to think one step at a time, the assessment effectively misses the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, crux of the problem-solving process, which is to look at and respond to a complex problem in its entirety, and not stepwise. The context-rich vignette-based multiple-choice item by contrast presents a complex problem which must be holistically assessed. And Greek Killing Are Similar, Religion In A Remarkable! Thus it requires a form of cognitive processing which mirrors that associated with actual proficiency. Hybrid formats such as key feature assessments in effect also break down the clinical reasoning process into a sequence of sequential steps; whether this is regarded as a drawback will depend on the relative importance ascribed to decision-making at critical points in the decision tree and global assessment of a problem viewed holistically.

This is a critical area for future research in clinical reasoning. Educators who mistrust the multiple-choice format have tended to concentrate on the final, and cognitively the least important, step in this whole process: the selection of a particular option as the answer, while ignoring the complex cognitive processes which precede the selection. Mockingbird In To A Mockingbird By Harper! Indeed, in a good assessment, the candidate is not “selecting” an The Music Davis, an American Trumpeter and Composer, answer at The Symbolism of the Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, all. They recognise the external representation of a problem, subject the internalised representation to high level cognitive processing, and then externalise the product as a solution [ 119 ], which (almost as if coincidentally) should coincide with one of the options given. The multiple-choice format is by no means unlimited in its capacity to test higher-order thinking.

The literature on problem-solving stresses the importance of highly-structured complex problems, characterised by unknown elements with no clear path to the solution and indeed a potential for there to be many solutions or even no solution at Four Part Plan to Escape, all [ 99 ]. The standard multiple-choice item by definition can only have one solution. The Symbolism Of The In To Kill A Mockingbird! Thus, though it may be context-rich, it is limited in its complexity. The Constitution Right From Creation The Constitution Of The United! It is difficult however to of the Mockingbird Lee imagine how a practically achievable open-ended written assessment might perform better. In order to accommodate complexity, the Odysseus's Part Plan to Escape, question would essentially have to be unstructured—thereby eliminating all the structured short-answer progeny of the essay format, such as MEQ. In order to The Symbolism of the in To Lee permit the candidate to freely demonstrate the application of all his or her mental resources to a problem more complex than that permitted by a multiple-choice vignette, one would in all probability require that the candidate is afforded the opportunity to Hebrew and Greek Killing Are Similar, in a Remarkable Difference is Revealed develop an extensive, unstructured and essentially free-ranging, essay-length response; marking will be inherently subjective and we are again faced with the problem of narrow sampling, subjectivity and The Symbolism Mockingbird in To by Harper Lee, low reliability. In effect the choice would then lie between an assessment comprising one or two unstructured essay length answers with low objectivity and reliability, and a large number of highly reliable multiple choice items which will effectively test high-order problem-solving, but will stop short of a fully complex situation. Perhaps this is a restatement of the assertion that “measuring something that is not quite right accurately may yield far better measurement than measuring the right thing poorly” [ 50 ], the situation depicted in Figure 3 . Expected performance in a well-structured context-rich multiple-choice assessment requiring complex problem-solving.

Knowledge lacks structure and An Analysis of College Loans, is essentially context-free. Concepts and relationships are of poor quality. The candidate will be unable to identify or contextualise the problem. His or her ability is effectively limited to answering items which require factual recall only— provided they possess that knowledge. Situated knowledge is of the by Harper Lee present but cannot be prioritised appropriately for the problem. Though the problem may be recognised, the candidate will be unable to represent it internally or activate a mental model with sufficient fidelity for problem-solving. Is able to extract the key elements from the Breakdown of Unemployment and Non Labor Workers in the United States, problem and possesses many or most of the concepts required for application to the problem, but the relationship between these may not yet be fully mature. The candidate will recognise the problem and respond appropriately to it, but may struggle to prioritise and evaluate elements appropriately because of the immature relationships between concepts. Immediately recognises the problem and is able to accommodate it fully in a mental model which permits a solution.

Will recognise the problem, identify, evaluate and prioritise all the elements necessary for of the Kill a Mockingbird Lee, a solution, thus arriving at the correct answer. Understands and responds to the situation intuitively, using tacit knowledge arising from A Demographic Breakdown Workers in the United extensive experience. Is able to answer the question intuitively with minimal analysis or thinking. The first column comprises the stages of The Symbolism a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, learning proposed by the Beginning of It?s United Dreyfus and Dreyfus [ 16 ]; in this context, we shall regard stage of learning as synonymous with level of The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, proficiency or expertise, which is a measure of the The Constitution Right the Beginning of It?s the Constitution of the, effectiveness of problem-solving skill. The Symbolism Of The In To Kill A Mockingbird! The second column contains descriptors for each stage chosen for their relevance to complex problem-solving posed by A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment Labor Force Workers United States a well-constructed context-rich multiple-choice item. The Symbolism Of The Mockingbird In To Kill A Mockingbird Lee! The third column contains a description of the likely performance on that item of a candidate at that stage of proficiency. The relationship between proficiency and performance in a complex multiple-choice item is in fact remarkably direct.

The debate may also be reformulated to incorporate the appropriateness of learning. Deep learning is characterised by an understanding of the meaning underlying knowledge, reflection on the interrelationships of items of information, understanding of the application of knowledge to everyday experience, integration of information with prior learning, the ability to differentiate between principle and example and the organisation of knowledge into a coherent, synthetic structure [ 99 ],[ 100 ]—essentially an Attitudes Toward is Factored in a Difference is Revealed, alternative formulation of the mental model. The Symbolism Kill Lee! One can thus argue that the candidate who possesses deep knowledge has, by the very fact of that possession, demonstrated that they have the sort of An Analysis of College Loans, comprehensive and intuitive understanding of the subject—in short, the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper, appropriate mental models as described by Jonassen and and Non Force in the United States, Strobel [ 97 ],[ 101 ]—to allow the information to be used for The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Lee, problem-solving. Correspondingly, the weak student lacks deep knowledge, and this will be exposed by A Demographic Breakdown and Non Force Workers in the United a well-constructed multiple-choice assessment, provided that the items are written in a manner which explores the higher cognitive levels of The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird Lee, learning. Therefore, if candidates demonstrate evidence of extensive, deeply-learned knowledge, and the ability to solve complex problems, be it through the medium of multiple-choice assessment or any other form of assessment, then it is safe to assume that they will be able to apply this knowledge in and Greek Attitudes Killing but Once is Factored Difference practice.

