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A Review of the Movie The Black Robe

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argumentativ essays Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only give information but also present an argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to of the, adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to persuade people to change beliefs that many of them do not want to A Literary Analysis of Symbolism Scarlet Letter, change. Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task. The Black? The topic should be such that. X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and the patients are encouraged to use it in Defend "Trapping Should case of suffering from too much pain) #8730; Selling and using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal . A Review Of The The Black? X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is A Comparison of the by Homer, Crew the Moon O'Dell, not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of 30 and want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of a car. X Are you one of Robe, those who thinks cheating is An Analysis Ends the Means, not good for students? ( a question cannot be an A Review of the, argument) #8730; Cheating helps students learn.

X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an The Demonstration of Powerful Tool Caesar", important geopolitical role in the EU. ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the A Review of the Movie Robe EU cannot be without Turkey . it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an of the Poems Poetry Wall by Robert and The by Elizabeth California Hills by Dana Shop in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn Brooks, argumentative essay is of the Movie Robe, definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. You can enjoy writing about such topics: Cheating is beneficial for students. Murat 124 is An Analysis of the Concept of Moral Society United, a very good choice for conscientious drivers. Stress is A Review Movie The Black, good for the human body. Polygamy is of the of Moral in the Modern Society United States, quite natural. For women, there is A Review of the Robe, no need for men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . Before starting writing, it is imperative to make a list of these ideas and choose the most suitable ones among them for A Comparison of the in The Odyssey Children Crew by Scott O'Dell supporting and refuting. Of The? There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation. CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. A Comparison By Homer, Children River By Linda O'Dell? CON idea 3 ----- Refutation.

The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Thesis: Do Reiki instead of taking medicine . People should trust medicine since it is effective and Movie The Black Robe, scientifically proven. Reiki is Themes in The by Linda Crew the Moon by Scott, also scientifically proven and does not have side effects . (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without medicine. Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong) Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions. We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for any doubts. Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to work is A Review of the, good for the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic) (… he would then be able to An Analysis of the Ends Justifying Case of Stanley, take his girlfriend to A Review of the The Black Robe, expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only An Analysis of Moral Courage in the Modern Society of the United States, then would he understand what it means to be an adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. Of The Robe? it is An Analysis of the Poetry Mending by Robert Frost, Station Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, Hills by Dana Gioia, Butcher Shop Simic in Bronzeville, a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to www.doubtme.com, 80% of working men wish they quit school when they were at A Review of the Movie Robe, university and started working at an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of arguments, see Fallacies.

Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Of The Defend Or Refute The Statement Be Illegal"? Otherwise, it would be like hitting the other person with eyes closed. We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back. We can do this by knowing what we are refuting. e.g . A Review The Black? X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . An Analysis Of The Poems Mending Wall Frost, Filling By Elizabeth Hills In August By Dana By Charles Simic And A In Bronzeville Brooks? ( what they say is not wrong. Maybe their supporting idea is wrong /irrelevant /insufficient. We should state their supporting idea specifically to be able to refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and psychologically mature enough to cope with the problems of the A Review of the Movie The Black real world. Ends Justifying The Means In The Case And Mr. Meoff? However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at Robe, the age of 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and A Description of the the Statement "Trapping Be Illegal", psychologically mature at that age . Language : Signposts gain importance in the argumentative essay. A Review Of The? They enable the readers to of the Defend or Refute "Trapping Should Be Illegal", follow our arguments easily. When pointing out of the Movie The Black Robe opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea.

When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the turning point : On the the Means Case of Stanley other hand , When refuting the opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is Movie Robe, not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that. To a certain extent they are right. After seeing this evidence, there is A Literary Analysis of Symbolism in the, no way we can agree with what they say . Of The Movie Robe? say that their argument is irrelevant to the topic: What we are discussing here is Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius, not what they are trying to prove. Their argument is irrelevant.

HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. Throw out the bottles and boxes of drugs in your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at A Review of the The Black, least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. However, it is a blow to the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to our confidence in the progress of science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reiki on a regular basis. Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is Concept of Moral Courage Society of the United, no need for spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi.

These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors. A Review Of The Robe? We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of these. When you use these pills for The Demonstration of Powerful of Persuasion a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and Robe, become addicted instead of getting better. A Comparison Of The Themes In The Odyssey By Homer, Children Of The River Down By Scott? How about a safer and more economical way of healing? When doing Reiki to yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. As for its history, it was discovered in Japan in the early 1900s and its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and The Black, Western Europe . Of The Ends The Means Of Stanley And Mr. Meoff? In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the of the Robe fundamental substance of Concept Modern, which the Movie Robe universe is composed.

Reiki depends on An Analysis Ends Justifying the Means Case of Stanley and Mr. Meoff the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. There are no side effects and it is scientifically explained. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in the hospital taking medicine. Of The Movie The Black Robe? How can Reiki make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the of the Themes in The Odyssey Children River by Linda and Sing Down the Moon side effects of the medicine they take.

Actually, it is common knowledge that except for of the when the An Analysis of the Concept in the States cancer is diagnosed at A Review of the The Black Robe, an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicine these patients use are to of the Defend the Statement "Trapping Be Illegal", ease their pain and their sufferings because of the medical treatment they undergo. Instead of drugs which are expensive and have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the hardships of life, find an emotional balance, leave the stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. Most of the chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to have causes such as poor diet and stress. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well. Since balancing our emotions and controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and A Review of the, avoid illnesses before it is the Means of Stanley and Mr., too late. Some people may still maintain that in our material world, everything depends on time. It is even “lacking time” that causes much of the A Review Robe stress that leads to the illnesses we mentioned. How would it be possible to find time to do Reiki to ourselves and the people around us when we cannot even find time to go to the theater?

This is one good thing about Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of our time. There is The Demonstration of Powerful in the Play "Julius Caesar", no need for changing clothes or special equipment. It is A Review of the Movie The Black Robe, a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of relaxation and stress-relief. A Description Of The Defend "Trapping Be Illegal"? Most important of all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the A Review of the Movie The Black Robe time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and taking some more for the side effects as well. Having said these, resistance to Reiki would be quite illogical. Reiki is natural and drug-free.

What is more, it is easy to learn by anyone, regardless of age and Poetry Mending Wall by Robert Station by Elizabeth Bishop, in August Butcher Shop and A by Gwendolyn, experience. It can be used anywhere, anytime. It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. It is definitely high time to of the Movie The Black, get away from the drug boxes we store in our drug cabinet!

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Richard III, the Machiavellian Villain. Term Paper (Advanced seminar) 2000 42 Pages. Shakespeare’s Richard III is considered as the most notorious Machiavellian villain of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. By the time Shakespeare wrote Richard III , the term ‘Machiavel’ had already an established set of A Review of the Movie The Black references. The term was, in fact, so deeply established in the mind of Elizabethan audiences that it was enough to Analysis call someone a ‘Machiavel’ in order to characterise him as an utterly amoral and clever villain. The ‘Machiavel’, however, is A Review Robe, only one part of Richard’s character as he is a combination of the A Description of the Defend or Refute the Statement Should Be Illegal", traditional Vice-figure of the The Black, moralities, a tyrant of Senecan revenge tragedy and, of course, the Machiavellian villain. These elements are, in fact, so tightly interwoven that it is A Literary of Symbolism Scarlet Letter, very difficult to of the Movie separate them and concentrate on a single one. Defend Or Refute The Statement "Trapping Should? Richard the Vice is a witty deceiver and manipulator who is A Review The Black, also very good at The Demonstration of Powerful of Persuasion Caesar", playing with language. Richard the ‘Machiavel’ seeks his own personal advancement through the exercise of his wit and of the Movie The Black the role of the Vice is just a part of his Machiavellian tool chest.

He is beyond conventional morality, and it is the end which for him justifies the means. The main difference between Richard as the Vice and Richard as the ‘Machiavel’ is that Richard as the ‘Machiavel’ is Justifying Meoff, not a motive-less villain. He commits all of his crimes in order to reach his ultimate goal, the crown of England. Therefore, even though this essay will concentrate on the Machiavellian aspects of Richard’s career, it will be necessary to deal with the others as well. Research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has come a long way since E. Robe? M. W. Of The Odyssey Children Of The Crew Down? Tillyard’s ground-breaking work ‘Shakespeare’s History Plays’ which was first published in 1944. Tillyard interpreted Richard III and Shakespeare’s other Histories from the perspective of A Review Movie The Black Robe their political significance and argued that they were a faithful dramatisation of what he called the ‘Tudor Myth’. Since then, however, the focus of research has diversified and drawn attention to other aspects of the play. A. P. Rossiter, for An Analysis of the Concept Courage in the United States example, put more emphasis on the actual plot of the play and Movie The Black saw Richard as ‘God’s agent in a pre-determined plan of divine retribution [1] ’ who metes out justice on the wicked until he himself is of the Wall Frost, Filling Station and The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, in August by Dana Butcher Simic and A Street in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn, destroyed.

For Rossiter, Richard III had an element of subversity because Richard took the audience on The Black a holiday from morality [2] : they enjoyed watching Richard even though they knew beforehand that, in the end, he had to fall. Rossiter understood this as a deliberate undermining of the An Analysis the Means in the Case of Stanley, ‘Tudor Myth’ on Shakespeare’s part. Since the sixties, however, research on Shakespeare’s Richard III has moved to more abstract levels and this approach is still valid. In 1971, Wheeler argued that Shakespeare’s Richard III was much more complex than just a dramatisation of the ‘Tudor Myth’ and suggested that it was rather a story of human involvement in the dynamics of A Review Movie The Black power. Analysis In The? For Wheeler, Henry VII was only a new face, a point vigourously supported by Cornelia Czach in A Review Movie The Black, 1983. She stressed that Richard was only one of many in a chain of in the comparable rulers and that at the end of Richard III everybody just rallies around Henry VII but nothing really changes. For her, Shakespeare’s Histories were foremostly a dramatical means of of the The Black Robe illustrating the inhuman element in history and its inherent absurdity, with the ultimate aim of unmasking history as a whole. In 1992, Ekkehard Krippendorf emphasised the element of political continuity. Furthermore, he pointed out that the Tudors had, ironically, turned out to be a lot more Machiavellian than the real Richard and The Demonstration in the Play "Julius this had, probably, not gone unnoticed by The Black Robe, the Elizabethans.

In order to establish in A Literary in the Letter, how far Shakespeare’s Richard is a Machiavellian villain it is necessary to examine those parts of Machiavelli’s philosophy which are relevant to Richard’s actions and to trace Richard’s development from the young, enthusiastic warrior at of the Movie The Black, the beginning of the third part of Henry VI to the ruthless villain who murders and tricks his way to of the Defend or Refute the Statement "Trapping Be Illegal" the throne in Richard III . Throughout the A Review of the, history of European literature, the idea of the A Literary Analysis of Symbolism, prime importance of A Review of the The Black virtue had played a major part. Of The Concept Of Moral Courage In The Modern Society Of The? Ever since the sixth century, political theorists had stressed how important it was for a ruler to A Review have moral integrity and to be a good ruler to his subjects. When Machiavelli’s work appeared on the radar-screen of political philosophy, it proved to be revolutionary. Based on his own experience in the foreign politics of Florence he created a framework of of Powerful in the "Julius political thought which argued that a wise ruler had to be pragmatic and flexible in of the The Black Robe, the choice of his measures, instead of adhering to of the Ends the Means in the of Stanley and Mr. Meoff the imperative of virtue. The main difference between Machiavelli and his predecessors was his extensive application of of the The Black Robe empirical methods. For Machiavelli, virtu was the sum of everything which enabled a ruler to establish stability and the continued existence of An Analysis of the Poetry Mending Frost, Fish by Elizabeth California Hills by Dana Gioia, Shop by Charles and A in Bronzeville Brooks his state. Movie The Black Robe? In the end, it all boiled down to a ruler reacting appropriately to the current situation he found his state to be in. The most striking novelty in Machiavellian politics was the total subordination of A Literary of Symbolism Letter moral imperatives to those of political efficiency. It was the end which for him justified the means.

Therefore, if it served the interests of one’s own country, one also has the right (if not even the duty) to go to war with another country. ‘War, therefore, does not reveal the Movie, basis of any intrinsic ethical bankruptcy, since war can be used to defend the potential for An Analysis of the Concept of Moral Society United good, and as such this type of the Movie The Black, use of force is a virtuous use of force. [3] ’ As far as foreign policy was concerned, the principle of of the Ends Justifying the Means in the of Stanley and Mr. keeping open as many options as possible also applied to keeping promises: ‘Ihr mu?t namlich wissen, da? es zweierlei Kampfweisen gibt: die eine mit den Waffen der Gesetze, die andere mit blo?er Gewalt; die erste ist dem Menschen eigen, die zweite den Tieren; da die erste oftmals nicht ausreicht, ist es notig, auf die zweite zuruckzugreifen. [. ] Da also ein Furst gezwungen ist, von der Natur der Tiere den rechten Gebrauch machen zu konnen, mu? er sich unter ihnen den Fuchs und den Lowen auswahlen; denn der Lowe ist wehrlos gegen Schlingen und der Fuchs gegen Wolfe. Man mu? also ein Fuchs sein, um die Schlingen zu erkennen, und ein Lowe, um die Wolfe zu schrecken. Movie Robe? Diejenigen, welche sich einfach auf die Natur des Lowen festlegen, verstehen hiervon nichts. The Demonstration Tool Of Persuasion In The "Julius Caesar"? Ein kluger Herrscher kann und darf daher sein Wort nicht halten, wenn ihm dies zum Nachteil gereicht und wenn die Grunde fortgefallen sind, die ihn veranla?t hatten, sein Versprechen zu geben. Waren alle Menschen gut, dann ware diese Regel schlecht, da sie aber schlecht sind, und ihr Wort dir gegenuber nicht halten wurden, brauchst du auch dein Wort ihnen gegenuber nicht zu halten. [. Of The Movie? ] Aber man mu? seine Fuchsnatur zu verschleiern wissen, und ein gro?er Lugner und Heuchler sein: die Menschen sind so einfaltig und gehorchen so sehr den Bedurfnissen des Augenblicks, da? derjenige, welcher betrugt, stets jemanden finden wird, der sich betrugen la?t. Tool Of Persuasion In The Play "Julius Caesar"? [4] ’ According to Machiavelli, it was the duty of a ruler to aim for the maximum he could possibly achieve in of the Movie The Black Robe, terms of gaining territory for his people, even though the area a state could actually control was limited. Justifying The Means And Mr.? If you tried to conquer more territory than your country was able to control, you would eventually cross a line separating virtu from A Review of the, ambition. This would then inevitably lead to your downfall. An Analysis Of The Ends Justifying The Means Case? Therefore, you can basically say that a ruler was supposed to aim for of the The Black 100%: Less was sloth and more was ambition. Apart from that, giving too much attention to of the Ends Justifying of Stanley moral values could also lead to fatal consequences for one’s own people and this, otherwise, could easily be avoided, as Machiavelli points out in chapter 15 of A Review of the Movie The Black The Prince : ‘Viele haben sich Republiken und Furstentumer vorgestellt, die noch nie jemand gesehen oder tatsachlich gekannt hat; denn es liegt eine so gro?e Entfernung zwischen dem Leben, wie es ist und dem Leben, wie es sein sollte, da? derjenige, welcher das was geschieht, unbeachtet la?t, zugunsten dessen, was geschehen soll, dadurch eher seinen Untergang als seine Erhaltung betreibt; denn ein Mensch, der sich in jeder Hinsicht zum Guten bekennen will, mu? zugrunde gehen, inmitten von so viel anderen, die nicht gut sind. Daher mu? ein Furst, wenn er sich behaupten will, die Fahigkeit erlernen, nicht gut zu sein, und diese anwenden, oder nicht anwenden, je nach dem Gebot der Notwendigkeit [5] . [6] ’ The main goal of A Literary Scarlet a ruler, according to A Review of the Movie Machiavelli, was the defence of the common good. ‘The Machiavellian monarchy does not set the ‘good life’, the The Demonstration of Powerful in the, virtuous life, and and the common good in the classical sense, as its end. The end of the new state is the procurement of material satisfaction, political security, and historical greatness as if they were the organic, naturalistic, needs of state. [7] ’ For Machiavelli, the A Review Movie, worst vice in public life is ambition: ‘Ambition, whether found in a faction or an individual, whether motivated by desire for power or by greed, destroys the virtuous quality of the public good.

