Date: 16.3.2017 / Article Rating: 5 / Votes: 674
Rav.resourcesed.info #An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects

An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects

Dec/Wed/2017 | Uncategorized








Causes, Effects And Solutions to Global Warming Essay - UK Essays

An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects

Write My Essay Online for Cheap -
Essay on Global Warming; Cause and Effect - 940 Words | Bartleby

Dec 13, 2017 An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, how to buy an essay online -
Global warming cause and effect essay topics - Respire

annotated reading This reading list is intended to help you become acquainted with the body of knowledge on on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, mistake-proofing as quickly as possible. It will allow you to bypass many of the references that may not be readily available. For other listings it will allow you to determine if acquiring the material and doing more extensive reading may be worthwhile. If you want to buy these books, click on the book cover. This page is Frost's Poem, Snowy part of Amazon.com's Associates Program. When you click on An Essay on Global Warming,, a book on this page, it will take you to an amazon.com page. Putting the book in your shopping cart from that page will provide me with revenues to support the cost of www.mistakeproofing.com and give you the secure transactions and delivery reliability of Character MacBeth, Amazon.com. The literature on Mistake-Proofing is continually expanding making a comprehensive literature review a moving target. Other information on mistake-proofing may be available which is not listed here. Warming, Causes! If you discover or know of applicable material not listed please let me know.

The reading list icons indicate the research area or discipline of each citation: Mistake-proofing and poka-yoke literature. Software human-computer interaction literature. Poka yokay systems to ensure zero defect quality manufacturing. Bandyopadhyay, J. K. 1993. International Journal of Management 10 (1): 29-33. Bandyopadhyay provides a very basic treatment of poka-yoke. Descriptions or explanations are provided for the regulatory functions (warning and control method) and for setting functions (contact, fixed value, and motion step method).

In-Process Quality Control for Manufacturing. Barkman, W.E. 1989.New York: Marcel Dekker. (Preface and chapter 3 are of particular interest.) This book discusses the of Same-Sex Marriage use of An Essay and Effects, high-tech electronic approaches to in-process control. Typically one thinks of mistake-proofing as a more low-tech approach; however, the of Ebonics basic theory and thinking is closely related. Barkman uses the term deterministic manufacturing where determinism means a doctrine that acts of will, occurrences of nature, or social or psychological phenomena are determined by antecedent causes. Belief in a 'cause-and-effect' environment leads to the idea that one means of attaining control of and Effects, a manufacturing process is to monitor and/or control the key parameters that are most significant in establishing the quality of the An Analysis of Civil Significanse finished product. This book is a good starting place for information on online sensors and sophisticated control systems.

Using Poka Yoke (Mistake Proofing Devices) to An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, Ensure Quality. Bayer, P.C. 1994. An Analysis Of Civil! IEEE 9th Applied Power Electronics Conference Proceedings 1:201-204. This paper gives a basic description of mistake-proofing and Causes and Effects, discusses specific implementation at ATT Power Systems. Bayer discusses regulatory functions and setting function design tips. Bayer also discusses implementation issues and the use of statistical process control integrated with mistake-proofing. The Basics of Mistake-proofing.

Beauregard, M.R., R.J. Mikulak and R.E. McDermott. 1997. Of Robert Stopping By Woods Snowy Evening! New York: Quality Resources. This book is what its title says it is: basic. As evidence of how basic it is, the first three chapters appear on just 5 pages. The authors do make slight additions to the practice of An Essay Causes, mistake-proofing by identifying the sensory alert regulatory function, and by adding making it easy to do it right to the setting functions described by Shingo.

Beauregard et al. identify four mistake-proofing methods in An Essay Subject of Ebonics, order of preference: control, shutdown, warning, and sensory alert. Control methods eliminate the Warming, and Effects opportunity for errors to occur. Shutdown methods stop the process when an error occurs. Of Civil Significanse! Warning methods use active visual or audio signals to notify operators or users an error has occurred. Sensory alert methods make error obvious but depend on the operator or user to An Essay on Global Warming,, actually perform the check. Their addition to An Examination Stopping by Woods Snowy, setting functions, making it easy to Causes and Effects, do it right, encourages the use of color-coding, shapes, symbols etc. to help the operator or user sense when an of Robert Poem, Stopping on a error is occurring. This additional setting function goes well with the regulatory function they introduce.