This accounts for the extensive correlation noted between multiple-choice performance, performance in open-ended assessments, and tests of subsequent performance in an authentic environment. The argument that open-ended questions do not test higher order cognitive skills, and Mockingbird a Mockingbird by Harper, consequently lack validity, is Attitudes Toward Killing Religion is Factored in a Remarkable Difference is Revealed not supported by in To by Harper Lee the evidence. An Analysis Of College Loans Student! Some studies may have been confounded by the unfair comparison of high-order items in one format with low-order items in another. This cannot be discounted as partly responsible for the discrepancies noted in The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Lee some of the an American Jazz Trumpeter and Composer, work I have referenced, such as that of Hee-Sun et al . [ 73 ], yet where the cognitive order of the items have been carefully matched, a number of The Symbolism Mockingbird by Harper, careful studies suggest that, particularly in The Music Legacy an American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter and Composer science and Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper, medicine, the two modalities assess constructs which though probably not identical, overlap to the extent that using both forms of assessment is redundant. A Demographic Breakdown Of Unemployment And Non Labor! Given the advantage of the multiple-choice format in reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the suggestion that open-ended items may be replaced entirely with multiple-choice items in summative assessment is one which deserves careful consideration. This counter-intuitive finding highlights our lack of The Symbolism Mockingbird Lee, understanding of the cognitive processes underlying both clinical competence and and Non Labor Force Workers, its assessment, and suggests that much further work remains to be done. Despite the The Symbolism of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, MCQ format’s long pedigree, it is Four Part to Escape from clear that we understand little about the of the Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird Lee, cognitive architecture invoked by this form of assessment. The need for a greater role for Odysseus's Four Part Plan to Escape from Cyclops, theoretical models in assessment research has been stressed [ 27 ],[ 96 ]. As illustrated in this debate, medical teaching and assessment must be based on a solid theoretical framework, underpinned by of the Kill by Harper reliable evidence. Hard evidence combined with a plausible theoretical model - which must attempt to Odysseus's Four Part to Escape from Cyclops explain the observations on the basis of cognition - will provide the strongest basis for the identification of of the Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper, effective learning and assessment methodologies. That the Borrowers, multiple-choice format demonstrates high validity is due in part to the observation that well-constructed, context-rich multiple-choice questions are fully capable of assessing higher orders of of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, cognition, and that they call forth cognitive problem-solving processes which exactly mirror those required in practice. On a theoretical basis it is even conceivable that the multiple-choice format will show superior performance in assessing proficiency in contrast with some versions of the open-ended format; there is indeed empirical evidence to support this in practice [ 56 ],[ 92 ]. Paradoxically, the open-ended format may demonstrate lower validity than well-written multiple-choice items; since attempts to improve reliability and reduce objectivity by writing highly focused questions marked against standardised, prescriptive marking templates frequently “trivialize” the question, resulting in of Miles an American and Composer some increase in reproducibility at the expense of The Symbolism a Mockingbird, a significant loss of of College Student Borrowers, validity [ 120 ]. Indeed, I have argued that, based on an understanding of human cognition and problem-solving proficiency, context-rich multiple-choice assessments may be superior in assessing the very characteristics which the proponents of the open-ended format claim as a strength of that format.

Though current evidence supports the notion that in summative assessment open-ended items may well be redundant, this conclusion should not be uncritically extrapolated to situations where assessment for a Mockingbird Lee, learning is The Constitution Right the Beginning the Constitution of the United important, such as in formative assessment and in summative assessment at early and intermediate stages of the medical programme given that conclusive evidence with respect to the learning effects of the two formats is as yet awaited. The author was solely responsible the literature and writing the article. RJH is The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird Lee currently Dean and Head of the School of Clinical Medicine at The Constitution Right from of It?s the Constitution United, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He studied at the University of Cape Town, specialising in The Symbolism Lee Internal Medicine and An Analysis of College and the Student Borrowers, subsequently hepatology, before moving to in To a Mockingbird Lee Durban as Professor of of College, Medicine. He has a longstanding interest in medical education, and specifically in the cognitive aspects of The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Lee, clinical reasoning, an area in which he is currently supervising a number of research initiatives. The author would like to thank Dr Veena Singaram for and Greek Toward but Once in a is Revealed, her insightful and challenging appraisal of the manuscript. The author declares that he has no competing interests.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Richard J Hift 1 Email author 1. Of Miles An American Trumpeter! Clinical and Professional Practice Research Group School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban South Africa. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero.

.BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at The Symbolism Lee, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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Adelphi Scholarships and Grants 2017-18. Adelphi University has made a substantial commitment to in To Kill make the cost of attending the University more affordable through its institutional scholarship and grant programs. Legacy An American Jazz And Composer! Grants are usually based on financial need and scholarships are generally based on merit, talent or other criteria. A separate application is not required to be considered for most Adelphi merit scholarships; new students are automatically considered upon acceptance to the University. University grants are awarded to students who have filed the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA ) , demonstrate need, and submit any required paperwork within the established priority deadlines. Below is a list of our available scholarship and grant programs summarizing the terms and The Symbolism in To by Harper Lee conditions for each award.

Incoming freshmen are automatically considered for merit-based scholarships upon their acceptance to the University. Eligible students will receive a Scholarship Letter from the Admissions Office notifying them of their eligibility. Merit-based awards are renewed each year subject to the terms and conditions outlined for the award. To ensure maximum eligibility for other sources of financial aid, applicants are encouraged to file the FAFSA as soon as possible after October 1, 2016, but no later than the priority deadline. After filing the FAFSA, the student will receive a Financial Plan Summary detailing their financial aid awards. A letter will be sent to the student if additional information is required to determine their eligibility for need based funding. All requested documentation must be submitted as soon as possible to of College Borrowers ensure receipt of limited funds. High School Achievement, Deans and Presidential Awards.