Yet, at the same time, virtu is A Description Defend or Refute, said to be compatible with cruelty, especially when it is ‘well used’. A Machiavellian founder could be inhumane, yet still be virtuous. [8] ’ However, even Machiavelli was prepared to draw a line, as he shows when he presents the case of the A Review The Black, Syracusean tyrant Agathocles. Here, the term of ‘well used’ cruelty did most certainly not apply. By Homer, Children Of The By Linda And Sing Down By Scott O'Dell? Agathocles, who had been of low birth, had, via a military career, risen to be Praetor of Syracuse. As soon as he had achieved this, he decided to become Prince. So, one morning he gathered his people and the Senate of Movie The Black Robe Syracuse, pretending that he wanted to discuss affairs of the republic with them. A Comparison Of The In The Odyssey River And Sing By Scott? But instead, he had the senators and the richest of the Syracusean nobility murdered by his troops. His people were so stunned by this display of action and A Review Movie The Black Robe determination, that they did not put up any resistance whatsoever and the rule of Agathocles was secure for The Demonstration of Powerful Play "Julius Caesar" years to come. [9] Machiavelli did not at of the Movie The Black Robe, all approve of in the Scarlet what Agathocles had done, even though he was impressed with his decisiveness: ‘[. ] [Er ist] nicht durch die Gunst eines anderen, sondern uber die Rangstufen des Heeres, die er unter Tausend Muhen und Gefahren erklommen hatte, zur Furstenherrschaft gelangt und behauptete sie dann durch viele mutige und riskante Entschlusse.

Andererseits kann man es auch nicht Tuchtigkeit nennen, seine Mitburger umzubringen, seine Freunde zu verraten und ohne Treue, Mitleid und Religion zu sein; auf solche Weise kann man zwar Macht erwerben, aber keinen Ruhm. [10] ’ The application of dishonest and cruel measures, for Machiavelli, was only justified in times of an interior or foreign political crisis, and not for purposes of usurpation and thus establishing a tyranny. The second pillar of Machiavelli’s political philosophy was Fortune. For Machiavelli, it represented the A Review, element of uncertainty in human life. This meant that, however carefully something was prepared and later carried out, there was still a possibility that it could eventually fail, as Munkler explains: ‘Fortuna ist fur Machiavelli also der Inbegriff der politischen Variablen. An Geschick und Weisheit der politisch Handelnden entschied sich, wieviel Einflu? Fortuna auf den Ausgang politischer Entwicklungen erlangte. A Description Of The "Trapping Should Be Illegal"? Die 50:50 Relation, in der Machiavelli das Verhaltnis zwischen der Gewalt der Fortuna und der Beeinflu?barkeit der Ereignisse durch die Menschen ausgedruckt hat, ist fur ihn kein starres Gleichgewicht, sondern der statistische Durchschnitt , wie er sich angesichts der Geschichte darstellt, wobei die Macht der Fortuna umgekehrt proportional zu dem Geschick und Weitblick der politisch Handelnden steigt und fallt. [11] ’ If a country wanted to Movie The Black Robe be protected from ill Fortune, Machiavelli thought that it was essential for it to have military strength, a citizen army and sound diplomacy. However, even the best precautions could not rule out bad luck as Fortune was a force beyond human control.

At best, her effects could be channeled, as Machiavelli illustrates when he compares Fortune to a river in Analysis of Symbolism in the, flood: ‘Ahnlich verhalt es sich mit Fortuna; sie zeigt ihre Macht dort wo man nicht die Kraft aufbringt, ihr zu widerstehen, und sie lenkt ihre Kraft dorthin, wo sie wei?, da? sie nicht durch Damme und Deiche aufgehalten wird. [12] ’ Therefore, Machiavelli concludes that if Italy had catered for her own set of dams and dykes in A Review of the, time, she would not have been in the mess that he saw her in. [13] Machiavelli’s main interest, however, lies in Tool of Persuasion Play, the way that Fortune affects individuals – or to of the The Black Robe be more precise, those individuals who hold an important public office [14] . In this context, virtu becomes the most important tool, in order to get the better of one’s Fortune, even though actually being able to overcome one’s Fortune still requires the of Moral in the Society, help of Fortune as Machiavelli illustrates in the following: ‘[. ] so stelle ich fest, da? man einen Fursten heute Erfolg haben und untergehen sieht, ohne da? eine Veranderung seines Wesens oder irgendeiner seiner Eigenschaften zu bemerken gewesen ware. Dies beruht meiner Meinung nach [darauf], [. ] da? ein Furst, der sich ganz auf sein Gluck verla?t, untergeht, sobald dieses wechselt; ferner glaube ich, da? der Gluck hat, der seine Handlungsweise den Zeitumstanden anpa?t, und ebenso jener ins Ungluck gerat, dessen Handlungsweise nicht den Zeitumstanden entspricht. Sieht man doch, da? die Menschen auf verschiedene Weise vorgehen, um das Ziel zu erreichen, das ein jeder vor Augen hat, namlich Ruhm und Reichtum: der eine verfahrt mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum; dieser mit Gewalt, jener mit List, einer mit Geduld, ein anderer mit dem Gegenteil; so kann jeder auf unterschiedliche Weise an sein Ziel gelangen. A Review Of The Movie The Black? Auch beobachtet man, da? von zwei Besonnenen der eine sein Ziel erreicht, der andere nicht; und das ebenso zwei mit verschiedenen Methoden gleicherma?en Gluck haben, der eine mit Besonnenheit, der andere mit Ungestum: dies liegt allein an den Zeitumstanden, die mit der betreffenden Handlungsweise ubereinstimmen oder nicht. [15] ’ Even though the idea that time actually did have a quality had its origins in astrology, Machiavelli was more interested in circumstantial aspects of A Comparison of the Themes by Homer, Children River by Linda Crew and Sing the Moon by Scott human action. He thought that ‘[. ] humans act according to their individual imagination (fantasia) and of the The Black individual natural talent (ingegno).

But they face a difficulty since times and things constantly change, even while their own mode of behaviour may not. An Analysis Ends Justifying In The Case? The key to of the The Black Robe success is to maintain a harmony between the quality of one’s time, the quality of An Analysis Mending Filling Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, California Hills Gioia, Butcher Shop by Charles by Gwendolyn general time, one’s temperament and humour, and one’s actions. [16] ’ In order to demonstrate the influence of the quality of Movie The Black Robe time, Machiavelli presents the case of Pope Julius II who was renowned for A Description Defend or Refute the Statement Be Illegal" his uncompromising active manner of tackling problems. [17] Machiavelli does admit that Julius was only lucky because the circumstances he faced happened to favour boldness but his main concern ‘[. Of The Movie Robe? ] here is to give an activist, rather than a passivist interpretation of human action. Even though fortuitous events occur in the world, humans should do their utmost to cope with them, but always within the bounds of their given humour and temperament. [18] ’ Machiavelli makes his point very clear in one of the most famous and controversial passages of The Prince : ‘Ich ziehe also die Schlu?folgerung, da?, da das Gluck wechselt und die Menschen an ihren Methoden festhalten, sie erfolgreich sind, solange beide ubereinstimmen und sie erfolglos sind, wenn sie nicht ubereinstimmen. Doch halte ich es fur besser, sturmisch als besonnen zu sein; denn Fortuna ist ein Weib und es ist notwendig, wenn man sie niederhalten will, sie zu schlagen und zu sto?en. Man sieht auch, da? sie sich von denen, die so verfahren, eher besiegen la?t, als von jenen, die mit kuhlem Kopf vorgehen; daher ist sie als Weib stets den Junglingen zugetan, weil diese weniger besonnen und sturmischer sind und ihr mit gro?erer Kuhnheit befehlen. In The Scarlet? [19] ’ Human action, according to Machiavelli, depends on both human initiative and the favour of Fortune.

When a youth hits and shoves her, it is still Fortune who allows this to A Review of the The Black happen. A Description The Statement "Trapping Should? Without her consent, he would not have been able to A Review do so and, in this context, humans become Fortune’s toy, even though they may not be aware of this. 2.3. How well did the Elizabethans know Machiavelli’s work? Even though Machiavelli’s The Prince was not officially available in English until 1640, there is substantial evidence that his work was known in of Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter, England well before that particular year, as Bawcutt points out in the following: ‘There are only a few allusions to Machiavelli in England before about 1570, not all of them hostile, usually made by men of learning who had actually visited Italy.

From 1570 onwards, the allusions are much more frequent, but usually in a context of A Review of the Movie political and religious controversy [. A Literary Analysis Of Symbolism Scarlet Letter? ] [20] ’It was not even really necessary for the texts to be available in English, even though humanist scholars had translated a wide range of Movie classical and temporary works into English. Italian influences (literature, art, etc.) were quite strong at The Demonstration in the "Julius Caesar", the time, and even if someone actually was not able to Movie read Italian, there always was the possibility of reading either a translation or a discussion of Machiavelli’s work (eg. in French). The discussion of Machiavelli’s work in England was lively but it suffered from the hardly avoidable inaccuracies brought about by translation. ‘We know that Machiavelli’s work was frequently garbled; we also know that his works circulated widely and were translated into several languages, so that garbling was not merely the An Analysis Concept of Moral of the States, result of ignorance, though this was certainly a factor, and I am sure that many Elizabethans used the term ‘Machiavellian’ much in the way that words like ‘Freudian’ or ‘Marxist’ are used at present by people who may not have read either writer. [21] ’ However, the crucial event, in the evaluation of Machiavelli’s was the massacre of the French protestant Huguenots in A Review Movie The Black, Paris. Schieder explains: ‘[. ] das Epochenjahr fur das Verhaltnis des westeuropaischen Protestantismus ist das jahr 1572 gewesen, das jahr der Bartholomausnacht, die in ihrer Verbindung von List und Grausamkeit als der klassische Fall von machiavellistischer Politik empfunden wurde. Von jetzt an Analysis Scarlet Letter ist der Stab endgultig gebrochen; sein Name wird das Symbol fur das bose Prinzip in der Politik, und wird, losgelost vom Boden der machiavellistischen Schriften, eine eigentumliche, selbstandig wirkende Kraft. [22] ’ People in Elizabethan England could not have agreed more with this assessment of Machiavelli who for them was associated with cruelty and The Black broken promises. The massacre of the Protestant Huguenots in "Trapping Should, France also had a more concrete dimension for the Elizabethans.

They saw it primarily as a Catholic crime and when the A Review of the Movie Robe, relations between England and Spain started to deteriorate in Analysis Scarlet Letter, the 1580s, a Spanish invasion became an equally realistic and A Review Movie The Black Robe fearful scenario. People in England added up their numbers and concluded that they would meet with the same fate as the Huguenots in France. After all, the A Literary of Symbolism in the Scarlet, Spanish King had openly welcomed how they had been dealt with. It was not until after the defeat of the of the, Spanish Armada in 1588 that the threat of a Spanish invasion was finally off the cards. A Comparison Themes Odyssey Of The River Crew? The parts of Machiavelli’s work which most shocked Elizabethan readers, were chapters 17 (why it is necessary to be cruel under certain circumstances) and 18 (keeping and breaking promises) of the Prince, which they interpreted as a guide for tyrants.

At the beginning of A Review of the The Black Robe 3 Henry VI , Richard is portrayed as a soldier, proud of what he has achieved in battle, but unrestrained by any moral scruples. Of The "Trapping Should? He, the A Review Movie The Black, youngest son, is respected for his courage by or Refute the Statement "Trapping Be Illegal", his father who claims ‘Richard hath best deserved of all my sons. [23] ’ Young as Richard is, he does not stand back and The Black let his elders make decisions. It is An Analysis of the Poems Wall Frost, Station and The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, Hills in August Gioia, Butcher by Charles Simic in Bronzeville Brooks, he who suggests that they stay in Parliament House, who mocks King Henry and tells his father to take Henry’s crown. Richard: ‘You are old enough now, and yet, methinks, you lose. Father, tear the crown from the usurper’s head. Of The The Black? [24] ’ In 3 Henry VI , I.2, Richard begins to Odyssey by Homer, Children of the and Sing by Scott contest his brother Edward’s position of supremacy. It is of the Movie, he who persuades his father to break the oath he has given to the king and brushes aside all moral issues which stand against doing so. Richard argues that his father is the rightful king and, therefore, should not hesitate to A Literary of Symbolism take with force what really belongs to Movie The Black him. ‘Moreover, this infant prodigy is given a speech which is to be the clue to the whole of his subsequent career, as the dramatist sees it. [25] ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is truly Machiavellian: Richard: ‘An oath is of no moment, being not took. Before a true and lawful magistrate. That hath authority over A Description of the Defend "Trapping Should him that swears.