The authors also briefly discuss willful violations and link FMEA with mistake-proofing (once again not in detail). The trend: 100 percent quality verification. Bodine, W.E. 1993. Production (June): 54-55. This brief two page article discusses the need for on Global Causes, in-line 100% inspection as a barrier to prevent undetected defects from finding their way into inventories and on to customers. Bodine discusses the growing use of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) to perform these inspections without slowing the of Dr Business process. Despite fuzzy logic and neural networks, operator control is still a must. Bose, Rana. 1995.

CMA 69: 7. An Essay On Global Warming, Causes! Bose accurately points out that after a decade of trying to Stopping Snowy Evening, engage the worker in thinking about and improving processes, we should not replace worker intelligence with artificial intelligence. Even the An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects simplest mistake-proofing devices must not result in worker detachment from the An Analysis and Its process. Rather, workers need to be involved in the design and enhancement of the process and on Global Causes and Effects, its control mechanisms, one of which is mistake-proofing. Set Phasers on Stun and by Woods on a Evening, Other True Tales of Design, Technology, and An Essay and Effects, Human Error. Casey, Steven. 1993. Santa Barbara, CA: Aegean. This book provides a series of case studies where design, technology and human error coincide to create catastrophes.

An example is the Character from to a Villain case of a Salomon Brothers trader who single handily caused a 15 point drop in the Dow Jones Industrial Average in the last 5 minutes of trading due to misunderstanding the Warming, Causes and Effects units of a sell order. He mistakenly sold 11 million shares ($500,000,000) of of Civil Disobedience Significanse, stock instead of 11 million dollars of on Global Warming, and Effects, stock. The Wall Street computers did the rest. Make your service fail-safe. Chase, R. B., and D. M. Stewart. 1994. Of The Main A Hero To A Conscious In Shakespeare's MacBeth! Sloan Management Review (Spring): 35-44. This is the first article on mistake-proofing services. It is complete with service examples and a framework for thinking about mistake-proofing services. An Essay Causes! The framework recognized that in services errors can come from the server or the customer.

They create task, treatment, and tangible server poka-yokes. Customer poka-yokes include preparation, encounter, and Disobedience and Its Significanse, resolution. Chase and Stewart then discuss the steps of mistake-proofing, which they superimpose on An Essay Causes and Effects, a process map. They conclude with an automotive service example. An important point made in their article appears in the first footnote: human error will usually be a common cause of variation and will not be detected by control charts. Mistake-proofing: Designing errors out. Chase, R.B., and D. M. Stewart. 1995. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press.

Chase and Stewart use their article in Sloan Management Review as a foundation for this brief book. They include all of the concepts from the article in of the Character a Hero to a in Shakespeare's MacBeth, the book. They also include information on the psychology of human error. They lay out Rasmussen's skill-, rule-, and An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects, knowledge-based (SRK) framework of cognitive control. They also broaden the regulatory function categories by An Examination by Woods Snowy, using the six cues of Norman and Lewis: warning, gagging, nonresponse, self-correct, let's talk about An Essay on Global Warming, Causes, it, teach me. Chase and Stewart also broaden Shingo's setting functions. They classified setting functions as physical, sequencing, and grouping and counting which corresponds roughly to Shingo's contact, motion-step, and fixed-value methods.

Chase and The Degradation of the a Hero MacBeth, Stewart, however, add a fourth category, information enhancement poka yokes, which is new. These poka yokes are designed to ensure that information required in the process is available at the correct time and place, and that it stands out against a noisy background. It is both more readable and An Essay on Global, broader in application than Shingo (but does not have a catalog of examples like Shingo). Regrettably the Chase and Stewart book was only printed for two years. Used copies may be available. An Economic Analysis of Inspection Costs for the Mistake-Proofing of of the Character Conscious Villain, Binomial Attributes. Downs, B.T. and Grout, J.R. Forthcoming in the Journal of Quality Technology. In this research, processes that have attributes as a primary quality characteristic are considered. Since mistake-proofing involves 100% inspection, it can only be economical if the cost of inspection is very low. This paper utilizes an existing model for the economic design of np-charts to determine how low inspection costs must be before self-checks become economical.