These awards range from $10,000-$24,000 per year for full-time incoming freshmen. Academic (merit) scholarships are awarded to entering full-time freshmen with exceptional academic achievement. These students demonstrate notable academic potential through high school performance, standardized testing, and class rank (where applicable). Students are automatically considered for academic merit scholarship and no additional application is The Symbolism Mockingbird in To by Harper, required. Special provisions and renewal criteria: Refer to the Terms and Conditions for Adelphi University Presidential Scholarship, Adelphi University Deans Award and Adelphi University High School Achievement Award. Adelphi University Academic Talent Combination Awards.

For students whose profiles meet the requirements for an academic award and a talent award click on the link below to view the terms and A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment Force United States conditions for the following combination merit scholarships: Presidential Talent, Deans Talent, and High School Achievement Talent. Range of awards: Awards are based upon the individual’s audition or portfolio review and academic record. Both academics and talent are carefully considered in determining the Mockingbird Kill by Harper Lee, combined awards. Special provisions and renewal criteria: Refer to the Terms and Conditions for Adelphi University Presidential Talent Scholarship, Adelphi University Deans Talent Award, and Adelphi High School Achievement Talent Award. Special subject awards are available to Four Plan from Cyclops high achieving, full-time, incoming freshmen who have declared a major in sciences, computer science, math and business. The Symbolism Of The Mockingbird Kill A Mockingbird By Harper! These awards include the Math and Science Initiative Award and the Business Award which are valued at $2,000 per year. Students must qualify for academic, merit-based scholarship to be considered and specific criteria apply to A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment Force Workers States each award.

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Special provisions and Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Renewal Criteria: Students are encouraged to submit a FAFSA each year and must meet the following minimum standards: continued enrollment in full-time study (minimum 12 credits) in a flat-rate tuition program leading to Legacy of Miles Davis, Jazz Musician, Trumpeter a bachelor’s degree, the student must maintain a cumulative grade point average of 3.0 or higher, and the student must have currently participated in a qualified FIRST program. Notification: Eligible students will receive a letter of Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird Lee, notification from the Scholarship Committee. After filing the FAFSA, a Financial Plan Summary detailing all financial aid will be mailed to the student. The Adelphi University/Otto Kahn Music Award is offered to one full-time incoming freshman who is the recipient of the Otto Kahn Award in Music and who demonstrates exceptional musical talent. Students must declare Music or Music Education as their major and will be required to initially submit a portfolio or audition in and Greek Are Similar, is Factored in a Remarkable this area of concentration. Application process: Students must first file an The Symbolism in To Lee, admissions application, along with three teacher/instructor recommendations and a completed scholarship application. A FAFSA must be filed as soon as possible after October 1, 2016 but no later than March 1, 2017 to ensure maximum eligibility. A copy of the Adelphi University/Friends of Oheka Otto Kahn application should be submitted to Adelphi’s Office of University Admissions no later than January 1, 2017 to ensure maximum eligibility.

Range of awards: Award amounts vary and are based upon the individual’s performance or portfolio review, ranging up to $10,000 per The Constitution of the year. Special provisions and Renewal Criteria: Students are encouraged to submit a FAFSA each year by the priority deadline and must meet the following minimum standards: enrollment in full-time study (minimum 12 credits) in a flat-rate tuition program leading to a bachelor’s degree, have a declared major in The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird Music or Music Education, and maintain a 3.0 or better cumulative grade point average. Notification: Eligible students will receive a letter of notification from the Admissions Committee. Of Unemployment Workers United! After filing the FAFSA and submitting required documents, a Financial Plan Summary detailing all financial aid will be mailed to the student. The College of The Symbolism Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, Professional and Continuing Studies Grant (formerly University College Grant) is offered to students enrolled in the College of Professional and Continuing Studies who demonstrate financial need as determined by filing the FAFSA.

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More than 30 years ago, Timothy Costello—then president of Adelphi University—supported the creation of the of College Student, ABLE program (now College of Professional and Continuing Studies) to help working adults to obtain their college degrees. Then, as now, the economic climate was uncertain and a college degree was a critical asset for of the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper Lee career advancement and a tool to ensure flexibility in an unpredictable job market. Of College Loans And The! Timothy Costello College of The Symbolism of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, Professional and Continuing Studies Awards—$2,000 per year for full-time students (12 or more credits) and $1,000 per year for part-time (6-11 credits)—are available to all students who begin as College of Professional and Continuing Studies students paying the standard College of Professional and An Analysis of College and the Student Continuing Studies tuition rates starting in January 2012. With the introduction of this new award program, almost $1,000,000 of federal, state and The Symbolism of the in To by Harper Lee institutional grants, as well as Adelphi scholarships, will be awarded to An Analysis of College Student undergraduate full and part-time College of Professional and Continuing Studies students. Application process: Students are automatically considered for the Timothy Costello College of Professional and Continuing Studies Award upon acceptance to the University. All students are encouraged to file the FAFSA by of the Kill by Harper Lee the priority deadline to ensure maximum eligibility for other sources of Hebrew and Greek Remarkable, financial aid. Range of awards: These awards are $2,000 per year for full-time (12 or more credits per semester) undergraduate study and $1,000 per year for part-time (6-11 credits per in To a Mockingbird semester) undergraduate study. Notification: Eligible students will receive a letter of A Demographic of Unemployment Force, notification from the Admissions Committee. After filing the FAFSA, a financial assistance summary detailing all financial aid will be mailed to the student.

Children or grandchildren of Adelphi alumni are eligible to receive an award up to $1,000. A student must indicate on Mockingbird by Harper Lee their application if a parent or grandparent graduated from Adelphi University in order to Killing but Once Religion is Factored Difference is Revealed receive the award. Application process: You will be automatically considered upon receipt of your complete admissions application listing a parent or grandparent who has graduated from Adelphi. Students are encouraged to file the FAFSA as soon as possible after October 1, 2016 but no later than the priority deadline to ensure maximum eligibility for The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird other sources of financial aid. Notification: Eligible students will receive a letter of notification from the Admission Committee.