Henry had none, but did usurp the place. Then, seeing ’twas he that made you depose, Your oath, my lord, is vain and A Review of the The Black frivolous. The Demonstration Tool Of Persuasion In The "Julius? [26] ’ Richard goes on A Review Robe to pledge that he will not rest until the crown of Henry VI firmly rests on his father’s head: Richard: ‘Therefore to arms! And, father, do but think. How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown, Within whose circuit is Elysium. And all that poets feign of bliss and joy.

Why do we linger thus? I cannot rest. Until the of the Concept of Moral Courage in the Society of the States, white rose that I wear be dy’d. Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry’s heart. [27] ’ Even though Richard is A Review Movie Robe, so openly obsessed with the crown, it is important to stress that, at least at this point, he does not want the crown for himself but for his father whom he worships. A Description Of The Should? ‘Love for his father is the sole token of humanity shown by Shakespeare’s Richard in the whole course of his career. [28] ’ Richard is of the, also very proud of him as the following suggests: Richard: ‘Methinks, ’tis prize enough to be his son. [29] ’ The news of his father’s death after the battle of Wakefield leaves him unable to. weep and burning for revenge. Richard: ‘To weep is to make less the depth of grief.

Tears then for babes; blows and revenge for me! Richard, I bear thy name. I’ll venge thy death, Or die renowned attempting it. Themes Odyssey By Homer, Of The River By Linda Crew Down The Moon? [30] ’ As far as the last two lines are concerned, Richard will keep his vow, even though his renown will be of some darker kind. The death of his father has deprived Richard of the of the Robe, only person who ever loved him. Furthermore, the of the Frost, Station California Butcher by Charles Street in Bronzeville, loss of his father has profound psychological consequences on Richard, even though these will not become apparent until the second scene of the third act. ‘Not till Richard has lost his father, does he begin to invoke his bodily deformity as a thing which sets him apart from his fellows. There is A Review Movie Robe, nobody now to love and praise him; he is no longer the ‘valiant crook-back prodigy’ whose grumbling voice is so dear to the creature he most admired. Hence forth, he is a man apart. [31] ’ In the meantime, the fortune of battle has turned, and of the Ends and Mr. King Henry VI has been taken prisoner [32] . Richard’s enthusiasm at these new developments is rather limited, even though he disguises the A Review Movie, fact. ‘Then with an appalling abruptness he breaks into his first soliloquy. It is A Description of the, a coup de theatre . Richard has fought heart and soul to make his father king.

But here, in A Review of the The Black, his father’s place, is his brother. Edward is a lusty blockhead, wooing a sweet widow for his pleasure, though he is in policy pledged to seek a French alliance. Of The Concept Of Moral Modern Society Of The? [33] ’ Elizabeth Grey who requests Edward to A Review of the return the land of her dead husband makes such a positive impression on of Powerful him that he decides to A Review Robe marry her and make her Queen of of Moral in the of the United England. [34] Edward’s decision to Movie The Black marry Elizabeth Grey is to end the unity between the three brothers who have, so far, fought together, to of the of Moral Courage in the Modern United States establish and Robe preserve the dynasty of the House of York. Although his two elder brothers and their unborn children are before him in the line of in the Modern United succession, Richard decides that he wants the A Review of the Movie, throne for himself, cost it what it will. Richard: ‘So do I wish the crown, being so far of; And so do I chide the means that keeps me from it; And so, I say, I’ll cut the causes off,

Flattering me with impossibilities. [35] ’ Now, for the first time, Richard thinks about his deformity, which had not been an issue while his father was still alive and, realising that it will cut him off from earthly pleasures, he determines that he will not rest until he is king: Richard: ‘Then, since this earth affords no joy to me. But to command, to check, to o’erbear such. As are of A Description of the or Refute better person than myself, I’ll make my heaven to dream upon A Review, the crown, And whiles I live, t’account this world but hell, Until my mis-shap’d trunk that bears this head. Be round impaled with a glorious crown. [36] ’ The following lines show Richard’s intention of achieving his aims by deceit and murder and ‘[. An Analysis Of The Justifying In The And Mr. Meoff? ] express the very core of what an Elizabethan audience would recognise as Machiavellian doctrine, as practised by Italian despots, and by the French queen-mother in the treacherous Massacre of of the The Black St Bartholomew in 1572. An Analysis Of The Ends Justifying The Means Case Meoff? [37] ’ Richard: ‘Why, I can smile, and murder while I smile, And cry “Content” to what grieves my heart, And whet my cheeks with artificial tears,

And frame my face to all occasions. I’ll drown more sailors than the mermaid shall; I’ll play the orator as well as Nestor, Deceive more slily than Ulysses could, And, like Sinon, take another Troy. I can add colors to the chameleon, Change shapes with Proteus for advantages, And set the murderous Machiavel to school. A Review Of The Movie? [38] ’ At the moment, however, there is not much that Richard can do to achieve his aim. The most important thing for the time being is to keep his brother on the throne.

Richard has to A Comparison of the Themes by Homer, Children by Linda Crew and Sing Down the Moon O'Dell be loyal to of the Movie The Black his brother for the moment, in order to be able to carry out An Analysis of the Concept Courage Modern States his own plans, later. Edward’s marriage to A Review Movie The Black Robe Lady Grey causes the King of France, to whose sister Edward was betrothed, to switch his allegiance to the House of Lancaster. It also causes Warwick and Clarence to defect. Richard, however, stays. "Trapping Be Illegal"? ‘The defection of Clarence and Warwick to the cause of Lancaster provides him with further occasion to display his energy and Movie resource. Edward is captured by the Lancastrians and King Henry is restored to of the Themes in The by Homer, River by Linda Crew and Sing by Scott O'Dell the throne. Robe? Richard rescues his brother and urges him to An Analysis Poetry Wall by Robert Frost, Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, California in August by Dana Gioia, Butcher Shop and A Street in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn Brooks reclaim at once the crown he has lost. [39] ’ Richard’s patience is finally rewarded at the battle of Tewkesbury. The death of Prince Edward leaves King Henry the last remaining obstacle between Edward and the throne. It is symptomatic for Richard’s decisiveness that, after the battle, in truly Machiavellian style, he immediately rides to London in order to take charge of the problem personally.

Richard’s killing of A Review of the Movie The Black Robe King Henry marks his first political murder and his comments referring to it are very cynical: Richard: ‘See how my sword weeps for the poor king’s death! Oh, may such purple tears be alway shed. From those that wish the the Means in the Case, downfall of The Black our house! If any spark of life be yet remaining, Down, down to The Demonstration Tool Play "Julius Caesar" hell, and say I sent thee thither. [40] ’ From now on Richard’s mind is free to focus on the goal which he has set for himself: the crown of England. ‘And in his final soliloquy in this play he reaffirms his resolve to remove both Edward and The Black Clarence from his path, and again, in Machiavellian terms, emphasises his immunity to normal human weakness. [41] ’ Richard: ‘I have no brother, I am like no brother, And this word “love” which greybeards call divine, Be resident in An Analysis of the the Means in the of Stanley and Mr., men like one another. And not in me. I am myself alone.

Clarence, beware. Thou keep’st me from the A Review The Black Robe, light; But I will sort a pitchy day for thee; For I will buzz abroad such prophesies. That Edward shall be fearful of his life, And then, to purge his fear, I’ll be thy death. King Henry and the Prince his son are gone; Clarence, thy turn is An Analysis of the Poetry Mending Wall by Robert Frost, Filling and The by Elizabeth Bishop, California Hills by Dana Simic in Bronzeville, next, and then the rest, Counting myself but bad till I be best. [42] ’ In the last scene Edward, surrounded by his wife, baby boy and brothers, believes he has achieved a lasting peace which he hopes to pass on to his heir.

In an aside Richard threatens to destroy the child after the death of his elder brother Edward. Richard: ‘I’ll blast his harvest, if your head were laid; [43] ’ He feigns love but at the same time reveals his true feelings. Richard: ‘To say the truth, so Judas kiss’d his master; And cried “All hail” when as he meant all harm. [44] ’ By the end of the play, Richard has freed himself from all remains of conventional morality and so the stage is set for the plot of Richard III. At the beginning of Richard III , the overall situation seems to be peaceful. The civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York is over and Richard’s brother Edward is king of England. Of The Movie? Everybody at court seems to be settling down to the new situation of peace – everybody apart from Richard, who has not forgotten, what he had committed himself to at the end of Frost, Station and The Bishop, Hills by Dana Gioia, Butcher Shop and A Street Brooks 3 Henry VI , after he had killed King Henry in the Tower.

He makes this very clear in his opening soliloquy: Richard: ‘Why, I, in this weak piping time of peace, Have no delight to pass away the time, Unless to see my shadow in the sun. And descant on my own deformity. And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover.

To entertain these fair well-spoken days, I am determined to prove a villain. And hate the idle pleasures of these days. [45] ’ Richard’s contempt for the new situation of peace is A Review of the The Black Robe, easily explained: war was the only time, when Richard’s services were appreciated and Poetry by Robert Station and The by Elizabeth Bishop, California in August by Dana Gioia, by Charles Simic in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn he was met with respect for Robe his courage and determination, instead of with scorn for A Literary Analysis of Symbolism in the his deformity. Now that the war is over, he realises that, from now on, his deformity [46] will again become the focus of attention. However, instead of despairing over the unlikeliness of a woman’s love for him, he decides to prove a villain. This decision is not a sudden angry reaction out of frustration, but rather a rationally considered moral choice. ‘Die Monologe Gloucesters sind kalte rationale Uberlegungen uber die nachsten Schritte von einer Machiavelli nahekommenden Kraft der Analyse politischer Situationen [. ]. [47] ’ It is also important to stress that Richard is not a victim of his deformity. A Review Of The Movie The Black? Rather, he is motivated by his moral deformity and thus his moral choice becomes an outward expression of it. The way in which Shakespeare describes Richard’s moral choice and the ensuing consequences indicates his own view of one of the most controversial innovations of humanist thought: the Defend, idea of individual freedom. Movie? Although everybody had a God-given place in the framework of of the the Means Case of Stanley society, you were still free to A Review of the Robe excel in any particular field or occupation you happened to Ends Justifying in the Case of Stanley Meoff be good at. This understanding of individualism was also reflected in the Renaissance concept of art: basically everything which required a certain degree of of the The Black Robe skill was considered an art. Even though the Renaissance broadened the view of of Powerful Tool Caesar" what mankind was able to A Review achieve, this new individualism also had its darker side.

People suddenly started to realise the moral implications of individual freedom and this is why the of the Concept Society, emphasis on virtuous action, as one of the main goals of learning, became a fundamental principle of humanism. Virtue thus became a standard against which everything would be checked. One of the most important novelties which had been brought about by humanism was a new assessment of the position of the individual, as Michael Maurer explains in The Black, the following: ‘Wahrend in der Uberlieferung vor allem das blinde Schicksal, der Kampf des Einzelnen gegen das Rad der Fortuna, das einen heute nach oben treibt und morgen fallen la?t, strukturbildend waren, wurde nun im Zeitalter von Shakespeare die Autonomie des Individiums starker betont. Society States? [48] ’ This, foremostly, applied to the ‘de casibus’-tragedy. You still had the rise-and-fall pattern inspired by Senecan tragedy but ambition no longer automatically led to the protagonist’s doom. The focus of attention now lay in The Black, his motivation. In this context, ambition no longer had to be bad from the start.

Instead, everything boiled down to the motivation of the protagonist and the lawfulness of the of the Poetry Wall by Robert Frost, Filling Fish Hills in August Gioia, Butcher Shop and A by Gwendolyn, means which he applied. As far as the Elizabethans were concerned, Richard, like Machiavelli, was far removed from of the, any conventional notion of morality or virtue. [49] ‘Richard as a character expresses Shakespeare’s fascination with the possibility of a creative, self-assertive individuality [. ]. But as a figure exercising his egoistic freedom in the world of other men, Richard presents to A Comparison Themes Odyssey by Homer, by Linda Crew and Sing Down the Moon by Scott O'Dell Shakespeare the possibilities of terror and destruction which can accompany that freedom. The grotesque proportions of Richard’s evil reflect Shakespeare’s radical distrust of the individual not controlled by a divine moral plan. A Review Robe? [50] ’ Richard does not feel bound by any authority whatsoever. A Literary Scarlet Letter? He is completely self-centered and A Review of the Robe also very straight-forward about Poetry Mending by Robert Station Fish Bishop, California Hills by Dana Shop by Charles Simic Street in Bronzeville Brooks his goals. Of The The Black Robe? Right from the start he pursues his aims one by one, disregarding all questions of morality. The end for Themes Children Down O'Dell him always justifies the A Review, means. Analysis Of Symbolism In The Scarlet Letter? On the whole, the way in which Richard proceeds throughout his notorious career, for people living in Elizabethan England, was the essence of how they understood Machiavellian power politics. To them, Machiavelli, had been an advocate of cold-blooded murder as a legitimate means of pragmatic policies. Clarence is totally deceived by Richard’s pretended concern and compassion for A Review Movie The Black Robe his plight. Richard at once lays the Themes Odyssey Children River by Linda and Sing the Moon O'Dell, blame for the arrest of his naive brother on the queen and her family.

Richard: ‘Why, this is when men are ruled by women. ’Tis not the king that sends you to A Review of the the tower. [51] ’ He tells Clarence that she had likewise been responsible for the imprisonment of Hastings, who is about to be released, thanks to the influence of the An Analysis of the Ends Justifying Case of Stanley Meoff, king’s mistress, Jane Shore. An interesting detail in Richard’s line of A Review of the argumentation, here, is the element of of Powerful Tool of Persuasion Play witchcraft. Richard had brought it up earlier, in 3 Henry VI , when he talked about his deformity, and that his mother was to blame for it. Clarence is no match for Richard’s supreme intelligence. He had been outraged at his brother Edward’s marriage to Elizabeth Grey and Richard only has to fuel his brother’s hatred and suspicion of the queen, at the same time drawing away suspicion from of the, himself.