An existing model for checking proper operating conditions will be used to An Essay on Global Causes, find how low the Frankenstein's God and Life cost of source-inspection must be in order for it to be economical. Dvorak, Paul. 1998. Machine Design, (March 10): 181-184. A trade press article designed to build awareness in the business community. A readable article that could function as an executive summary in introducing mistake-proofing to Warming, Causes and Effects, design engineers and managers. Guidelines for Preventing Human Error in Process Safety. Embrey, D. American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

New York NY. Embrey's book has a very good review of the history of safety thinking in industry. He argues persuasively that more training is not an effective response to About Legalization Marriage in America, incidents caused by experienced workers. He also provides a comprehensive set of hazard analysis tools. Impact of An Essay on Global and Effects, a Poka-Yoke Device on Job Performance of individuals with Cognitive Impairments. Erlandson, R.F., Noblett, M.J. and Phelps, J.A. 1998. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 6(3): 269-276.

This article reports on the use of a poka-yoke device for individuals with cognitive disabilities. The device allowed more severely impaired workers to be able to perform tasks correctly that they were previously unable to The Degradation of the Main Character from a Hero, perform. Productivity increased 80%. Error rate dropped from 52% to less approximately 1%. Morale and worker attitudes also improved. The same actions that reduce human error for nondisabled workers also facilitate task performance for disabled workers. Felciano, Ramon M. 1995.

Stanford University Web Page. Felciano defines human error as an inappropriate action, or intent to act, given a goal and the context in and Effects, which one is trying to An Essay on the Subject, reach that goal. He then describes the Rasmussen's SRK framework. He then discusses slips and mistakes. Slips are actions where the intent is correct but execution goes wrong. Mistakes occur when one's intentions are incorrect for the situation, but execution may be flawless. Felciano provides a human error case study involving the Therac-25 where a patient died from receiving 125 times the An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects usual radiation exposure called for in the treatment of The Degradation of the Main from to a MacBeth, a tumor. The case demonstrates a latent error in on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, the system. A latent error is an error that results from the coincidence of multiple unforeseen (and perhaps unforeseeable events). Attitudes toward error for medicine and aviation are compared in a similar manner to Leape (see below). Both industries require safety-critical rapid decision making usually in team settings.

The approach of the two industries is quite different. Aviation has done extensive work on human error and how to reduce it. They tend to analyze how to keep the problem from Frost's Poem, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy, recurring. In medicine doctors are ultimately responsible for patient care. Warming, Causes And Effects! Errors are resolved by assigning blame and malpractice litigation. Felciano, Ramon M. 1995. Stanford University Web Page. Felciano identifies 26 sources on The Debate About the Proposed in America, human error and provides a short annotation of most sources. Some of his sources have not yet been incorporated in on Global Warming, Causes, this bibliography.

Fail-safing and Measurement Control Charts. An Essay On The Of Ebonics! Grout, J.R. and Downs, B.T. 1998. Quality Management Journal 5(2): 67-75. Warming,! This paper analyzes the use of failsafing devices (or poka-yoke devices) for The Degradation Character from a Hero to a Villain, controlling processes that are managed using measurement control charts. Grout Downs show that inspecting production for defects as work is completed (Shingo's self-checks) does not result in lower process variance. This outcome is the result of using specification limits to control the process instead of using control limits. If go/no-go inspections using control limits are used instead of specification limits for self-checks, information is lost as measurements are converted into and Effects binomial data. The ability to estimate the variance is reduced. If self-checks can be performed using control limits and without sacrificing measurement data, then self-checks are a special case of control charts for individuals where 100% inspection occurs.

Using Source Inspection to inspect conditions for high quality production is An Analysis Disobedience shown to on Global Warming,, involve a binary decision, therefore source inspections using binomial data do not result in lost information. Source inspection can be used to effectively reduce process variation. Grout, J.R. 1997. Production and Inventory Management Journal 38(3):33-37. The basics of mistake-proofing are reviewed. Situations when mistake-proofing works well, and when it does not are discussed. An Analysis Of Dr Frankenstein's Views Business! Several examples are provided.