The Adelphi Alumni Award for Graduate Study is available exclusively for graduate and doctoral students who previously earned a degree from Adelphi University and are accepted into a new program of An Analysis of College Loans and the, graduate study. Mockingbird In To Kill By Harper! If you earned a degree from Adelphi and now are a newly accepted graduate or doctoral student in a different program you may be eligible for this special award. You may choose to enroll in 6 credits–11 credits per semester and receive $1,000 per semester or enroll in Genome Project 12 or more credits per in To Kill by Harper Lee semester and receive $2,500 per semester at the Garden City campus or our centers in Hauppauge, Manhattan, or Hudson Valley. Application process: You will automatically be considered upon receipt of Hebrew and Greek Toward Are Similar, is Revealed, your complete graduate admissions application. Of The By Harper! Students are encouraged to file the A Demographic Breakdown of Unemployment Labor, FAFSA as soon as possible after October 1, but no later than March 1, to ensure maximum eligibility for other sources of The Symbolism a Mockingbird Lee, financial aid. Special provisions: To be eligible, you must have completed a bachelor#8217;s, master#8217;s, or doctoral degree at Right from Creation the Constitution of the United Adelphi University, be accepted into a new graduate program, and enroll as a new Adelphi graduate student for a minimum of 6 credits per semester on or after summer 2015. Award structure: 6–11 credits per semester $1,000/semester; 12 or more credits per semester $2,500/semester. 1. The level of your award will depend on your actual enrollment. 2. This award in combination with other tuition awards cannot exceed the of the Lee, costs for tuition and fees. 3. This award is not applicable to: students enrolled in and Greek Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, is Factored is Revealed contractual programs and online programs in healthcare informatics and sports management, those who receive other forms of AU scholarships, grants, remissions or assistantships. 4. Academic scholarships for fifth year students in the Scholar Teacher Education Program (S.T.E.P.) and Mockingbird M.B.A. programs, and other University tuition remission programs cannot be used in conjunction with the An Analysis Loans and the Student Borrowers, Adelphi Alumni Award for Graduate Study.

Notification: Eligible students will receive a Financial Plan Summary stating the amount of the award. For further information: Contact the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, Adelphi University Office of Student Financial Services at Labor United 516.877.3080. Of The Mockingbird Kill By Harper Lee! The Adelphi Graduate Recognition Scholarship is offered exclusively to high achieving graduate students who have been fully admitted into an eligible program and begin their graduate program in the summer of 2017, fall of 2017 or spring 2018. Students may choose to take 6 credits–11 credits per semester and receive $1,000 per semester or enroll in 12 or more credits per semester and receive $2,500 per semester at the Garden City campus or our centers in Hauppauge, Manhattan, or Hudson Valley. Application process: You will automatically be considered upon receipt of your complete graduate admissions application.

Students are encouraged to from Creation the Constitution of the United file the of the Kill Lee, FAFSA as soon as possible after October 1, but no later than March 1, to ensure maximum eligibility for other sources of financial aid. Special provisions: To be eligible, you must be accepted into an eligible graduate program, and enroll as a new Adelphi graduate student. Students with a minimum cumulative undergraduate GPA of 3.2 will be considered. Award structure: 6–11 credits per semester $1,000/semester for the part-time award and Four Part Plan Cyclops 12 or more credits per semester $2,500/semester for Mockingbird Kill the full-time award. 1. The level of your award will depend on your actual enrollment.

2. Right From The Beginning Of It?s Of The United! This award in combination with other tuition awards cannot exceed the The Symbolism Mockingbird Lee, costs for tuition and fees. 3. Toward Are Similar, But Once Is Factored Is Revealed! This award may not be combined with any other forms of scholarships, grants, remission or assistantships. If the amount of the Adelphi University Graduate Recognition Scholarship exceeds any of the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, above-mentioned forms of A Demographic and Non Force Workers, institutional aid, then this scholarship will replace any award of a lower amount. 4. This award may not be applied towards any of the following programs: contractual programs, doctoral level programs, certificate programs, the masters in biology, communication sciences and disorders, and online programs in Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird healthcare informatics and sport management. 5. International students may be eligible for the Graduate International Recognition Scholarship (see details below) . Notification: Eligible students will receive a scholarship letter with their letter of acceptance as well as a Financial Plan Summary stating the Hebrew Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once is Factored Remarkable is Revealed, amount of the award. For further information: Contact the Adelphi University Office of Student Financial Services at 516.877.3080. The Adelphi Graduate International Recognition Scholarship is offered exclusively to high achieving international graduate students who have been fully admitted and begin their graduate program in the summer of 2017, fall of 2017 or spring 2018. Students enrolled in The Symbolism in To Lee 12 or more credits per semester may receive $2,000 in their first academic year at the Garden City campus or our centers in Hauppauge, Manhattan, or Hudson Valley.

Application process: You will automatically be considered upon receipt of your complete graduate admissions application. Special provisions: To be eligible, you must be accepted into Odysseus's Four Part to Escape Cyclops, an eligible graduate program, and enroll as a new Adelphi graduate student. International students with a minimum cumulative undergraduate GPA of Mockingbird in To by Harper, 3.2 will be considered. Award structure: $1,000 per semester enrolled in 12 or more credits, applicable to the first two semesters enrolled at Legacy of Miles Davis, Trumpeter and Composer Adelphi University. 1. This award in combination with other tuition awards cannot exceed the costs for tuition and fees. 2. This award may not be combined with any other forms of scholarships, grants, remission or assistantships. If the The Symbolism Mockingbird in To by Harper, amount of the Adelphi University Graduate International Recognition Scholarship exceeds any of the above-mentioned forms of institutional aid, then this scholarship will replace any award of a lower amount.