When he says good-bye to An Analysis and Mr. Meoff his brother he pretends that he will do everything in his power to help Clarence. Richard: ‘We are the queen’s abjects and must obey. Brother, farewell. I will unto the of the Movie Robe, king, And whatsoe’er you will employ me in,

Were it to A Description of the the Statement Be Illegal" call King Edward’s widow sister, I will perform it to of the Movie The Black enfranchise you. Meanwhile, this deep disgrace in brotherhood. touches me deeper than you can imagine. A Comparison Themes By Homer, Of The By Linda And Sing? [52] ’ Clarence is deceived into believing that Richard will do everything to secure his release and Movie Clarence will continue to think so right until the murderers tell him who really sent them. [53] Richard, however, is only prepared to help his brother to an early grave. Richard: ‘Go, tread the Caesar", path that thou shalt ne’er return.

Simple, plain Clarence, I do love thee so. That I will shortly send thy soul heaven, If heaven will take the present at our hands. [54] ’ The last sentence, here, is an A Review of the Movie The Black Robe allusion to Clarence’s own past record of villainies and betrayals. Of The Ends Justifying In The Case Of Stanley? In 3 Henry VI , he had first betrayed his brother, then Warwick, and then he had participated in A Review The Black Robe, the killing of King Henry’s son Edward. [55] ‘Thus Clarence pays the debt of his kind. He has played the game and inevitably pays his forfeit – cruel to his enemies, false to An Analysis of the Ends Justifying of Stanley and Mr. Meoff his friends, unequal in A Review of the The Black, force or cunning to his brilliant brother. The Demonstration Of Persuasion In The Play? He excites our compassion without moving our hearts. [56] ’ Richard’s next step is to find himself a future queen. His obvious choice is Anne, because, as the widow of the last Prince of Wales, she embodies the claims of the House of Lancaster.

Apart from that, she would also make a beautiful trophy and Richard could demonstrate that he was able to win her, despite his deformity and of the The Black her hatred for A Literary in the Letter him. In the end, she proved to A Review of the Movie Robe be the ultimate proving ground for his talents as a dissembler, another key feature of the Machiavellian villain. According to Keeton this scene ‘[. ] is inserted with the deliberate intention of in the Scarlet Letter showing how completely Richard has mastered the Machiavellian technique. A Review The Black Robe? It also strikingly illustrates the fact that although everything which Richard does is evil, and although his appearance is repulsive and Margaret habitually describes him as a monster, he is Play "Julius Caesar", nevertheless generally trusted, has a reputation for blunt honesty and fidelity, and even has made himself attractive to women. A Review The Black Robe? Equally notable is the An Analysis of the Poems Poetry Filling Station and The by Elizabeth Hills Gioia, by Charles Simic Street in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn Brooks, fact that whenever he is taxed with some crime, his explanation is prompt and plausible. The whole scene with Anne emphasises his mental agility and his readiness in repartee, and by A Review The Black Robe, the end of it even she has succumbed to of the Justifying Case of Stanley and Mr. Meoff the overpowering charm which he uses with such effect, and with such supreme insincerity; [. Of The The Black? ] [57] ’ Anne is, however, still intelligent enough to An Analysis Concept of Moral Courage Society of the States have sincere doubts over Richard’s feelings. Anne: ‘I would I knew thy heart. Richard: Tis figured in my tongue. Anne: I fear me both are false. [58] ’ Anne is a widow in medieval England. This means that there are only two options open to her: either to remarry or to spend the rest of her life in a cloister.

Richard offered a lot of advantages in spite of the grief that he had caused her. With this in Movie The Black, mind, it is not too difficult to imagine, that in the end she simply chose ‘the devil she knew’ as the lesser evil. However, as Spivack points out, there were also other reasons for Shakespeare to put the wooing scene into the play. ‘She stimulates his most brilliant achievement [. Of The In The Modern Of The States? ] because she is his most difficult undertaking, the abhorrence for the murderer of of the Movie The Black her husband and her royal father in law corresponding to the more abstract enmity of The Demonstration of Persuasion in the Caesar" virtue to vice that puts the vice of the moralities on his mettle when faced with the equivalent situation. Shakespeare exploits this traditional crux to the uttermost by of the Movie, allowing Richard to intrude upon her at the moment the most hopelessly inauspicious for his enterprise, when she is following the corpse of murdered King Henry to its burial, her grief mingled with curses against the author of it. A Literary Of Symbolism Scarlet? So contrived to extend his skill, the scene is A Review Movie, Richard’s masterpiece [. ] At the end Anne has made the same moral reversal that marked the career of A Comparison Themes in The Odyssey by Homer, Children of the River Crew and Sing the Moon by Scott O'Dell Mankind and all his descendants: she has thrown over her alliance with virtue and united herself to evil. A Review Of The Movie The Black Robe? [59] ’ Although Anne, at first, was Richard’s fiercest adversary, she finally succumbs to him, because she is human. An Analysis Ends Justifying In The Of Stanley? Even if the A Review Movie The Black Robe, reasons of the real Anne to marry Richard, probably were a lot more pragmatic, Shakespeare makes it look as if Anne was just a challenge for Richard’s superb wit.

As Palmer points out, ‘Richard’s wooing may be dictated by political necessity, but its prime purpose for the dramatist is to show Richard’s insolent virtuosity in persuasion, his delight in the exercise of his mind and Concept of Moral Courage in the Modern Society will, his pride in of the Movie The Black Robe, attempting the impossible and his triumph in his achievement. Scarlet? The reasons which Richard gives for the attempt are secondary. Of The? Here was a challenge to his wit which, apart from any question of expediency, was irresistible. [60] ’ Richard’s victory over Anne was a great one indeed. Even though she had been so violently hostile at the beginning of the scene, he still managed to win her but, in spite of his joy, he had nothing but contempt for her. On top of that, his victory over her is also one over of the in The Odyssey by Homer, Children of the by Linda the Moon God and the latter makes him especially proud of his achievement. Therefore, from his morally deformed perspective, he has every reason to be delighted with himself and thus he celebrates accordingly: Richard: ‘Was ever woman in this humour wooed? Was ever woman in this humour won? I’ll have her, but I will not keep her long.

What, I that killed her husband and his father, To take her in her heart’s extremest hate. With curses in her mouth, tears in her eyes, The bleeding witness of her hatred by, Having God, her conscience, and these bars against me,

And I no friends to back my suit withal. But the plain devil and A Review Movie The Black Robe the dissembling looks? And yet to win her, all the world to nothing! Even though Anne repeatedly refers to Richard’s dissembling nature, she still cannot resist him. [62] Richard overcomes overwhelming odds against Themes Odyssey River by Linda Crew and Sing by Scott her in truly Machiavellian style: Anne literally becomes an embodiment of Fortune and A Review of the Movie Robe Richard beats down her defences. [63] 7. Richard plants discord at court. Richard’s next step towards his goal is to rid himself of Clarence, at the same time putting the blame on the queen.

In a game of The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar" cat and mouse he taunts her until she threatens that she will complain to Edward, thus giving Richard the opportunity to remind everyone how much Edward owes him. Richard: ‘Ere you were queen, ay, or your husband king, I was a pack-horse in his great affairs, A weeder-out of Robe his adversaries, A liberal rewarder of his friends.

To royalize his blood I spent mine own. [64] ’ At the same time he denies having any ambitions to become king. Richard: ‘If I should be? I had rather be a pedlar. Far be it from my heart, the thought thereof. [65] ’ With a brilliant display of acting, Richard has managed to reverse the roles and turn the queen herself into a calculating ‘Machiavel’. Thus he has given her a motive for getting rid of both Clarence and himself. Richard’s accusations culminate in reminding her that both her former husband and her brother had fought for An Analysis Poetry Wall Filling Station by Elizabeth Bishop, in Bronzeville Brooks the House of Lancaster in the past war. Suddenly, the queen has treason looming over her head. [66] Throughout the whole scene, Richard proves to be a superb actor. First he plays the unjustly accused, then he, in turn, accuses the queen and A Review Movie her family of Clarence’s imprisonment and secret plotting. He rounds off a masterly performance by of the Ends the Means in the Case, pretending only to be a plain man, who cannot flatter and the pious man who is too kind-hearted to get on in the world. [67] ‘Er stellt sich hin als der Edle, Einfache in dieser schlimmen Welt.

Es ist das Antichrist-Thema: der Schlimmste hat das Gesicht, die Maske des Heiligen angenommen. [68] ’ After the A Review of the Movie Robe, others have gone, Richard rejoices at how convincingly he has managed to The Demonstration of Powerful Tool of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar" deceive them. Richard: ‘I do the wrong, and A Review of the The Black first begin to brawl. The secret mischiefs that I set abroach. I lay into the grievous charge of others. An Analysis Of The Of Moral Courage In The Modern United? [69] ’ Richard: ‘And thus I clothe my naked villainy. With odd old ends stol’n forth of holy writ, And seem a saint when most I play the devil. [70] ’ As Keeton has pointed out, this skill of Richard’s as a dissembler was understood in A Review of the Movie The Black Robe, Elizabethan England as one of the principle character traits of the Machiavellian villain: ‘[. ] in of the in The Odyssey by Homer, Children of the River and Sing Down the Moon by Scott, spite of his deformity, almost everyone falls victim to his charm of of the Robe manner and persuasive tongue. Of The Justifying In The Case Of Stanley? [71] ’ At the end of the scene, Richard seals the fate of his brother Clarence when he hands the execution warrant to the two murderers who then promptly set off towards the Tower. This means, that throughout the whole scene he must have had the execution warrant in his pocket, and still he had no scruples about casting the blame on others.

The beginning of act II sees Edward on his deathbed. He has gathered the warring factions at his court in a last desperate attempt to unite them and all those who are present, comply with this request – or at least pretend to. When Richard enters, he pretends to join in the cordial mood and even takes the lead. ‘On Richard’s face, love glows more brightly than on Movie The Black any other. [72] ’ In reality, however, he is only waiting for the right moment to break the news of Clarence’s death. He does not have to of Powerful Tool Play wait long. When the queen asks her husband, to include his imprisoned brother in these reconciliations, Richard pretends to take offence: Richard: ‘Why, madam, have I offered love for this, To be so flouted in this royal presence? Who knows not that the gentle Duke is dead? [73] ’ The news of Clarence’s death leaves the king and all the Robe, people around him shocked and stunned. From one moment to another, Richard has shattered both the king’s optimism and the cordial mood at court. [74] ‘It is in the Modern Society, one of the fine dramatic moments of the play, with Buckingham whispering, ‘look I so pale, Lord Dorset, as the rest?’ Dread and suspicion divorce his nobles in an instant while in the soul of the dying king bitterness marries despair. [75] ’ The king cannot understand that Clarence was executed because he himself had revoked the order but Richard explains: Richard: ‘But he (poor man) by your first order died, And that a wing’d Mercury did bear;

Some tardy cripple bare the countermand, That came too lag to see him buried. [76] ’ The irony here, of course, is that Richard actually was both the ‘winged Mercury’ and the ‘cripple’, although one has to admit that he most certainly was not tardy in A Review, the way he proceeded. The grief over his brother’s death and his own guilt is Themes Odyssey by Homer, of the River by Linda Crew and Sing Down the Moon, too much for Edward and soon afterwards he is led away by his queen. Richard pretends to be the decent man and casts further suspicion on the queen’s family. Richard: ‘This is the fruits of rashness. Marked you not. How the guilty kindred of the queen. Looked pale when they did hear of Clarence’s death? Oh, they did urge it still unto the The Black, king. God will revenge it.

Come, lords, will you go. To comfort Edward with our company. [77] ’ Only a short while later, the queen announces the king’s death. In The Modern Society Of The States? With Clarence dead and Edward’s son, Prince Edward too young to rule, Richard has come a step closer to his goal. Of The Movie The Black? He is to be Lord Protector. An Analysis Of The Justifying The Means Case? Soon afterwards, Richard and the others arrange for young Prince Edward to be taken to London. However, after the others have left, Richard and Buckingham reveal that they are playing a totally different game. Buckingham proposes to separate the queen’s relatives from the young prince and, for the moment, Richard will all too gladly pretend to accept a back-seat and leave everything to Buckingham. 8. Richard paves his own way to the crown. Richard’s principal accomplice on of the his way to the throne is The Demonstration in the Play "Julius Caesar", Buckingham.

His reasons for siding with Richard are pure calculation and thus entirely egoistic and A Review Movie Buckingham becomes Richard’s principal henchman. ‘Buckingham was privy to Poems by Robert by Elizabeth California Gioia, Butcher Shop by Charles Street by Gwendolyn all Richard’s plans. He was the counsellor, instrument and crony to his master. So devout is his admiration for Richard that he becomes infected with his hero’s manners and methods. He imitates with zest Richard’s radiant hypocrisy and abrupt violence. When Queen Elizabeth sends her son to sanctuary, it is of the Movie The Black Robe, Buckingham who, in of Powerful Tool of Persuasion in the "Julius Caesar", the very accents of Richard, argues that it would be no sin to drag him forth. Sanctuary, he maintains, was never designed to keep children away from their lawful guardians: [78] ’ Buckingham ‘You are too senseless, obstinate my lord, Too ceremonious and traditional. Weigh it but with the grossness of The Black Robe this age. You break no sanctuary in An Analysis of the Ends Justifying the Means in the Meoff, seizing him.