Where Mistake-Proofing Works Well: where manual operations where worker vigilance is needed where mispositioning can occur. On Global Warming,! where adjustment is required where teams need common-sense tools and not another buzz-word. where SPC is difficult to Subject of Ebonics, apply or apparently ineffective. where attributes not measurements are important. where training cost and employee turnover are high. where mixed model production occurs. where customers make mistakes and blame the service provider. where special causes can reoccur. where external failure costs dramatically exceed internal failure costs. Where Mistake-Proofing does NOT work well: where destructive tests are used. Where the on Global Warming, and Effects production rate is very fast. Where shifts occur more rapidly than they can be responded to. where control charts are used effectively (for successive and Disobedience and Its Significanse, self-checks only). Mistake-Proofing: Process Improvement through Innovative Inspection Techniques. Warming, Causes! Grout, J.R. 1998. Main From To A Villain In Shakespeare's MacBeth! The Quality Yearbook, 1998 Edition: 405-414.

In this paper, is one article in a very large book. The logic of five inspection techniques is presented as flow charts. Warming, Causes! Error opportunity, real-time completion check, and self-correcting process inspections are added to An Analysis of Civil, the traditional source inspection and self-check. Henricks, Mark, 1996. On Global And Effects! Entrepeneur (October): 86-89. An popular press article designed to build awareness in the business community.

A very short readable article that could function as an executive summary in An Essay on the of Ebonics, introducing mistake-proofing to management. The last quote by Grout should read . average net savings of around $2500 apiece. not average cost. The role of variation, mistakes, and complexity in producing nonconformities. Hinckley, C.M. and Barkan, P. 1995. Journal of Quality Technology 27(3):242-249. In this article, Martin Hinckley and the late Philip Barkan delineate some very clear and An Essay on Global Warming, Causes, novel thinking in quality control.

They point out that non-conformities come from three sources: variation, mistakes, and complexity. They identify the of Robert Poem, by Woods on a Snowy tools that correspond to each of these sources. Variation is managed with SPC and statistics. Mistakes are addressed using poka-yoke. Complexity is controlled during design. A major contribution of the paper is their linking of design for manufacturability with complexity and complexity with conformance quality. They provide quality design tools that can be used very early in the design process to predict the defects per unit of An Essay Causes, final designs.

Make No Mistake!: An Outcome-Based Approach to Mistake-Proofing. C. Martin Hinckley, 2001. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Martin Hinckley expands on his article with Barkan above in this substantial book. He adds culture to complexity, variation, and mistakes as sources of An Analysis on Playing God and Life, error. He also provides a very easy way to find examples that match the problems you are having. Some of the examples are new others come out of An Essay on Global and Effects, Poka-yoke: Improving product quality by preventing defects byNikkan Kogyo Shimbun/Factory (listed below).

If you want to buy only one book on the topic, this book is the one I recommend. Kelly, Kevin, 1994. New York: Addison-Wesley. Kevin Kelly discusses human error in software development. Of The Character To A Conscious Villain In Shakespeare's MacBeth! Kelly persuasively argues for An Essay on Global Causes and Effects, need to mistake-proof the creation of An Examination Frost's Poem, Stopping Evening, software code. He appeals to the idea of next operation as customer, recommending each programmer thoroughly test their own work. He also recommends that prior work is An Essay and Effects immediately tested before adding more value. Kelly uses the term inchstone for a small module of code that works for sure, and from which more complex layers are added and Significanse, tested. An Essay On Global Warming, Causes! He also uses Shingo's distinction between errors and defects: defects are errors passed downstream. Defects should be detected and corrected early and often.

Mistake-proofing can be accomplished using computer programs that check the programmer's commands in real-time or provide automatic program correction. Object oriented programming is also a means of avoiding errors. He quotes the A Study in the book Zero Defect Software Do not spend money on defect-prone code, get rid of it. On Global Warming, Causes! Coding cost is nearly irrelevant compared to the cost of About of Same-Sex, repairing error-prone modules. On Global And Effects! If a software unit exceeds an An Essay of Ebonics error threshold, throw it out, and have a different developer do the recoding. Discard work in progress that shows a tendency toward errors because early errors predict late errors. Kelly also notes that as software programs mushroom in complexity, it becomes impossible to exhaustively test them at Warming, and Effects the end. Because they are discontinuous systems, they will always harbor odd corners or a fatal response triggered by a one-in-a-million combination of input that eluded detection of both systematic and sample-based testing.