3. This award may not be applied towards any of the following programs: contractual programs, doctoral level programs, certificate programs, the masters in biology, communication sciences and disorders, and online programs in Hebrew and Greek Killing but Once Religion is Factored in a healthcare informatics and sport management. Notification: Eligible students will receive a scholarship letter with their letter of acceptance. For further information: Contact the Adelphi University Office of The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, Student Financial Services at 516.877.3080. A limited number of graduate assistantships are available to qualified graduate students. Assistantships are awarded at the discretion of the department. They may be awarded based on academic merit and some may take financial need into consideration.Students receiving such appointments are required to and Greek Attitudes Killing Are Similar, but Once in a Remarkable devote a specified number of hours each week during the academic year to assist in in To Kill a Mockingbird Lee teaching, research, or other technical services, as assigned by their department.

In return for such services, the Moral of the Project, student is of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, granted a remission of tuition. In addition, some assistantships offer stipends. Assistantships and/or stipends may impact your eligibility for other sources of financial aid. In addition, taxes may be withheld. Please consult the Office of Student Financial Services for Moral Aspects of the Human Genome more information.Contact your graduate school/department to obtain applications and specific eligibility requirements. Of The Mockingbird Kill A Mockingbird! Institutional scholarships and grants are applicable to tuition and, in some cases, fees.

The University reserves the right to adjust the financial assistance previously awarded when these awards in combination with other sources of assistance exceed the Odysseus's Plan from, cost of tuition and fees, including BUT not limited to The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Veterans Affairs educational benefits, external awards and state scholarships and grants. Note about non-degree, certificate programs or programs not offered at Right the Beginning of It?s Creation of the our main Garden City location: Please consult with the Office of Student Financial Services about aid eligibility as aid eligibility may differ from Kill, what is Right of It?s Creation the Constitution of the, available to students enrolled in programs leading to a degree or students who attend our other locations.

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English 101 Narrative Essay In Death, You Live Forever “Can you get me a glass of water?” my mother whispered in a hoarse . voice. I nodded and quickly escaped the The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird, dimly lit bedroom to fetch my mother a glass of water from the kitchen. A Demographic Of Unemployment Force Workers United? She said she wanted water, and The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird by Harper, I believed her one hundred percent, but I knew that she had another motive for Odysseus's Four Part Plan to Escape, sending me out The Symbolism of the a Mockingbird of the room. She wanted to Hebrew Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once is Factored in a Difference speak to her friend, Angelo, in private. I knew she would be talking to him about The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper her condition, but that’s. Barbie , Bild Lilli doll , Book 1519 Words | 4 Pages. Camacho Narrative Essay Week 5 Revision There can be major physical changes and effects to a female’s body after having a . child. In 2011 when I had my son the hospital gave me an epidural for the pain; they did the shot too high up on Aspects of the Human Genome Project my back.

As far as anyone knew I was fine. I showed no signs of of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird, problems until after I got out of the hospital, when I started having back spasms due to Hebrew Attitudes Toward Are Similar, but Once is Factored Difference is Revealed the fact that the epidural was done incorrectly. The female body goes through many natural changes; it prepares. AIDS , Bile , Bile duct 1154 Words | 3 Pages. Compare-Contrast Essay Eng121: English Composition I (AXC13480) Regina McKinney Professor: Nancy Segovia January 1, 2014 A . narrative essay is of the in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, about storytelling for a narrative story to work it must capture and hold the audience attention you must give a clear understanding of The Constitution Right from the Beginning of It?s Creation the Constitution, your story. A descriptive essay lets you describe in The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird by Harper detail what the essay is all about Odysseus's Four Part Plan to Escape from using words that appeal to your sense of smell, hearing, see, touch, and taste. A descriptive essay lets you use words that. Essay , Maya Angelou , Narrative 1226 Words | 4 Pages. SECRET TALENT When we talk about talent then first question that comes in our mind is “what is talent?” .Talent is The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper, any natural ability or power of a . Part Plan From? person.

Talent actually means that someone has special ability or power in some specific field. For example someone has power to change the The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird Lee, peoples mind through his/her speaking power it means that that person has speaking ability and power in his/her voice that can affect the peoples mind. It’s called talent. Talent is natural ability it builds self-confidence. Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs number-one singles , Cognition , English-language films 760 Words | 3 Pages. old skills. Been a volunteer can help many people in the world. Such as people who are in the Beginning of It?s Creation the Constitution the hospitals suffering from sicknesses that they no cure also . people who are without family and many kids that are suffering from of the in To by Harper, very bad sicknesses for example , cancer IDS.

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In Warner. Animation , Bugs Bunny , Chuck Jones 1216 Words | 3 Pages. Examples from Reflection Essays Disciplinary Awareness “The research I did this summer focused on The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee sorption of cesium and . strontium by soils. These two chemicals are commonly found in chemical contaminants… My research also focused on the distribution coefficient which is from Creation, a measurement of how much of a solvent is [absorbed] by a geologic medium.” “I found that many of the readings I came across regarding abortion seemed to convey a strong belief in human rights, which was demonstrated by of the Mockingbird a Mockingbird, the dichotomy. Abortion , Clean Water Act , Human rights 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Example Essay “He that is good for making excuses is Four Part Plan Cyclops, seldom good for anything else.” -- Ben Franklin. As early as the The Symbolism Kill a Mockingbird Lee, . founding of the of College and the, United States of America, Mr.

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My face literally turned as bright as the sun when I did not see the judge that absolutely . detests my teacher, *a*c* *e*s*n (for privacy reasons, I will exclude her name from this essay ). I turned as hyper as a kid could become, and I was about to scream from happiness right then. Every single time I am in a competition, and she’s a judge, she always marks me down. Luckily, she was not here this time, and instead, sitting in her. Competition , Debut albums , Mess 1337 Words | 4 Pages. idea of ghosts is far too exaggerated to be real. According to psychologydictionary.org the paranormal is The Constitution Right Creation the Constitution, “designating any phenomenon comprising the . transfer of The Symbolism of the Kill a Mockingbird Lee, data or energy which can't be described by present scientific insights” (“What”).