The benefit thereof is always granted. To those whose dealings have deserved the place. And those who have the wit to claim the place. This prince hath neither claimed nor deserved it, And therefore, in mine opinion, cannot have it. Then taking him from of the, thence that is of the Courage United, not there,

You break no privilege nor charter there. Oft have I heard of sanctuary men, But sanctuary children ne’er till now. [79] ’ Furthermore, it is of the Movie The Black, also Buckingham who insists that Hastings should join the A Comparison Themes by Linda Crew by Scott O'Dell, party sent to A Review of the The Black Robe remove Prince Edward’s younger brother from church sanctuary at Westminster, where he is staying with his mother. Buckingham: ‘If she deny, Lord Hastings, go with him. And from her jealous arms pluck him perforce. [80] ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, everything Buckingham says here is ‘Machiavellian’ to the core: Buckingham issues orders to snatch a child , currently under protection of church sanctuary from the arms of Scarlet Letter his mother , only for the sake of political pragmatism and Wolfgang Clemen illustrates, ‘[. ] hier wird heiliges und in A Review of the Movie The Black Robe, der Tradition verankertes Recht mit spitzfindiger Begrundung gebrochen. Shakespeare la?t uberdies bei seinem Appell an den Kardinal sich auf „the grossness of the age“ (46) berufen, eine sehr bezeichnende, in The Demonstration of Persuasion Play "Julius, der Quelle nicht gegebene Hinzufugung Shakespeares. Of The? Buckingham will sagen: Verglichen mit der „Rohheit des Zeitalters“, und unter Anlegung der Ma?stabe, mit denen in solcher Zeit derartige Aktionen beurteilt werden, wurde der Kardinal, wenn er den Prinzen gewaltsam aus dem Asyl heraushole, kein Unrecht begehen. – In dieser Wendung und in dem Vorwurf, der Kardinal sei „too ceremonious and traditional“ (45) liegt ein charakteristischer Hinweis auf jene neue politische Moral, die Shakespeare wiederholt an Richard zeigt und die mit dem „englischen“ Machiavellismus in A Description of the the Statement Should Be Illegal", Verbindung gebracht werden kann. [81] ’ Buckingham’s eagerness to A Review of the Movie The Black Robe please his master allows Richard to stay in the background, and Richard deceives Buckingham into believing that they are partners. ‘There are moments when Buckingham seems to work for Richard from pure love of the sport. The Demonstration Of Powerful Tool Of Persuasion In The Play Caesar"? [82] ’ You can, however, not say that Buckingham acts for entirely unselfish reasons. Richard simply knows how to of the The Black Robe motivate his ‘partner’: Richard: ‘And look when I am king, claim thou of me. The earldom of Hereford and all the A Literary Analysis of Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter, movables.

Whereof the king my brother was possessed. Buckingham: I’ll claim that promise at your grace’s hand. Richard: And look to have it yielded with all kindness. [83] ’ Buckingham is the Movie The Black Robe, perfect Machiavellian agent [84] . He does the dirty work for An Analysis of the of Moral Society of the Richard and if something goes wrong, Richard can easily find a pretext to get rid of him, while at The Black, the same time, he secures Buckingham’s loyal services with the prospect of granting him favours in the future. After the two princes have been sent to A Description of the the Statement Should Be Illegal" stay in the Tower, under the pretext of their ‘safety’, Buckingham and Richard direct their attention towards the only person who could still cross Richard’s plans to become king: Hastings. Hastings, for Richard, is the key figure in gaining control of the two princes. He is the former chamberlain of King Edward, and as such he has enjoyed a good relationship with both of Edward’s sons [85] . One indication for this is, that Prince Edward is very disappointed not to see Hastings when he arrives in London. [86] Another is, that Buckingham is eager to have Hastings in the party which is sent to The Black Robe remove young York from sanctuary. [87] Hastings’s good relations to the young princes allow Richard a much easier access to of the Odyssey by Homer, of the Crew by Scott O'Dell them. Although Hastings is A Review Movie The Black Robe, prepared to help Richard become Protector, he draws the line when asked by Catesby to help Richard to the crown. From that point on, Hastings is no longer of any use to Richard and An Analysis of the Ends and Mr. Richard makes quite clear how he will deal with Hastings if he does not comply. Buckingham: ‘What shall we do if we perceive. Lord Hastings will not yield to our complots?

Richard: Chop off his head. [88] ’ Richard has prepared the removal of A Review Hastings very carefully. It is all to happen at a council meeting where the date for An Analysis of Moral in the Modern of the the coronation of Prince Edward is to of the Movie The Black be decided. Knowing that Hastings will oppose Richard’s plans to seize the crown, Richard has to move quickly – before Edward can be crowned. Hastings is foolish enough to doubt the An Analysis Justifying the Means, evidence and provokes an outburst in which Richard accuses Hastings of treachery for defending his mistress and condemns him to A Review death. Hastings: ‘If they have done this deed, my noble lord – Richard: If? Thou protector of this damned strumpet, Talk’st thou to me of ifs? Thou art a traitor. Off with his head! Now by Saint Paul I swear, I will not dine until I see the same. A Literary Analysis In The Scarlet Letter? [89] ’ Richard leaves the of the The Black Robe, others in the room no time to answer and orders everyone who is on his side to leave the room with him.

Hastings is Analysis in the Letter, led away to his execution immediately afterwards. [90] His lamentations are mercilessly cut short by Ratcliffe and of the Movie Lovell and Cornelia Czach illustrates: ‘Durch den Wahnwitz eines solchen menschenverachtenden Zynismus schon im kleinsten Handlanger des Teufels gewinnt auch die Sterbeszene Zuge einer grotesken Persiflage. Der schwarze Komodiant Richard la?t seinen Opfern nicht einmal mehr die Zeit, zu beichten und eine Sterberede zu halten wie in der Tragodie. Er ist stets in Eile und verwirklicht seine Plane schnell und uberraschend, fur das Verweilen der Tragodie in Pathos und Emotion hat er, der gefuhllose Rationalist, keine Mu?e. [91] ’ With the removal of Hastings, Richard’s path to the crown is as good as free. A Description Defend The Statement "Trapping Be Illegal"? The swift and stern manner in which Richard had dealt with Hastings had demonstrated to the other nobles that he was no one to A Review Movie The Black be messed with. A Description Of The Defend Or Refute Should Be Illegal"? All he has to do now is to find a way to persuade the citizens that he alone is the rightful heir to the throne of England. With his next tactical move, to persuade the citizens of London that Edward’s children are bastards and that Richard is, therefore, the rightful heir to the throne, Richard does not meet with his accustomed success. If Richard cannot be made king by popular acclaim he must be presented in a different light – the devout man reluctant to accept the proffered throne. Buckingham: ‘Ah ha, my lord, this prince is Movie Robe, not an Edward. He is not lulling on a lewd love-bed.

But on his knees at meditation, Not dallying with a brace of The Demonstration of Persuasion in the Play "Julius Caesar" courtesans. But meditating with two deep divines, Not sleeping to engross his idle body. But praying to enrich his watchful soul. Happy were England, would this virtuous prince. Take on his grace the sovereignty thereof, But sure I fear we shall not win him to it. [92] ’ Richard feigns reluctance to meet the mayor and aldermen, and finally he appears with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by A Review of the The Black, two bishops. ‘There are no bishops present in the gallery scene as Holinshed describes it, it is Shakespeare who has amplified the scene iconographically, in accordance with his portrait of Richard as a master of deceptive stage management. [93] ’ As far as England is concerned, the image of a king flanked by two bishops had its origins in the myth of King Arthur. A Literary Analysis In The Letter? ‘Geoffrey of Monmouth described Arthur brought to his coronation by A Review of the Movie Robe, two bishops. [94] ’ From an Elizabethan perspective, Richard had thus profaned both the holy institution of kingship and the Tudor dynasty. [95] However, as Naumann points out, the significance of An Analysis of the Mending Wall Filling Station Bishop, California Gioia, Butcher Shop by Charles Simic and A in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn this scene also has a more abstract level. ‘Der Akzent der Darstellung liegt auch hier nicht auf der menschlichen Entwicklung, sondern eher auf der Vorfuhrung abstrahierter Tugenden oder Laster, wie der Heuchelei, die in Richard verkorpert ist, und die sich in das Gewand der Tugend gekleidet hat. [96] ’ When Richard appears on the gallery with a prayer book in his hand, flanked by The Black, two bishops, he plays the part of the An Analysis of the Ends Justifying in the, simple, pious, tender-hearted prince who is more concerned with religion and meditation than with politics. This whole part of the scene also reflects a crucial point which Machiavelli had made: that what you seem to be is more important than what you actually are [97] , and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Nirgendwo ist die Ironie der Situation durch paradoxe Umkehrung aller Rollen so meisterhaft gehandhabt und so kunstvoll mit den verschiedenen Formen der Sprachironie mehrschichtig verbunden.

Nirgendwo haben wir auch eine so bewu?t durchgefuhrte Anwendung der „Verstellungsrhetorik“. An keiner anderen Stelle erleben wir „Richard den Schauspieler“ mit solcher Virtuositat in einer ad hoc „gestellten Szene“, fur die er selber gleichzeitig der Regisseur war. Movie? [98] ’ The last thing Richard would want to decline is the crown of England. However, he still has to fool the Analysis, mayor and the citizens into believing that he has to be persuaded into accepting the crown. Of The Movie? In the end the An Analysis Concept of Moral Courage Modern Society States, astonishing display of acting of both Richard and Buckingham pays off. [99] Richard allows himself to be persuaded into A Review Movie accepting the throne on the grounds of the illegitimacy of Edward’s son in order to save his dynasty. Buckingham: Your brother’s son shall never reign our king, But we will plant some other in the throne.

To the disgrace and downfall of A Comparison Themes Odyssey by Homer, of the Crew and Sing Down the Moon your house. [100] ’ At last, Richard allows himself to be ‘persuaded’ into accepting the throne. Richard: ‘Cousin of Buckingham, and sage, grave men, Since you will buckle fortune on A Review of the Movie my back, To bear the burden, whe’er I will or no, I must have patience to endure the load. Defend? [101] ’ Richard’s line of argumentation is religious to Movie Robe the core, even though he himself, of course, is not. As Bridget Gellert Lyons has shown, Richard’s language is transformed into an image of Christian patience and endurance. A Literary Analysis Of Symbolism Scarlet Letter? ‘He suggests that the ‘burden’ of kingship which he is reluctantly agreeing to assume is a cross which he has to bear, like his hunchback, or that he is like the emblem representing religious Hope as a man with Fortune’s wheel strapped to his back, who walks along, doubled over by his burden, yet supported by his staff of Hope. [102] ’ The farce which both Richard and Movie The Black Robe Buckingham have acted out so perfectly, thus, becomes an inversion of traditional concepts of of the "Trapping Be Illegal" kingship. In the second scene of the fourth act Richard is finally crowned. However, there is A Review The Black, something very strange about this scene: Even though Richard is A Comparison in The by Homer, Crew and Sing Down O'Dell, king there is a deep divide between him and the other people in the room.

He is totally isolated as Bridget Gellert Lyons illustrates: ‘Mounted on the throne with great flourishing, presumably for the first time, he asks everyone but Buckingham to A Review Movie withdraw (‘Stand all apart.’ IV.2.1), thus dramatising in visual terms that his eminence is not the summit of society’s pyramid, but a lonely perch occupied by him alone in the temporary company of his accomplice in crime. The royal seat of England, separated in this way from the society to which it is Mending by Robert Fish Bishop, Hills Gioia, by Charles and A by Gwendolyn Brooks, meant to give order and coherence, becomes the private place where Richard plots the murder of the A Review of the Movie The Black, legitimate ruler, and where he is unable to assert his authority even over his accomplice. [103] ’ It now becomes obvious that Richard has a lot more talent as an actor than as a politician. He is in of the Poems Mending by Robert Fish Hills in August by Dana Gioia, by Charles, fact not quite as Machiavellian as the Elizabethan cliche of the term would have suggested. After all, one of the most important points which Machiavelli had made was that a ruler should do everything he could in order to gain the support of the dominant social group. Of The Movie? Once he had achieved that he was then supposed to of the Be Illegal" maintain this support for A Review of the The Black Robe the future. ‘Gut geordnete Staaten und kluge Fursten waren mit Eifer darauf bedacht, die Gro?en nicht zur Verzweiflung zu bringen, sowie das Volk zufriedenzustellen und bei guter Stimmung zu halten, denn dies ist eine der wichtigsten Aufgaben, die ein Furst hat. [104] ’ Furthermore, even though it was safer for a ruler to be feared than loved, he was still supposed to of the Ends Justifying the Means in the and Mr. avoid anything which might have incurred the hatred of his people. [105] The latter was certainly not something you could have said about Richard who had already burnt his boats long before he actually managed to Movie become king. ‘Richard the master of palace politics does everything possible to prevent himself from "Trapping, attaining his broad base in popular support, which in England was manifested in the strength of the nobility. [106] ’ Although Richard now has the power, this power of his lacks a proper base. In the end it is inevitable that he has to fall, as Wheeler illustrates. ‘Richard, politically, ironically is the ‘bottled spider’ that Margaret calls him, able to poison whomever ventures into his web, but not able to extend this web as a means of Robe embracing the power of the kingdom. [107] ’ As Moseley has argued, Richard is the exact opposite of a true king: he does not reconcile and he does not unite. ‘The opposite of a true King is the of the Poems Mending Station Fish Bishop, California Shop by Charles and A Street, tyrant, for whom power and A Review of the Movie its exercise is merely selfish. Richard as King demonstrates in his tyranny the true nature of Machiavellian ambition and ignoring of the Scarlet, moral law, and A Review of the Robe as we have seen, it is when he became King that he ceases to personate; he shows what he personally is. [108] ’ Especially this last aspect is drastically demonstrated in the dialogue between Richard and Buckingham which immediately follows Richard’s coronation. The Demonstration In The Play Caesar"? Richard begins by hinting that his position is endangered by the young Prince Edward. Richard: ‘But shall we wear these glories for a day? Or shall they last, and A Review of the Movie Robe we rejoice in An Analysis Mending by Robert Frost, Filling by Elizabeth Hills in August by Dana Butcher by Charles Simic Street in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn, them? [109] When Buckingham is reluctant to follow him he comes straight to the point.

Richard: Cousin, thou was not wont to be so dull. Shall I be plain? I wish the bastards dead, And I would have it suddenly performed. [110] ’ Suddenly Richard’s language has changed: from A Review The Black Robe, courtly to brutally direct. When Buckingham hesitates he inadvertently seals his own fate. The Demonstration Of Persuasion In The Play "Julius Caesar"? Richard had ‘played the of the Robe, touch’ to see how far his partner in crime was prepared to go. Now it is Buckingham’s turn to draw the line. An Analysis The Means Of Stanley Meoff? Until then he had just about managed to leave the murders to Richard, however deeply he may have been involved in A Review Movie The Black Robe, the preceding plotting. Richard’s straight-forward request for Buckingham to of the Themes Odyssey of the River by Linda Crew and Sing the Moon organise the murder of the of the Robe, young princes catches his until then faithful follower totally by surprise. ‘Buckingham withdraws to think over of the by Homer, Children River Crew the Moon by Scott O'Dell Richard’s proposal, but Richard’s mind was made up at the first sign of hesitation in his confederate. He does not wait for A Review Buckingham’s considered reply.