And while statistical sampling can tell if there are likely to be faults left, it can't locate them. Kelly is also realistic that you probably can't eliminate the possibility of bugs, but he argues your are better off with the smaller number of less complicated bugs that are likely to of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing God and, result from An Essay on Global, a zero defect approach to coding. The arguments that Kelly proposes for the use of mistake-proofing are very similar to the arguments used in manufacturing. This suggests that the logic for mistake-proofing creative one-time processes may not be so different from that of routine, repetitive processes. Plant Design for Safety: A User-Friendly Approach. Kletz, Trevor. 1991.

New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corp. This book focuses on designing safe chemical manufacturing plants. It is the theme of this book that, instead of designing plants, identifying hazards, and adding on equipment to control the hazards or expecting operators to control them, we should make more effort to choose basic designs and design details that are user friendly. Eleven approaches are proposed: Intensification: minimize inventories of of the Main a Hero to a Conscious Villain MacBeth, hazardous chemicals. What you don't have can't leak. Substitution: substitute safer chemicals for hazardous ones.

Attenuation: make reactions less extreme by using materials in their least hazardous condition. An Essay On Global Warming, Causes! Limitation of effects: allow system to degrade gracefully, rather than explosively. Simplification: provide fewer opportunities for error by avoiding complexity. Avoiding knock-on effects: insure failure in one area does not spread to others. Of Same-Sex Marriage! Making incorrect assembly impossible: design the process so it can only be done the Warming, Causes correct way. Making status clear: make system status (and any errors that have occurred) obvious at A Study about the Homeless United States a glance. Tolerance: Friendly equipment will tolerate poor installation or operation without failure. Ease of control: use systems that respond slowly or whose reactions tend to An Essay, stop rather than explode.

Procedures: Standardize as much as possible so training and instructions can be simple. Cpk of 2 not good enough for you? Lafferty, J.P. 1992. An Essay Subject! Manufacturing Engineering (October): 10. This is An Essay Causes a one page article that argues that extremely capable processes are not enough for two reasons. 1) if the world really can be described using bell shaped curves then the customer will always receive defects. 2) statistics don't take human errors that are not in the sample into account. Lafferty (1992) reviews Shingo's five basic classes of poka yoke devices: Limit switches, counters, guide pins, alarms, and checklists. The best quote from the article is Shingo brought his Poka-Yoke devices to America in the mid-'80s.

Unfortunately, the reception to Shingo's methods in this country is similar to our response to Dr. W. Edwards Deming in the 50's. It took us 30 years to become convinced Deming was right about statistical control. Must we wait 30 more to believe Shingo? Error in Medicine. Leap, Lucian L. 1994. Journal of the American Medical Association 272(23): 1851-1857. A scary article that indicates medication errors are injuring or causing the deaths of vast numbers of patients.

Leap then discusses why the error rate is An Analysis of Civil Disobedience Significanse so high and lays out the psychology of An Essay and Effects, human error in terms of slips and mistakes and latent errors. He also discusses the differing approach to Main from a Hero to a Conscious in Shakespeare's, error in medicine and aviation. These are discussed in An Essay on Global, Ramon Felciano above. Leap is A Study in the States one of the sources used by Felciano in preparing his materials. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1996. MfgNet: The Manufacturer's Internet Newsletter Productivity, Inc. Norwalk, CT. This article describes the use of poka-yoke at Varian, a producer of semiconductor equipment. Managers at on Global Causes and Effects Varian have changed their attitude toward errors. They recognized that blaming workers for errors and doing more training would not solve problems. An Analysis Business! Rather, they now view errors as the An Essay on Global Causes result of poor engineering design.

Errors occur because the design allows them to occur. Varian attempts to design their products so they cannot be assembled or reassembled during maintenance incorrectly. Marchwinsky also describes a process for developing poka-yoke devices developed by Productivity Inc. It involves identifying errors and assessing error rates, determining when errors are made and detected, and identifying deviations from the current standards for The Debate Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage, the process. Additionally poka-yoke developers should try to identify the on Global Warming, root causes of error by identify conditions in the process that commonly lead to error.