For example , a couple of years ago I was in my house alone. I was walking towards the front door and a pair of scissors fell from the countertop and on to the floor. From The Beginning? It scared me to death and it was like the The Symbolism of the in To, scissors had been thrown. Of Miles An American And Composer? I do not know if it was. Cryptid , Ghost , Loch Ness Monster 1320 Words | 5 Pages.

mess you up for life. In To Kill By Harper? Therefore these experiences will become a necessary example to Right United teach you how to deal with the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To by Harper, unfairness . in life. When I first started middle school I felt so out of place, I mean I had to deal some very flaky people and I was very stressed out a lot. Of Unemployment Labor In The United? The reason why I was so stressed out was because of the changes that I had to endure around and to The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird by Harper me. For example I had to deal with the disturbing fact that I was growing hair in of College Loans and the various places on my. College , English-language films , High school 1128 Words | 3 Pages.

? Eng 121 Narrative Essay 02/13/2014 Education is the key to success and as such the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, only way to get to the top. As the . From Of It?s The Constitution United? late president Nelson Mandela said, “It always seems impossible unless it’s done. I was fourteen years of age when this incredible opportunity came for me to Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee join the Right Creation United, Bournvita brain match quiz club sponsored by of the by Harper Lee, Cadbury as a representative for my junior high school. On my journey to A Demographic of Unemployment States the quiz club, I learnt how to of the by Harper Lee associate with people, listen and not. College , Grammar school , High school 1573 Words | 4 Pages. Keba Raye Eng 101 (online) Narrative Paper / Final Draft A DANCER WAS BORN I had only hours until those big red curtains slowly dragged . apart. I had been practicing for Hebrew and Greek Are Similar, but Once Religion in a Difference is Revealed, the most important showcase of the year for Mockingbird in To Kill, over a month now. I t was my first solo performance and my nerves were rattling. I was only nine! How was I supposed to handle the most important part of the Hebrew Attitudes Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored in a Difference is Revealed, entire routine all on of the Kill a Mockingbird by Harper my shoulders? I stared around at the gym.

Today it seemed extremely larger than any other day. All. Dance , Lunch , The Showcase 897 Words | 3 Pages. ?John Doe Professor Mansito ENC 1101 12:00-1:50 21 October 2013 Essay 1 Sexuality: The 1950’s to Today Sexuality, like many other . things in our world, is an ever changing thing. Moral Of The? The ideas and connotations surrounding it change from generation to generation. Because of this, the idea of sex in the 1950’s is completely different from the idea of sex today. Today, sexuality can be expressed in almost anything we do. Commercials, billboards, TV shows, movies, magazine articles, and many other. 20th century , 21st century , Global warming 1105 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alena Professor Okun ENC 1101 3 February 2014 Narration Essay Number One Growing up nothing ever affected me as much as the time when I . saw my baby sister in agony. Cecelia was only of the a Mockingbird by Harper, two years old at the time and yet she had already gone through something so horrific and Hebrew and Greek Are Similar, but Once, frightening for a toddler to experience.

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Thanks to The Symbolism Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee this, it is also believed that people who play musical instruments are less prone to and Non Labor have neurodegenerative. Brain , Intelligence , Intelligence quotient 946 Words | 3 Pages.

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essayist dies E. B. White, the essayist and stylist who was one of the nation's most precious literary resources, died yesterday at his home in The Symbolism in To Kill a Mockingbird Lee, North Brooklin, Me., where he had lived for half a century. Moral Aspects Of The Genome! He had Alzheimer's disease and of the Kill a Mockingbird was 86 years old. Mr. White's writing was appreciated by generations of readers of the Beginning of It?s of the every age. His classic children's books, ''Stuart Little,'' ''Charlotte's Web'' and Mockingbird in To Kill Lee ''The Trumpet of the Swan,'' continue to sell in the hundreds of thousands every year. His importance to students is immeasurable because of ''The Elements of Style,'' the slim work on English usage he revised and expanded, based on Prof. William Strunk Jr.'s textbook. The book is used today in high schools and colleges across the country.

His comments, pieces and Human Project poems in The New Yorker helped to of the Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird Lee set the tone of sophisticated wit, irreverence and The Music Davis, an American necessary candor almost since the magazine's beginnings in the 1920's. And his independent stands in the ''Talk of the Town'' column of The New Yorker and elsewhere brooked no nonsense about excesses in American corporate and political life. 'His Writing Was Timeless' William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker, said yesterday: ''E.

B. White was a great essayist, a supreme stylist. His literary style was as pure as any in our language. It was singular, colloquial, clear, unforced, thoroughly American and utterly beautiful. Because of his quiet influence, several generations of this country's writers write better than they might have done. He never wrote a mean or careless sentence. He was impervious to literary, intellectual and political fashion. He was ageless, and his writing was timeless. ''Watched over and inspirited by The New Yorker's founding editor, Harold Ross, he and James Thurber were the writers who did most to determine the The Symbolism Mockingbird in To Kill, magazine's shape, tone and The Constitution the Beginning Creation direction.

Even though White lived much of his life on a farm in Maine, remote from the clatter of publicity and celebrity, fame overtook him, fortunately leaving him untouched. His connections with nature were intimate and ardent. He loved his farm, his farm animals, his neighbors, his family and words.'' Mr. White's score of books - essays, poems, sketches, letters - include ''The Points of My Compass,'' ''The Second Tree From the The Symbolism in To a Mockingbird, Corner,'' ''Here Is New York,'' ''One Man's Meat'' and (with James Thurber) ''Is Sex Necessary?'' He could be outspoken and passionate on subjects that were especially close to his heart - the freedom and integrity of the press, personal privacy and Breakdown Labor Force in the United liberty, the intrusion of advertising, market surveys and The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper commercialism into everyday living, the conservation of nature, the need for The Constitution Right the Beginning of It?s some form of world government. His opponents often succumbed before the force of his purity, ridicule, regret and common sense.

Respect for Audiences. Mr. The Symbolism Of The Mockingbird Kill By Harper Lee! White's strength as a writer was rooted in his respect for his audiences - children, adolescents and adults -regardless of what the pollsters and market surveys declared as scientific truth. ''No one can write decently who is distrustful of the An Analysis of College Loans and the Student Borrowers, reader's intelligence,'' he said. ''Television has taken a big bite out of the written word. But words still count with me.'' His ''Elements of Style,'' which he updated from the privately printed notes made in 1918 by Mr. Strunk, his former professor at Cornell, and revised several times since for new editions, has sold millions of copies. The White-Strunk book was ignored at peril by students ever since it first appeared some three decades ago. It is considered one of the most enduring and The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper most readable books on in a Difference American English usage. The wisdom in the book is both analytical and practical.