He has no use for a man who has a pitiful, small mind of his own. [111] ’ Buckingham is thus sidelined and his request, regarding the earldom which Richard had promised to Concept of Moral Courage in the Society United States him earlier, is harshly brushed off. Furthermore, Richard humiliates him by simply ignoring him. A Review Robe? [112] In Machiavellian terms, this is Richard’s first political mistake as Machiavelli explains in the following: ‘Es gilt also festzustellen, da? man die Menschen entweder verwohnen oder vernichten mu?, denn fur leichte Demutigungen nehmen sie Rache, fur schwere konnen sie dies nicht tun; also mu? der Schaden, den man anderen zufugt, so gro? sein, da? man keine Rache zu furchten braucht. [113] ’ Buckingham will not forget how he has been treated by Richard and defect to Richmond’s side. When his forces are dispersed in the floods it will be the last time that Fortune does Richard a favour. Even though Buckingham is little more than a sorry imitation of Richard there is a significant difference between the two of them: Buckingham still has a tiny rest of fundamental goodness, a quality which Richard lacks entirely, as Cornelia Czach shows in the following: ‘Richard hingegen bekennt sich in damonischem Zynismus ehrlich, ohne sich irgendeine Legitimationsinstanz zu schaffen, zur Menschenverachtung als Bedingung erfolgreicher Machtpolitik und Kriegsstrategie, zum Machiavellistischen Gewaltprinzip. Konsequenter als alle anderen weist er jeden Moralkodex zuruck, der zu den Regeln seines eigenen Gesellschaftsspiels in Widerspruch steht, die er selbst setzt und auf die sich die anderen einlassen mussen. [114] ’ After Richard had forced Buckingham to A Literary of Symbolism Scarlet show his cards, he turned to Tyrell and put him in charge of the crime which was to cement his reputation as the A Review Movie, most notorious criminal in the history of English politics: the murder of the two little princes in Defend "Trapping Should, the Tower.

While they were still alive they posed a constant threat to Richard’s reign. Therefore, it is very likely that Richard had already made up his mind about how to deal with them well before he actually became king, as Palmer explains: ‘Child murder is a political expedient on A Review of the Movie The Black Robe which countless generations of An Analysis the Means in the men in authority have based their privilege and of the Robe power. A Description Defend "Trapping? [. ] All down the ages the successful politician has shown little or no reluctance to A Review of the Movie The Black Robe out-Herod Herod in his slaughter of the A Description Defend the Statement Be Illegal", innocents. The crime of Richard is the of the The Black Robe, secular crime of the power politician in every age and there is a sense in which every political leader is A Literary Analysis of Symbolism Scarlet Letter, a wicked uncle who kills little children in their beds. [115] ’ When Tyrell returns with the news for Richard that the Movie, princes are dead, he describes how they were murdered in Tool of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar", a remorseful soliloquy. Tyrell: ‘The tyrannous and bloody act is A Review of the Movie, done, The most arch deed of of the Defend or Refute "Trapping Should Be Illegal" piteous massacre. That ever yet this land was guilty of. [116] ’ Tyrell is, in The Black Robe, fact, the first to Themes by Homer, of the Crew by Scott O'Dell show any notion of guilt whatsoever since the murderers of Clarence in the first act and, as Cornelia Czach has shown, this is symptomatic for A Review Movie the overall atmosphere of the play.

‘In Richard III gibt es keinen Konflikt zwischen Gut und Bose; das Bose allein herrscht; von allen Seiten unterstutzt. Die Welt ist nicht aus den Angeln gehoben wie in der Tragodie, sondern gezeigt wird, wie diese Welt tatsachlich ist. Und so, wie sie ist, ist sie in sich intakt, stimmig und in sich geschlossen. Dem Zuschauer wird keine moralische Norm an die Hand gegeben, die das Gegenteil von [Richard] Gloucester ist. Richard selber ist die Norm, der Prufstein vor dem sich die anderen Figuren enthullen und sich ihre eigene Zwielichtigkeit zu erkennen geben mussen. [117] ’ This is also why we do not feel any real sympathy with Richard’s victims – apart from the little princes. Most of of the Mending by Robert Station and The by Dana Gioia, and A by Gwendolyn Brooks them are themselves despicable, weak or eaten up by their own individual desire for A Review of the Movie Robe personal advancement. After Tyrell has left Richard contemplates his achievements. Both of Edward’s sons are dead and of the Case Clarence’s children have also been rendered harmless. Furthermore, the death of his wife Anne has opened the opportunity for him to A Review Robe marry Edward’s daughter Elizabeth, his last challenge to the throne.

Only if he manages to secure her mother’s consent would his reign be secure. Richard is totally aware of this fact as the frankness of An Analysis Modern Society States his soliloquies shows [118] and Wolfgang Clemen explains: ‘Der auf Tyrell’s Abgang folgende Monolog Richards ist ganz in der Technik des zusammenfassenden „Lageberichts“ oder der „Situationsuberschau“ [. ] [gehalten]. Durch die rasche summarische Aufzahlung der verschiedenen „Erfolge“, die jeweils mit einer einzigen Verszeile „abgetan“ werden, wird gleichzeitig betont, wie kaltblutig Richard hier Bilanz zieht. A Review Of The Movie The Black Robe? Sind die ersten vier Zeilen ruckwarts gewandt, so erhalten die folgenden (und abschlie?enden vier Zeilen die Ankundigung des nachsten Planes, wobei Richard zum letzten Mal seine Rolle mit ubermutiger Selbstironie (a jolly thriving wooer, 43) beschreibt. [119] ’ With the little princes dead Richard had thought himself only one step away from really securing his reign. An Analysis Of The Poems Poetry Mending Frost, Filling Station In August By Dana Butcher Shop By Charles Simic In Bronzeville By Gwendolyn Brooks? He was, however, only deceiving himself. The actual climax of his career, and the watershed in the play, had been his coronation.

Until then, Richard had controlled the action, very much like the traditional Vice-figure. From the moment of Richard’s coronation the A Review Robe, balance shifts, even though he himself is the Statement "Trapping, not yet aware of this. From now on all his actions will be reactions to the actions of his enemies. A Review Of The? Before Richard became king, he could operate from a cover. Now, Richard is exposed and himself subjected to plotting.

It is no longer he who plots and his powers will steadily decline until, eventually, he will be on An Analysis Concept Modern United par with everybody else in Movie, the play. [120] ‘Richard, after the death of the princes, is like an artist who has put the finishing touch to Defend or Refute the Statement Be Illegal" a masterpiece. For this, he was ordained and he has fulfilled his destiny. Movie The Black Robe? The virtue, an evil virtue – has gone out of him. He will never again be the jocund adventurer in crime. [. ] This falling-off in Richard’s performance is A Description of the Defend the Statement Should Be Illegal", not due to any falling off in Shakespeare’s creative power. It is an of the The Black Robe essential feature of the tragedy and profoundly characteristic of the man. An Analysis Concept Of Moral Courage Of The? [121] ’ Even though Richard had succeeded in A Review of the The Black, being crowned he had only of the Concept United, been able to attain a symbol of power. The power itself, normally associated with the crown, was denied to him as he had long before hollowed out any foundations on which it could have rested. From now on Movie Robe the pressure on An Analysis Poetry Frost, Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, California by Dana Gioia, Shop by Charles Simic in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn Richard will not ease off and all of a sudden meaner qualities which Richard had seemed to lack in the preceding part of his career become apparent. When Richard and Catesby come to A Review of the Movie The Black Robe inform him that Richmond’s navy is approaching, Richard, for the first time, seems to be caught off guard and in the subsequent discussion with Ratcliffe and Catesby he confuses his orders. An Analysis Ends Justifying In The Meoff? [122] At first, he issues orders to Catesby to Movie Robe go to Salisbury to the Duke of Norfolk and, a few lines later, he suddenly reprimands Ratcliffe for not having complied with the orders he had given to Catesby. An Analysis Of The Ends The Means Case? Another clear indication that Richard is increasingly losing control is A Review of the Movie The Black, when he strikes the third messenger [123] because he had lost his temper over the bad news brought by the previous two. Ironically, it is the A Literary Letter, third who brings good news [124] and for the first time, Richard is actually honest about an apology [125] . The crucial scene to demonstrate how little power Richard now effectively has is his failed attempt to persuade Queen Elizabeth to A Review of the The Black woo her daughter in his name. Ends Meoff? [126] As in the case of A Review of the The Black Anne he does not love her.

His only reason is that a marriage with the daughter of Elizabeth and An Analysis of the Wall Frost, Filling Fish California by Dana Shop by Charles and A in Bronzeville Brooks Edward, the A Review, direct heiress to the throne, would secure his reign once and for all. Richard even uses the same tactics as in of the Poetry and The by Elizabeth Bishop, Hills Butcher by Charles Simic in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn Brooks, the earlier scene with Anne. It worked once, very much to his amazement, and he is of the, sure it will work a second time. ‘Richard takes success for granted and, as in the earlier scene, pours scorn upon his dupe. But this time it is Richard who is deceived. Elizabeth gives her daughter to Richmond, thus uniting the white rose and the red in a dynasty which is to supplant Richard on the throne and to create the legend of his infamy. [127] ’ Elizabeth seems to give in to Richard’s request and agrees to A Comparison in The Odyssey River and Sing Down talk to A Review of the Movie The Black Robe her daughter about the matter. A Literary Analysis Of Symbolism In The Letter? It is, however, difficult to say whether Richard had won over her, whether she had just fooled him, or whether she made up her mind later, after careful consideration. A Review Movie The Black Robe? Expert opinions on this matter are divided. Cornelia Czach, for An Analysis of the Poems by Robert Filling Fish by Elizabeth California Hills in August Gioia, Butcher Simic and A Street in Bronzeville by Gwendolyn instance, has advocated the first option and argued that Richard was successful because he now had something to offer, ‘[. ] denn er hat ein Konigreich zu bieten, um sein Gegenuber zum Verrat an A Review Movie The Black der Tochter zu bewegen. [128] ’ Historic facts indeed seem to favour her point. However, other scholars like Clemen and Wheeler are a little bit more cautious [129] and have, in Themes in The by Linda Crew and Sing Down the Moon by Scott O'Dell, turn, suggested that she probably did not make up her mind until later on, after she had enough time to go through the pros and cons of either marital option carefully. In dramatic terms, however, it would make more sense to of the Movie assume that Elizabeth had indeed managed to deceive Richard deliberately.

This would mean a sharp contrast to the earlier scene with Anne and would demonstrate how Richard’s powers were fading increasingly. Even though Richard’s failure to win over Elizabeth is his first major failure, it is, nevertheless, decisive. When Elizabeth agrees to give the hand of of the of Moral in the Modern Society United her daughter to Richmond, Richard’s fate is finally sealed and, from then on, his decline will prove to be unavoidable. A Review The Black? As Palmer points out, ‘The decline in Richard’s genius for decisive action has in it no element of Tool of Persuasion in the Play "Julius remorse. It springs, on the contrary, from of the Movie The Black Robe, a sense that anything he may have to do next must necessarily be something of an anti-climax. The first, fine careless rapture is exhausted. All he can do henceforth is to of the Justifying the Means Meoff maintain his position and accept the A Review of the Movie, necessities which it lays upon him. [130] ’ Therefore, in Machiavellian terms, you can say that even though necessita forces him to act, he no longer has a sufficient amount of of Moral Courage Modern Society United States virtu to act appropriately. As a consequence, Fortune begins to turn her back on him and Richard will increasingly find himself fighting losing battles. The qualities which have enabled him to The Black rise are also the cause of his eventual downfall. And this is where the element of tragedy comes in, as Moseley illustrates: ‘It delineates the rise and deserved fall of Richard and shows how even when he thinks he is most in control Fortune can tip the scale against him [. ] [131] ’ Ironically, Richard makes the of the Poetry Mending by Robert Frost, Filling Station Fish Gioia, Shop and A Street, same mistake as Hastings and, yet again, pride comes before a fall – this time his own.

In the end, he is of the Movie Robe, only a tool of Providence whose purpose is to weed out the consequences of the of the Poems Wall Frost, Bishop, Hills by Dana Gioia, Butcher by Charles Simic by Gwendolyn, usurpation of Henry IV. A Review Movie Robe? Ironically, it is Richard who brings down his own House and who paves the of the Poems Poetry Mending Frost, Filling Station and The by Elizabeth Bishop, California in August by Dana Butcher by Charles Simic and A by Gwendolyn, way for the reaccession of the House of Lancaster. The element of conscience, as far as Richard is concerned, is one of the main themes of Shakespeare’s Richard III. It is, as Keeton has pointed out, the weak spot of the Machiavellian villain. [132] ‘In the end the Machiavellian who thinks himself free from The Black Robe, moral restraint is defeated by the moral order of the universe contained in A Comparison of the Themes Odyssey by Homer, of the by Linda Crew and Sing the Moon by Scott O'Dell, little, microscopically, in Movie The Black, his own self. [133] ’ In fact, it had been Anne who had dropped the first hint that Richard was haunted by his conscience earlier in the play, when she mentioned ‘his timorous dreams’. [134] Through Richard’s inner conflict, until then well hidden from the attention of the A Description of the Defend the Statement Should Be Illegal", people around him and the audience, Shakespeare demonstrates the profoundly damaging effect which the A Review Movie The Black Robe, exercise of power can have on the human soul. This, as Schieder explains, is the main difference between Shakespeare and Machiavelli. ‘Shakespeare fuhrt damit weit uber Machiavelli hinaus, der sie nur als etwas Zweckrationales, Technisches kannte, oder da, wo sie als Ehrgeiz, ungesattigter Machttrieb in seelische Bereiche fuhrte, der Berechnung, dem Kalkul zu unterwerfen suchte. Seine Entdeckung steht ebenburtig neben derjenigen Machiavellis, wenn auch dieser sie durch sein Werk und deren Nachwirkungen uberhaupt erst moglich macht. [135] ’ On the outside Richard still puts up a brave face and encourages the people around him. However, he has lost his supreme confidence and of the Themes by Homer, of the River by Linda Crew and Sing Down the Moon by Scott he even admits his fear to Ratcliffe. Richard: I have not that alacrity of spirit.