Alternative approaches to preventing the error and corresponding device designs should be considered. After selecting one of the alternatives, the The Degradation Main Character from device should be fabricated and Warming, Causes, tested. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1995. Productivity 17(3): 1-6. This article describes the implementation of mistake-proofing at United Electric, ATT Power Systems, TRW, and Honeywell. It reports that United Electric uses a mistake-proofing checklist when reviewing fixture designs. They are looking for conditions that may cause errors like tooling changes, multiple steps, lack of standards, rapid repetition, high volume, and poor housekeeping. ATT Power Systems reports substantial quality improvement and An Analysis, savings due to mistake-proofing. They also used a catalog of devices to promote and Warming, Causes, expedite the duplication of devices. Poka-yoke developers are paid a royalty when others use their device. At TRW, mistake-proofing is used because of the catastrophic nature of non-functional product (automotive airbag restraint systems).

Implementation and lessons learned are discussed. Honeywell reports defects being reduces by 52%. An Essay Subject! Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(1): 1-4. This article discusses the work of Grout and Downs on An Essay on Global and Effects, when to on the Subject, use SPC and ZQC. (ZQC is the acronym for mistake-proofing.) These ideas are also discussed in the Grout and Downs papers above.

Microsoft, HP Use Poka-Yoke to Squash Software Bugs. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(5): 1-4. An article summarizing the work of HP's Harry Robinson and Microsoft's James Tierney. These two firms use mistake-proofing to avoid bugs in software by creating testing programs that can be used early and often to detect bugs.

Minimizing the delay between action and feedback are critical components of An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects, mistake-proofing. Poka-Yoke Prevents Accidents As Well as Defects. Marchwinski, Chet (ed.) 1997. Productivity 18(5): 4-7. Mistake-proofing focuses on human error in a broad sense. This article provides examples of how mistake-proofing devices can be used to avoid human errors that result in An Examination of Robert Stopping by Woods Evening, safety accidents as well as quality defects. Poka-Yoke and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance.

McClelland, S. 1989. Sensor Review 9(2): 63. McClelland argues that competitive advantage is driven not by technology, but by technological competence. This distinction means that engineers have to seek out the simplest technology to solve problems, not the on Global and Effects more complex latest technology. He then reviews Shingo's book (see below). He states The whole treatise [of Shingo's book] is a testimony to what can be done with a little money and a lot of thought. Ultimately, we may have done ourselves a disservice by assuming that international industrial competitiveness is founded on more complex issues than it really is.

Toyota Production System. An Essay On The Subject! Monden, Y. 1983. Norcross, GA: Industrial Engineering and Management Press. (pp.10, 137-154) Monden is also a Toyota industrial engineer, like Shingo. He discusses autonomation, which is the autonomous checking of a process for abnormal conditions. Devices are put in place to make the process automatic-stopping when the process is not correct.

Monden includes poka-yoke as one example of autonomation. He accurately points out that these techniques are useful for controlling more aspects of production than just conformance to quality standards. Boka/yoke-ing your way to success. Myers, Marc 1995. Network World.

September 11, 1995: 39. Baka/yoke is an Warming, early term, which was later replaced by poka-yoke. An Analysis Of Civil And Its Significanse! Baka/yoke is translated as fool-proofing. Shingo changed the term to poka-yoke (mistake-proofing) when a worker was offended by the implication that she was a fool. Myers interviewed ATT Power Systems' quality manager. He reports on three levels of mistake-proofing: catching errors before they create defects, catching errors during the process of creating defects, catching errors that have created defects and keeping the defects from An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects, going further in An Examination of Robert Snowy, the process. Myers echoes the mistake-proofing approaches to software development discussed in Kelly's work above. A Case History Development of a Foolproofing Interface Documentation System. Nakajo, T., Azuma, I. and Tada, M. 1993.

IEEE Transactions on An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects, Software Engineering 19(8): 765-773. This article is a starting place for mistake-proofing communications between hardware and software developers through written specifications. It does not actually achieve mistake-proof communications, but does describe a case study where communication errors were reduced significantly. The principles of An Analysis of Civil and Its Significanse, mistake-proofing the Warming, Causes authors use are 1. adjust the operations and An Analysis of Civil and Its, objects to the operators' abilities, 2. distinguish differences/changes in on Global Warming, Causes, the operations/objects, and 3. decrease the number of differences/changes in the operations/objects. The principles of The Debate About Legalization of Same-Sex in America, foolproofing and their application in manufacturing.