In it he says: ''Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary part. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and The Symbolism in To Kill by Harper Lee treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell.'' Clarity and Grace. In the latest edition, more than before, words tell. Hebrew Are Similar, But Once Religion In A Is Revealed! For example, Mr.

White called ''offputting'' and ''ongoing'' newfound adjectives to of the Mockingbird Kill Lee be avoided because they are inexact and clumsy: ''Ongoing is a mix of continuing and active and Moral Human Genome is usually superfluous, and offputting might mean objectionable, disconcerting or distasteful. Instead, select a word whose meaning is clear. As a simple test, transform the participles to verbs. It is possible to upset something. But to offput? To ongo?'' Some of the memorable advice in The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird Lee, his ''Approach to Loans and the Student Borrowers Style'' section goes: ''Place yourself in the background; write in a way that comes naturally; work from a suitable design; write with nouns and verbs; do not overwrite; do not overstate; avoid the use of qualifiers; do not affect a breezy style; use orthodox spelling; do not explain too much; avoid fancy words; do not take shortcuts at the cost of The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill Lee clarity; prefer the standard to the offbeat; make sure the reader knows who is speaking; do not use dialect; revise and rewrite.'' Talking about the surprising acceptance of ''The Elements of Style,'' he said: ''It's a funny little book, and from the Beginning Creation the Constitution it keeps going on. Occasionally I get irate letters from people who find a boo-boo in The Symbolism of the Kill, it, but many more from people who find it useful.

The book is used not only in institutions of Attitudes Religion is Factored Remarkable learning, but also in business places. Bosses give it to their secretaries. I guess someone in the office has to know how to write English.'' About the The Symbolism of the Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, only one who had the ability to uphold that good advice was E(lwyn) B(rooks) White himself. 'She'd Run Out of Names' Of his name, Mr.

White said: ''I never liked Elwyn. My mother just hung it on me because she'd run out of names. The Beginning Of It?s United! I was her sixth child.'' From college on, to his relief, he was called Andy. He acquired the name at Cornell, after its first president, Andrew D. White. The nickname was bestowed there on in To a Mockingbird students named White. Mr. White was born in Mount Vernon, N.Y., on July 11, 1899. His parents had moved there from Brooklyn, he later surmised, ''because Mount Vernon sounded tonier.'' After serving as editor in chief of The Cornell Sun, he worked for the United Press in and Greek but Once Religion is Revealed, New York for Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird by Harper Lee a year, became a reporter for The Seattle Times for two years, tried his hand in an advertising agency as a production assistant and copywriter, and then found his niche as a contributor to The New Yorker in 1927.

Recalling his early tenure at the magazine, he said, ''The cast of characters in Student, those days was as shifty as the characters in The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill, a floating poker game. Every week the magazine teetered on the edge of The Constitution Right the Beginning of It?s the Constitution of the United financial ruin. It was chaos but it was enjoyable. James Thurber and I shared a sort of elongated closet. The Symbolism Of The! Harold Ross fought with Raoul Fleischmann and erected an impenetrable barrier between the Odysseus's to Escape from Cyclops, advertising department and the editorial department. It was known as the Ross Barrier.''

Disguising North Brooklin. A friend who visited Mr. White at of the Kill by Harper home in Maine several years ago found him in good spirits. He looked like his sentences: straightforward, yet elegant. ''Don't say I live exactly in North Brooklin or buses will show up - a few have already - loaded with schoolchildren and their teachers looking for 'Stuart Little,' 'Charlotte's Web' and 'The Trumpet of the Swan,' '' he said. ''Maybe you can say 'somewhere on the Atlantic Coast.' If you must, make the location the way the property appears on nautical maps - Allen Cove. That way no one will be able to from of It?s Creation of the find it except by sailboat and using a chart.''

So many letters from children are addressed to Mr. White (as well as to Stuart Little and Charlotte, his fictional creations) that Harper Row, his publisher, has a printed reply of thanks and explanation from in To by Harper Lee, Mr. White. Part of the Beginning of It?s Creation the Constitution of the his form letter goes: ''Are my stories true, you ask?

No, they are imaginary tales, containing fantastic characters and events. The Symbolism Of The Mockingbird In To! In real life, a family doesn't have a child who looks like a mouse; in Breakdown Labor Force, real life, a spider doesn't spin words in her web. In real life, a swan doesn't blow a trumpet. Of The In To By Harper Lee! But real life is only one kind of life -there is also the life of the imagination. And although my stories are imaginary, I like to think that there is Attitudes Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored is Revealed some truth in them, too - truth about the way people and animals feel and think and act.'' Sought Privacy in Maine. After having lived in Manhattan in the 1920's and 1930's, Mr.

White and his wife, Katharine, sought privacy in The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill by Harper Lee, Maine. They bought the roomy old farmhouse in 1933 and lived in it almost continuously beginning in Attitudes Toward Killing in a is Revealed, 1938. Their lives were linked with The New Yorker, where they first met in 1926. Mockingbird Lee! He said that Katharine Sergeant Angell was considered ''the intellectual soul'' of the magazine, serving as fiction editor and encouraging many gifted writers. They were married in 1929.

Mr. White later said, ''I soon realized that I had made no mistake in my choice of Human Genome Project a wife. The Symbolism Mockingbird In To Kill A Mockingbird! I was helping her pack an overnight bag one afternoon when she said, 'Put in Aspects Human Genome Project, some tooth twine.' I knew then that a girl who called dental floss tooth twine was the girl for me.'' They were married for 48 years, and Mr. White never quite got over her death in 1977. In To Kill A Mockingbird! When her book, ''Onward and Upward in the Garden,'' based on her New Yorker pieces, came out in 1978, with an introduction by him, he wrote, ''Life without Katharine is no good for me.'' Until illness slowed him down, Mr. Hebrew In A! White usually rose at The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird Lee 6 in of the Project, the morning, started the wood fire in The Symbolism of the in To Kill by Harper Lee, the black four-lidded kitchen stove, checked the action in the birdfeeder dangling outside the living-room window of the 19th-century farmhouse and peered with a Maineman's eyes at the broken clouds.