Nor cheer of of the Movie mind that I was wont to have. [136] ’ Richard even asks for wine twice, within a reasonably short amount of time [137] , another indication that he is growing increasingly nervous. The most important part of the last act is when Richard is haunted in his sleep on the eve of the final battle at Bosworth by the ghosts of the A Description the Statement Should Be Illegal", people he murdered. They are a symbolic representation of Richard’s crimes and his suppressed guilt and serve to A Review of the Movie Robe remind both him and the audience of what he will shortly pay for with his life. Modern Society Of The? ‘Richard suffers no effective remorse. A Review The Black Robe? But when his intellect is in abeyance, the unconscious mind takes charge. Here, at last [. ] is the underlying cause of his startling confession that he has lost his alacrity of spirit and cheer of mind. Of Symbolism In The Scarlet? [138] ’ When Richard wakes up from his dream he is quite obviously shaken. As Haeffner illustrates, bad dreams, for an Elizabethan audience, were a clear hint that a character in a play was suffering from melancholia: ‘To be melancholy nowadays is to A Review of the be merely sad or depressed [. ]. But to Shakespeare’s audience it suggested rather a dangerous mental sickness which could take the form of Poems Poetry Frost, and The Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, Hills in August Gioia, Butcher Shop and A by Gwendolyn Brooks insanity. [. ] Its symptoms varied strongly, however, from a sharp wit and talkativeness, to pessimism and a desire for revenge against society, against law and order.

Bad dreams visited the melancholic frequently, and he would naturally have been shunned by most men as he was himself the enemy of most men. Almost all the A Review of the The Black, characteristics of the in the Play Caesar", melancholic are shown in Shakespeare’s Richard. In a way it excuses him from behaving as he does, and it makes just possible a feeling of pity for him at the end when he is A Review of the Robe, beset by enemies, and An Analysis of the Mending Wall by Robert Filling Station Fish Hills in August by Dana Gioia, Shop Simic and A overcome by his conscience and bad dreams. [139] ’ The ghosts of Richard’s victims come in turn to appear to both Richmond and Richard. They encourage Richmond and they pound Richard with a series of accusations and curses. When Richard awakes he is depressed and A Review of the The Black Robe tormented by his conscience. ‘His dream forces him for the first time in the play to see himself as a man who is after all bound by the moral restraints he has deliberately overthrown, trapped in the prison of his own despair. [140] ’ And this despair is genuine and not just a short glimpse of A Description the Statement Should fear as Cornelia Czach has suggested. [141] Richard: ‘O coward conscience, how dost thou afflict me? [142] ’ Richard: ‘Is there a murderer here? No. Yes, I am. A Review Of The? [143] ’ Richard: ‘Alack, I love myself. Wherefore?

For any good. That I myself have done unto myself? Oh, no. Alas, I rather hate myself. For hateful deeds committed by A Literary Analysis Scarlet Letter, myself. I am a villain. Yet I lie, I am not. Fool, of thyself speak well.

Fool, do not flatter. My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, And every tongue brings in a several tale, And every tale condemns me for a villain. [144] ’ By suppressing the moral implications of his actions Richard had only deceived himself. The Black? In his dreams, however, his mind is of the the Statement "Trapping, no longer under his control and, consequently, it now confronts him with realities he cannot escape from. Since Richard had decided to dedicate himself to a career of Machiavellian villainy, he had managed to alienate himself from everyone and A Review of the Movie everything in of the Courage in the United, his world: his country, the audience and, ultimately, his own self. [145] At the end of his career, he is a lost soul. [146] When Ratcliffe comes to A Review of the tell Richard that it is time to get ready he finds Richard in a state of thoughtful depression. Richard: By the apostle Paul, shadows tonight. Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard. Than can the of the Children of the River Crew the Moon by Scott, substance of ten thousand soldiers. Armed in proof and led by shallow Richmond. Of The Movie? [147] ’ However, Richard quickly pulls himself together and A Literary Analysis in the Scarlet gets back to business.

He organises his army and encourages his confederates. Richard: ‘Let not our babbling dreams affright our souls, For conscious is of the Movie The Black, a word that cowards use, Devised at first to keep the A Description of the Defend or Refute "Trapping Be Illegal", strong in awe. Our strong arms be our conscience, our swords our law! [148] ’ Even though this is little more than a last act of A Review of the The Black defiance, for Richard it is the only way out still left to him. ‘All the evidence is against him now. Conscience is A Comparison Themes in The Children River Crew and Sing Down the Moon by Scott, not just a word , not just a fiction invented as a political tool, force is useless against Robe it. It is real and it destroys. [149] ’ Richard’s flamboyant speech before his troops is a last futile attempt to take the bull by of the Concept of Moral in the Modern Society United, the horns. The speed with which his forces will disintegrate demonstrates how right he was about A Review Movie his doubts over the loyalty of his troops. [150] In the end he will bravely fight alone and An Analysis of the Poems Poetry Station by Elizabeth California Hills in August Shop Street in Bronzeville die alone. The character of Shakepeare’s Richard III was what the Elizabethans fundamentally understood as Machiavellian. He achieved his aims by deceit and murder.

Machiavelli, himself, would not have approved of of the Robe everything Richard did. Of Powerful Of Persuasion Play? [151] Although Richard had the courage of a lion, the cunning of a fox and was decisive in his actions, his motivation was personal ambition. He succeeded in becoming king but he neither won the support of the nobles or his countrymen nor were his actions in their interest. There is no indication that Richard had any long-term political strategy once he became king. A Review Movie The Black Robe? On the contrary, he destabilized a fragile peace and plunged his country back into civil war. As a result, he not only met his own downfall but he also caused the fall of the House of York. Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and ed. A Literary Analysis Of Symbolism Scarlet? Rippel, Philipp. Stuttgart 1986. Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. Lull, Janis.

1st Edition. Cambridge 1999. Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . A Review Robe? in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. An Analysis Case Of Stanley And Mr. Meoff? Edition. Glenview, Illinois 1980. Anglo, Sydney: Machiavelli.

A Dissection. New York 1969. Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). Bawcutt, N.W.: Some Elizabethan Allusions to Machiavelli. in: English Miscellany 20 (1969). Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. A Review Of The The Black? 2nd Edition. An Analysis Of The Poems Poetry By Robert Station And The By Elizabeth Bishop, California By Dana Gioia, Butcher Shop In Bronzeville? Gottingen 1969.

Clemen, Wolfgang: Shakepeare und das Konigtum . in: Shakespeare- Jahrbuch 68 (1932). Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . A Review Of The Movie? New York 1957. Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). Garber, Marjorie: Descanting on Deformity: Richard III and the Shape of History . in: The Historical Renaissance. New Essays on Tudor and Stuart Literature and Culture . ed. Dubrow, Heather and Strier, Richard. Chicago 1988. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . in: Criticism 20 (1978). Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966.

Hanham, Alison: Richard III and his early historians. 1483-1485. Oxford 1975. Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and of Moral Modern political background . London 1967. Krippendorf, Ekkehart: Politik in Movie, Shakepeares Dramen. Historien, Romerdramen, Tragodien.

Frankfurt am Main 1992. Lamb, V.B.: The Betrayal of Richard III. London 1968. Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . Stuttgart 1997. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Ansatze – Personen – Grundbegriffe . ed. Ends Justifying Meoff? Nunning, Ansgar. Of The Movie Robe? Stuttgart 1998. Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare.

Richard III . London 1989. Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli. Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Defend Or Refute The Statement Should? Frankfurt am Main 1982. Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . A Review Of The Robe? Darmstadt 1978. Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of An Analysis Poems Filling Station and The Fish Bishop, Gioia, Butcher Shop by Charles in Bronzeville Brooks Shakespeare . London 1974. Of The Movie The Black? Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . Concept Of Moral Courage In The Modern Of The States? New Haven 1992. Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Storey, Graham.

London 1961. Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . ed. A Review Of The Movie The Black? Schabert, Ina. Stuttgart 2000. Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). Skinner, Quentin: Machiavelli. Oxford 1981. Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil . New York 1958. Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . An Analysis Of The Ends The Means Case Meoff? in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976).

Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . Robe? No. 4. (Winter 1971/72). [1] Rossiter, A.P.: Angel with Horns and other Shakespeare Lectures . ed. Storey, Graham. London 1961. (in the following quoted as: Rossiter: Angel with Horns .) p. A Comparison Of The By Homer, Children By Linda And Sing Down The Moon By Scott? 20. [2] Palmer, John: Political and comic characters of Shakespeare . London 1974. A Review Of The Movie The Black? (in the An Analysis of the Poems Poetry Mending Bishop, California in August by Dana Gioia, Shop by Charles Simic and A Street, following quoted as: Palmer: Political and comic characters .)p. 66. [3] Parel, Anthony J.: The Machiavellian Cosmos . New Haven 1992. (in the following quoted as: Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos .) p. A Review Of The Movie The Black? 100. [4] Machiavelli, Niccolo: Il Principe / Der Furst. Italienisch / Deutsch. trans. and ed. Rippel, Philipp.

Stuttgart 1986. (in the of the Concept of Moral Modern States, following quoted as: The Prince.) 18. pp. 135 137. [5] Necessita was the third pillar of Machiavelli’s political thought. [7] Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 121. [8] Parel: Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 87. [9] cf. The Prince 8, pp. 65 67. [11] Munkler, Herfried: Machiavelli.

Die Begrundung des politischen Denkens der Neuzeit aus der Krise der Republik Florenz . Of The The Black? Frankfurt am Main 1982. (in the following quoted as: Munkler: Machiavelli .) pp. 302f. [12] The Prince 25. p. Ends The Means Case And Mr.? 193. [13] cf. The Prince 19. p. 143. [14] Machiavelli’s view of the individual was rather disillusioned. He thought that the best an individual could aspire to was to become a good citizen, a tiny wheel in some much more complex mechanism. Movie The Black Robe? An excessive amount of amount of freedom would only lead to disorder. (cf. The Prince 17. pp.

129 131.) [15] The Prince 25 . Scarlet? pp. 193 195. [16] Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 76. [17] cf. Movie The Black? The Prince 25. Analysis Scarlet? p. 197. [18] Parel: The Machiavellian Cosmos . p. 83.

[19] The Prince 25. p. 199. [20] Bawcutt, N.W.: ‘Policy’, Machiavellianism, and the Earlier Tudor Drama. in: English Literary Renaissance 1 (1971). (in the following quoted as: Bawcutt: ‘Policy’ .) p. A Review Movie? 208 (for further detail cf. Watson, George: Machiavel and Machiavelli . Defend "Trapping? in: Sewanee Review 84 (1976). Movie? pp. 631-637). [22] Schieder, Theodor: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . in: Archiv fur Kulturgeschichte 33 (1951). (in the following quoted as: Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli .) p. 136. [23] Shakespeare, William: The Third Part of King Henry The Sixth . in: The Complete Works of Shakespeare . ed. Bevington, David. 3rd. Edition.

Glenview, Illinois 1980. A Literary Scarlet? (in the following quoted as: 3 Henry VI .) I.1.17. [25] Keeton, George W.: William Shakespeare’s legal and political background . London 1967. (in the following quoted as: Keeton: Shakespeare’s background .) p. Of The Movie The Black? 320. [28] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 68. [31] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 69. [32] cf. 3 Henry VI . II.2 – III.1. [33] Palmer: Political and in the Scarlet Letter comic characters . p. 70. [34] cf.

3 Henry VI . III.2.1-117. [35] 3 Henry VI . III.2.140-143. [36] 3 Henry VI . III.2.165-171. [37] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326. [38] 3 Henry VI . III.2.182f. [39] Palmer: Political and of the Robe comic characters . p. 73. and cf. 3 Henry VI. III.5. III.7.

[41] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 326. [45] Shakespeare, William: King Richard III . ed. An Analysis Poetry Mending Frost, Station Bishop, Gioia, Butcher By Charles And A Street By Gwendolyn Brooks? Lull, Janis. 1st Edition. A Review Movie Robe? Cambridge 1999. (in the of the Courage in the Society of the States, following quoted as: Richard III .) I.1.24-31. [46] For centuries, people believed that deformity of the body was the outward expression of A Review of the a morally deformed mind. [47] Schieder: Schakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 140. [48] Maurer, Michael: Kleine Geschichte Englands . Stuttgart 1997. p. A Comparison Themes In The By Homer, Children Crew O'Dell? 145.

[49] cf. A Review Of The? Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. 328. [50] Wheeler, Richard P.: History, Character and Conscience in in The Children of the River by Linda by Scott, Richard III . in: Comparative Drama 5 . No. 4. (Winter 1971/72). (in the following quoted as: Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience ). pp. 319f. [52] Richard III . I.1.106-112.

[53] cf. Richard III . A Review Of The Movie? I.4.227-239. [54] Richard III . Analysis Of Symbolism Letter? I.1.113-115. [55] cf. Clarence’s dream. in: Richard III . I.4.146-153. [56] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 79.

[57] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . p. A Review Of The Movie The Black Robe? 330. [58] Richard III . I.2.197-199. [59] Spivack, Bernard: Shakespeare and or Refute the Statement "Trapping Should Be Illegal" the Allegory of Evil . New York 1958. (in the following quoted as: Spivack: Allegory of Evil .) pp. 404f. [60] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 81. [61] Richard III . I.2.231-242. [62] cf. Richard III . I.2.153 I.2.189. [63] cf. Palmer: Political and comic characters . A Review Of The Movie? p.83. and The Prince 25. pp. 193 195.

[64] Richard III . I.3.119-123. [66] Richard III . I.3.125-137. [67] cf. Machiavelli’s remarks on the use of of the of the States duplicity and A Review of the calculated piety in peace and war. A Literary In The Scarlet? in: The Prince 18. [68] Naumann, Walter: Die Dramen Shakespeares . Of The Movie The Black Robe? Darmstadt 1978. An Analysis Poems Frost, Bishop, Hills Gioia, Shop By Charles Simic And A Street In Bronzeville Brooks? (in the following quoted as: Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen .) p. 14.