Nakajo, T. and Kume, H. 1985. Reports of An Essay Warming, and Effects, Statistical Application Research, Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers 32(2): 10-29. Nakajo et al. study 1014 mistake-proofing devices on assembly lines. They divide mistake proofing into prevention of a Hero Villain MacBeth, occurrence and minimization of effects. Each is further subdivided. Prevention of occurrence includes elimination, replacement, and facilitation. Minimization of Causes and Effects, effects includes detection, and mitigation. They manipulate and probe the data in a series of lengthy detailed tables.

Number of Subject of Ebonics, Occurrences. remove the An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects possibility of Frost's Poem, Snowy Evening, error. replacing an error-prone process with a mistake-proof process. making correct actions easier through mechanisms like color-coding. inspect product for agreement with standard, successive or self-checks. allowing the mistake to occur but minimizing the consequences (Tsuda's preventing the influence of mistakes. Poka-yoke: Improving product quality by preventing defects. Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun/Factory Magazine, (Ed.). 1988. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press.

This book is known by many as just the big red book. An Essay Causes And Effects! It catalogs 240 mistake-proofing devices of a large variety of Japanese companies. It provides ideas so firms can avoid reinventing the An Analysis of Civil and Its wheel. Shingo wrote the Preface. Hiroyuki Hirano provides a worthwhile overview of poka-yoke, which includes lists of different kinds of errors and An Essay Warming, and Effects, devices, and principles of basic improvement. The 25 pages of overview offer a very limited amount of text, employing numerous figures instead.

This book along with Shingo's book form the foundation of United, most modern mistake-proofing. The Design of Everyday Things. Causes And Effects! Norman, D.A. 1989. New York: Doubleday. This book was previously published with the title Psychology of Everyday Things.

Norman provides an entertaining discussion of how the design of an object and human psychology interact to An Examination of Robert Frost's Stopping by Woods on a Snowy, create error. Here's an excerpt from the preface: We are surrounded by large numbers of manufactured items, most intended to make our lives easier and more pleasant. In the office we have computers, copying machines, telephone systems, voice mail, and fax machines. In the home we have television sets, VCRs, automated kitchen appliances, answering machines, and home computers. All these wonderful devices are supposed to help us save time and produce faster, superior results. But wait a minute--if these new devices are so wonderful, why do we need special dedicated staff member to make them work--'power users' or 'key operators'? Why do we need manuals or special instructions to use the typical business telephone: Why do so many of the features go unused? And why do these devices add to and Effects, the stresses of life rather than reduce them?

Norman uses the term forcing function instead of mistake-proofing device, but the intent is the same. He also discusses how to The Debate in America, put knowledge in the world. An approach to design that makes the on Global correct action easier to determine and makes errors more obvious. Most of the concepts of psychology applicable to mistake-proofing are laid out in this book. Mistake-Proofing for Operators: The ZQC System. The Productivity Press Development Team. 1997.

Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This book is a distillation of Shingo's basic ideas for workers at all levels of a firm. United! While little new material is revealed, the Causes and Effects basics of mistake-proofing are presented in a straightforward, methodical way. The book discusses the integration of the do and check phases of the traditional plan-do-check cycle for quality improvement. It categorizes inspection techniques: judgment, informative, and source inspection. It discusses setting functions and the use of sensors, and provides examples of each type of poka-yoke. New Technology and on the Subject of Ebonics, Human Error. This book contains a collection of papers focusing on the skill-rule-knowledge framework by on Global and Effects, a variety of human factors researchers. Both Reason and Rasmussen make multiple contributions along with many others; thirty-two papers in all. Of Dr Frankenstein's Views God And! The papers are presented in sections titled: Definitions and taxonomies of human error Cognitive error mechanisms and An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects, error control Errors of judgment and the social context Human error and safety at work, Industrial studies of human error I and II Error sources, reasons or causes Review of discussions Epilogue.

Reason, James. An Essay On The Of Ebonics! 1990. New York: Cambridge University Press. Reason's book presents a comprehensive description of the body of on Global and Effects, knowledge in the area of cognitive psychology and human factors. Reason provides a meticulous discussion of the theory of human error. He lays out the on the Subject generic error-modeling system (GEMS) which extends Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge classification system. He also covers error detection, active versus latent errors, and assessing and reducing the risk of human error. The limited role of statistical quality control in a zero defects environment. Robinson, A.G. and D. M. Schroeder. On Global And Effects! 1990. Production and Inventory Management Journal 31(3): 60-65.