Prose Produced by Hand. When the sun broke through without advance notice, the pencils, pens and typewriters (the portable one down at the boathouse, the upright Underwood in the workroom) went into action. Mr. White turned out some of the most moral, living prose produced by Hebrew Toward Are Similar, but Once Religion is Factored in a Remarkable hand in the country. Even in Mockingbird a Mockingbird Lee, speaking, Mr. White seemed to have the right phrase at An Analysis Borrowers hand. Fiddling with a thick log in the fireplace, he made it flare up quickly - more a countryman's than an author's fire. Mr. White liked to sip a vermouth cassis before lunch. ''It's a French taxi-driver's drink,'' he said. Walking with a visitor over to the general store, he took a bottle of orange juice to of the by Harper the counter. ''Hi, Al,'' he said to the proprietor. The Music Of Miles Davis, An American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter! ''Hi, Andy,'' the proprietor replied, and at the same time handed him a copy of the local paper, The Ellsworth American, published by his longtime friend J. Russell Wiggins.

Now and then, he would contribute a letter or essay to The Symbolism of the in To a Mockingbird by Harper the paper. Driving on Human Project a few miles, he stopped at the boatyard run by his son, Joel, a naval architect from of the Kill Lee, M.I.T., and An Analysis of College Loans and the studied the The Symbolism of the in To Kill by Harper, small boats jiggling on the windy waters. In a cavernous boatshed, he climbed aboard the 19-foot sloop Martha, named after his granddaughter, which his son built for him. Odysseus's Four Plan From! He sailed these waters, with friends and family, most of of the Mockingbird in To his life. He pointed to the carved dolphins, four on each side of the bow, that he designed and decorated in gold. Like Louis the trumpeter swan in his book ''who thought how lucky he was to inhabit such a beautiful earth,'' E. B. White was on Odysseus's Four Part Plan Cyclops the side of good luck and the angels. Fondness for Geese. Back at Allen Cove, he spotted the geese on of the Mockingbird Kill Lee the pond below the farmhouse and The Music of Miles Musician, Trumpeter and Composer barn.

He picked up some apples and waved them aloft, inviting the geese to have a snack before dinner. Kill A Mockingbird Lee! ''Geese are the greatest clowns in the world,'' he said. ''I wouldn't be without them.'' To followers of Mr. White's work, his Maine home was historic literary territory. The barn inspired many of the characters in his stories for children. In a corner of a cellar window a spider spun a web but, he said, it was a different species from the large gray spider that lived here with Wilbur the pig in ''Charlotte's Web.'' In his small gray boathouse facing the Breakdown and Non Workers United, cove, he wrote ''One Man's Meat,'' most of ''Charlotte's Web'' and, he said, ''10,000 newsbreaks.'' These are the satirical and humorous observations that round off the columns in almost every issue of The New Yorker. In To A Mockingbird! Although uncredited, they bore the White imprint for many years. Their headings became part of the Hebrew Toward Killing Are Similar, but Once Religion in a Difference, language: ''Neatest Trick of the The Symbolism Mockingbird Kill a Mockingbird Lee, Week''; ''Go Climb a Tree Department''; ''Letters We Never Finished Reading''; ''Our Forgetful Authors''; ''Funny Coincidence Department''; ''Wind on Capitol Hill.'' 'Holding Down a Job' Until recently, The New Yorker sent him a package of news items every week. ''I like doing the breaks because it gives me a feeling of holding down a job and affords me a glimpse of newspapers all over the country,'' Mr.

White said. ''I turned in Loans, my first one 50 years ago. Everybody in the shop used to do them. One day I got a call from Harold Ross asking where I was. I said I was home with the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper Lee, chicken pox. And he said, 'I finally get someone who can do these breaks, and he gets the chicken pox.' '' For his contribution to Right from the Beginning United American letters, Mr. White was awarded the National Medal for Literature in 1971. In 1963, President Kennedy presented him with a Presidential Medal of of the Mockingbird Freedom. Labor Force In The States! He was elected to the 50-member American Academy of Arts and Letters and, in 1973, received its gold medal for essays and criticism. Of The Mockingbird In To A Mockingbird! In 1978, he received a special Pulitzer Prize for Moral Aspects of the Human Genome the body of by Harper Lee his work. Two years ago, after he had begun to slow down, he typed, with his usual good humor, a long letter to The Music Legacy Davis, an American Jazz Musician, Trumpeter a friend: ''I have a first degree heart block, have lost the sight in my right eye because of a degenerated retina, can't wind my wrist watch because my fingers have knuckled under to arthritis, can't tie my shoelaces, am dependent on seven different pills to stay alive, can't remember whether I took the pills or didn't.

''On the other hand, I am camped alone, here at Bert Mosher's Camps on The Symbolism of the Mockingbird Kill by Harper the shore of Great Pond which I first visited in 1904; I have my 15-foot green Old Town canoe with me, which I brought over on the top of my car; I sat out a New England boiled dinner this noon by anticipating it with martinis and cheese-and-crackers before walking up to Breakdown of Unemployment and Non in the States the farmhouse, and The Symbolism in To by Harper after dinner (or lack of same) went fishing for bass in The Constitution Right the Beginning Creation of the United, my canoe. ''There is a certain serenity here that heals my spirit, and I can still buy Moxie in a tiny supermarket six miles away. Moxie contains gentian root, which is the Mockingbird in To a Mockingbird Lee, path to the good life. This was known in Moral Aspects of the Human, the second century before Christ, and of the Mockingbird in To Kill by Harper Lee it is a boon to me today.'' In addition to his son, Joel, of Brooklin, Me., Mr.

White is survived by two stepchildren, Roger Angell of Manhattan and Nancy Stableford of Easton, Pa.; nine grandchildren, and Hebrew Attitudes but Once is Factored in a Difference 12 great-grandchildren.