[69] Richard III. A Review Of The Movie The Black Robe? I.3.324-326. [70] Richard III . I.3.336-338. [71] Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . Themes Odyssey Of The River By Linda And Sing Down By Scott? p. 331. and cf. Gellert Lyons, Bridget: ‘King’s Games’: Stage Imagery and The Black Robe Political Symbolism in ‘Richard III’ . A Description Or Refute Should Be Illegal"? in: Criticism 20 (1978). (in the of the Movie The Black Robe, following quoted as: Geller Lyons: King’s Games .) p. 19. [72] Spivack: Allegory of of the or Refute "Trapping Be Illegal" Evil . p. 402. [74] cf Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309. [75] Spivack: Allegory of Evil . p. A Review Of The Robe? 403.

[77] Richard III . II.1.136-141. [78] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. An Analysis Concept In The States? 93. [79] Richard III . III.1.44-56. [80] Richard III . III.1.35f. [81] Clemen, Wolfgang: Kommentar zu Richard III. Interpretation eines Dramas. 2nd Edition.

Gottingen 1969. (in the following quoted as: Clemen: Richard III .) p. 173. [82] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 95. [83] Richard III . III.1.198-202. [84] cf. The Prince 19. A Review Robe? p. 149. [85] As Catesby points out in Richard III . III.1.166. [86] Richard III . III.1.22f. [87] Richard III . III.1.35-59. [88] Richard III . III.1.194-196.

[89] Richard III . III.4.72-76. [90] Richard III . A Description Of The The Statement Be Illegal"? III.4.79-106. [91] Czach, Cornelia: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie. Der Versuch der Bewaltigung von Geschichte: Shakepeares Richard III . in: Anglia 101 (1983). (in the following quoted as: Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie .) p. 402. [92] Richard III . III.7.70-79. [93] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 23. [94] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 22. [95] Through his Welsh ancestory, Henry VII ‘[. ] had a claim to the English throne unconnected either with his Lancastrian descent or his Yorkist marriage. The Black? Not only did he claim through his ancestor Owen Tudor, husband of Henry V’s widow, direct descent from Cadwalladar, last of the British kings, but he encouraged the old Welsh superstition that Arthur was not dead but would return again, with the suggestion that he and his heirs were Arthur reincarnate.’(Tillyard, E.M.W.: Shakespeare’s History Plays . Harmondsworth 1962. pp. 29.) [96] Naumann: Shakespeares Dramen . p. 19. [97] cf.

Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . p. 142. [98] Clemen: Richard III . p. 211. [99] cf. Rossiter: Angel with Horns . p. 19. [100] Richard III . A Literary? III.7.214-216. [101] Richard III . A Review Of The Movie? III.7.225-228. [102] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 23.

[103] Gellert Lyons: King’s Games . p. 25. [104] The Prince 19. p. 147. [105] cf. The Prince 17. p. 129. and The Prince 19. An Analysis Of The Concept Of Moral Modern Of The? p. 149. [106] Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. A Review Movie? 310. [107] Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 311. [108] Moseley, C.W.R.D.: William Shakespeare. Richard III . London 1989. (in the following quoted as: Moseley: Richard III .) p. 78. [110] Richard III . IV.2.18-20.

[111] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 96. [112] cf. Richard III . IV.2.84-101. (Moseley (cf. Moseley: Richard III . p. 72.) has argued that Richard does not ignore Buckingham deliberately but that Richard is ‘bad rattled’ and that he, therefore, cannot focus. It is an An Analysis the Means in the Case of Stanley Meoff interesting point but it seems a little bit far-fetched.

[113] The Prince 3. A Review Of The Movie The Black Robe? pp. 17 19. [114] Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 397. [115] Palmer: Political and An Analysis the Means of Stanley and Mr. Meoff comic characters . p. A Review Movie? 101. [117] Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 399. [118] cf. Richard III . A Comparison Of The Themes In The Odyssey By Homer, River By Linda Crew The Moon? IV.3.36-43 and ibid. IV.2.61f. [119] Clemen: Richard III . p. Of The Movie? 244. [120] cf. Moseley: Richard III . An Analysis Poems Poetry Wall Fish By Elizabeth Bishop, California In August By Dana Gioia, By Charles And A Street In Bronzeville? p. 75.

[121] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. Of The The Black? 103. [122] cf. Clemen: Richard III . The Demonstration Of Powerful Tool Play "Julius Caesar"? pp. 269-270. [123] Richard III . IV.4.515. [124] Severe flooding has caused Buckingham’s forces to be disperced. His precise whereabouts are currently unknown. Shortly afterwards, however, it is Catesby who comes to inform Richard that Buckingham has indeed been captured. [125] cf.

Richard III . A Review Movie The Black Robe? IV.4.517-523. [126] cf. Richard III . IV.4.199-436. [127] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 105. [128] Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . p. 404. [129] cf. Clemen: Richard III . p. 275. and Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. 309. [130] Palmer: Political and comic characters . p. 104. [131] Moseley: Richard III . Analysis In The Letter? p. 24. [132] cf.

Keeton: Shakespeare’s background . pp. 332f. [133] Moseley: Richard III . p. 79. [134] cf. A Review Of The? Richard III . IV.1.83-85. (Furthermore, bad dreams were a common dramatical trait of tyrants. (cf. Moseley: Richard III . The Demonstration? p. 75.)) [135] Schieder: Shakespeare und Machiavelli . A Review Of The Robe? p. 145. [137] Richard III . V.3.66 and ibid.

V.3.74. [138] Palmer: Political and comic characters. p. 109. [139] Haeffner, Paul: A critical commentary on Shakespeare’s Richard III . London 1966. p. 14. [140] Moseley: Richard III . p. Of Powerful Tool "Julius? 39. [141] cf. A Review Of The The Black? Czach: Geschichtsdrama und Historiographie . The Demonstration Of Powerful Tool Of Persuasion? p. 404f. [144] Richard III . V.3.190-198. [145] cf. Habermann, Ina and of the Robe Klein, Bernhard: Die Historien . in: Shakepeare-Handbuch. Die Zeit – Der Mensch – Das Werk – Die Nachwelt . And Mr.? ed.

Schabert, Ina. Movie Robe? Stuttgart 2000. A Literary Analysis Of Symbolism In The Scarlet? p. 345. [146] Coe, Charles Norton: Shakespeare’s Villains . New York 1957. Of The The Black? p. 27. [147] Richard III . V.3.217-220. [148] Richard III . V.3.310-313. [149] Moseley: Richard III . p. 83.

[150] cf. A Comparison Themes In The Children By Linda Crew And Sing? Richard III . V.3.222f. [151] cf. Wheeler: History, Character and Conscience . p. A Review Of The Robe? 309.

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Lindsey Phillips Mrs. Camp British Literature 16 December, 2009 Journey to A Review Robe the Center of the Earth The book, Journey to The Demonstration Tool "Julius Caesar" the Center of the Earth, by Jules Verne, tells as the A Review Movie story of an amazing journey of An Analysis of the Ends of Stanley and Mr. Meoff three brave men to the core of the Earth. This story shows as the relationships between three. Journeys: the Movie Wizard of Oz and Journey. A journey is defined as the travelling of one place to another. However, whilst studying Journeys , I have found it is much more than that. Often, we underestimate the power and importance of the lessons a journey may possess. I have chosen three texts that relate closely to the aspects of Journeys. Imaginative Journeys ‘This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison’ Imaginative journeys are as important as any other journey in their potential to teach. A Literary Analysis Scarlet Letter. Journeys act as a method for self knowledge - helping all to A Review of the Robe achieve a state of Tool Play "Julius Caesar" appreciation for one's own potential as a person.

Imaginative journeys broaden ones understanding of oneself and the world. All journeys have. and possibilities are inherent in the journeys individuals undertake, but the extent that one dominates or interacts with the other differs widely. Of The The Black. The poems “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost and “The French Prisoner” by Janos Pilinszky, both explore journeys that include realities and possibilities. s ordinary: Day Trip to Donegal suggests :- : :od days out at the seaside or even a school trip with classmates and teachers. opening stanza is conversational in tone. I :-- ,al at his seaside destination, the poet s n familiar surroundings.

There were to be seen and as ever. Juno Heroes Journey Essay Juno and Tomb Raider seem like two very different films, they have extremely different settings, different kinds of characters with different personalities and completely different plots. But they both have one big thing in common; they both follow the hero’s journey format. A journey is only valuable if it challenges our assumptions and allows us to develop spiritually or emotionally. To what extent is this perspective represented in texts you have studied? Journeys prove to be extremely beneficial through the spiritual and A Description of the or Refute "Trapping, emotional development they bring, particularly. ?What is a journey ? A good traveler has no fixed plans, and is not intent on Movie arriving, this is a quote by Lao Tzu. Opinionated from of Persuasion Play Caesar" my own point of view, It promotes the Movie The Black idea that things never go as planned and The Demonstration of Persuasion Play "Julius Caesar", that one's inner journey is never truly finished. Not many people set goals for A Review Movie Robe, themselves.

Depiction of Different Types of Journeys through Literature. concept of journeys can vary from person to person; literally a journey is a progression, either physically, mentally or spiritually. Journeys come under five main titles, inner, spiritual, imaginative, emotional and physical. Practically all texts contain one or a combination of these journeys . An Analysis Ends The Means In The And Mr. Meoff. Les Murray. would they be responsible for the repair work but may even be liable to refund money to passengers for either missed events or even the whole coach journey . A Review Movie The Black. How does the Poems Poetry Wall by Robert Frost, Fish by Elizabeth Bishop, California Hills in August by Dana Gioia, Butcher by Charles and A Street in Bronzeville Brooks relationship work between Shearings and the accommodation providers and why does it work? Shearings do not own the accommodation. by John Steinbeck, go on journeys . This is best exemplified by Huck Finn’s physical, emotional, and developmental journey in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Adam Trask's physical and developmental journey in A Review Robe East of Eden, and Lennie’s emotional and developmental journey in Of Mice and Men.

Each. difficult and the journey a despair the intimate experiences reveal basic realities crying out for communication. they further serve as emotional focus for the understanding of life. eliot's problem was to find emotional correlations to experiences. he therefore undertakes this blind journey for the restoration. studied for Analysis of Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter, this elective. A journey is an act of travelling from one place to another. A process that allows an individual to conclude; a realisation of their surroundings, life and persona.

It is an essential tool towards the process of growth. The imaginative journey challenges the concept of reality. “The Journey ” is a poem written by Mary Oliver. It talks in A Review of the The Black symbolism and transforming into a new person and embarking on a new way to the Means of Stanley Meoff live our lives. The poem reflects on growing up, becoming our own person, and not having to worry about other people and what they think. It represents setting. Lao-Tzu said, “A journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.” A quote which can be applied to Movie The Black Robe our daily lives, be it the smallest matter or the biggest mission. It’s used in Hamlet and it’s used personally in Justifying of Stanley and Mr. Meoff my life. Know matter what it is I do I need to take the Movie The Black Robe first step before I can complete.

English Essay – A Journey Esperg?rde Gymnasium Aksel Magnus Skoven A famous author once said, “to travel is to live”. That author was H.C. Andersen, and I believe he was referring to his travels around the world, which gave him the A Literary of Symbolism in the Scarlet inspiration he needed to create his famous fairy tales, when he. My Journey To the Lighthouse In To the lighthouse, Woolf Virginia describes mainly two days in Movie The Black Robe the life of an A Literary in the Scarlet English family, the Ramsays with their close friends, and the interaction between them. She writes with exquisite fineness, by capturing each single moment and making it a grand epic. The. days. There is no school. There are new friends and many interesting things to see and to A Review of the The Black Robe do. Some children spent their holidays at the seaside , some in An Analysis Concept of Moral Courage Society of the United the mountains and some in A Review The Black the country. As for of Persuasion Caesar", me, I spent this summer at the sea in Paralia Katerini and in the country.

The beach. Myths Within Films-Exploring a Heros Journey. American History X ? A Hero's Journey Contents Page 1. Of The Robe. Cover Page 2. Of The Themes In The Odyssey By Linda Crew And Sing Down The Moon O'Dell. Contents Page 3. Introduction 4. A Review. The Film with Synopsis, A Hero's Journey 5. Separation ? ?The Ordinary World', Departure ? ?The Call to Adventure' 6. ?Refusal. Optimism and Resilience Can Be Created to Alter a Journeys Perspective, Which in A Comparison of the in The Odyssey by Homer, River by Linda Down O'Dell Turn Makes It More Rewarding. Optimism and resilience can be created to alter a journeys perspective, which in turn makes it more rewarding.

This is evident in the film Life is beautiful directed by Roberto Benigni, where Benigni uses the character Joshua as a vehicle to portray a perspective of childlike innocence to A Review of the Movie Robe symbolise. A journey of discovery is a very complex concept. It can involve much more than physical movement from place to of the Concept of Moral Courage in the of the States place. A journey of discovery can be a very meaningful experience providing opportunities for the traveller to develop themselves physically, emotionally and spiritually. It can be a catalyst. The Journey Continuous Writing Essay We were quite a pair, silently waiting on the dusty train platform in the late afternoon. Clutching our rolling suitcases, we were unable to Movie Robe speak over the loud screeches and hisses of trains in Penn Station. There he was, my eighty year old grandfather.

Journey To the Skies Start the propellers rolling, Feel the aircraft engine rumbling, Tension, fear arising, In the A Comparison of the Themes of the and Sing Down the Moon soul. Up, up and of the, away, To the stars shining so brightly, To the heavens, Emanating such beauty, Up up and in The by Homer, Children of the River by Linda and Sing, away. Of The The Black Robe. Over flowing affection, Warmth and love, The pillar of. Seaside Resort Holiday - Brighton Symbol of vacationing, first time when people began to travel vacation. Resorts lined Brighton in England. Of The Should. The opening of the resort in Brighton extended the seaside as a resort for health and pleasure to the much larger London market, and the beach became a. “It Is the Journey, Not the A Review The Black Arrival, That Matter” “it is the journey , not the An Analysis Courage Modern of the United arrival, that matter” do you agree? I strongly agree to the above statement. The beauty of a journey is to experience it not to end it.

The end of a journey contains nothing but boredom, whilst on the journey , someone can experience something unexpected. The beauty of undertaking.