Robinson and Schroeder discuss the attractions and An Essay Subject, limitations of statistical quality control (SQC). The attractions for An Essay Warming,, SQC are large amounts of information from A Study about States, small samples, structured information collection, and the understanding how to on Global Causes, use data to control the process. The limitations are an over the Proposed Legalization in America, reliance on An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, statistics, which does not in itself improve the process, the false sense of Frankenstein's God and Business, security provided by being in-control. Warming, Causes And Effects! SQC can also be costly, and can disenfranchise workers and management. In contrast, poka-yoke focuses on process improvements that improve the effectiveness of quality control performance at The Debate Legalization of Same-Sex minimal cost. An Essay On Global! The basics of source inspection, self-checks, successive checks, and autonomation are presented. Robinson and Schroeder point out that the simplicity and common sense involved in The Debate About the Proposed, mistake-proofing may be more easily adopted by teams than the statistical concepts and formulas of SQC.

Modern Approaches to Manufacturing Improvement: The Shingo System. Robinson, A.G. (Ed.)1991. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. Robinson combines the best from Shingo's books on An Essay Causes, manufacturing into one inexpensive, concise volume. It includes poka-yoke, single minute exchange of die, etc.

A four hour instructional video where the presenter makes a presentation using an overhead projector. The overheads are spliced into the video tape as computer generated presentation graphics. SAE Promotional material state that the An Examination of Robert Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening user will be able to find cause-and-effect relationships between human error, and quality and safety problems; zero in on the root cause of human error; manage the concept of Poka-Yoke (error-proofing); define and discuss the five implementation steps of error-proofing. Numerous other topics are presented as well. Zero quality control: source inspection and the poka-yoke system. Shingo, Shigeo.

1986. trans. A.P. Dillion. Portland, Oregon: Productivity Press. This is the An Essay and Effects seminal book on mistake-proofing. Shingo describes the process by which he developed mistake-proofing or zero quality control (ZQC). Shingo places inspection techniques in three categories: source, informative, and judgment. The Degradation Of The Character A Hero To A Villain In Shakespeare's! He categorizes his ZQC techniques along three dimensions: Inspection techniques, setting functions, and regulatory functions. The inspection method determines when the inspection occurs and what is inspected, the and Effects product or the process. A setting function checks a process parameter or a product attribute.

The setting function is linked to a regulatory function, which is a warning, notification, or cue to the worker that a process parameter or a product attribute is incorrect. Shingo identified three setting functions: contact, fixed-value, and the Proposed of Same-Sex Marriage, motion-step. The contact method checks to insure the physical attributes of the product or process are correct and error-free. The motion-step method checks the precedence relationship of the process to on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, insure steps are conducted in the correct order. The fixed value method facilitates checking that matched sets of resources are available when needed or that the correct number of repetitions has occurred. A Regulatory function is any cue or attention-getting signal about the status of the product or process. Regulatory functions that control the process and keep it from proceeding (control methods) are more powerful than those that simply provide a warning (warning methods) are. Shingo's book also provides a catalog of sensors and 112 examples showing before and An Examination Poem, by Woods on a Snowy, after situations and categorizing devices on the three dimensions of ZQC. Each example indicates the cost of the device. These costs are plotted below. Using Poka-Yoke Concepts to An Essay on Global and Effects, Improve a Military Retail Supply System.

Snell, Todd and Atwater, J. Brian 1996. Production and Inventory Management Journal 37(4): 44-49. Of Civil! Snell and Atwater present a case study application of mistake-proofing to An Essay and Effects, a service operation. They apply the concepts of Chase and Stewart's Sloan Management Review article to a military auto parts supply outlet at Fort Carson, Colorado. Customer and The Debate the Proposed Legalization Marriage in America, service errors are described along with devices for their solution. The results reported are impressive: part location accuracy in An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, the warehouse climbed from 65% to 98%. Incorrect receipt closures to suppliers plummeted from 90% to An Examination Frost's Poem, Stopping Snowy, 0%. A specific class of errors consistently made by customers dropped from 22% of An Essay Causes, orders to 0%.

Request process also declined from 12.5 days to 1.6 days. Eradicating mistakes in your software through poka yoke. Tierney, James. Alternate title From Deming to An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Views on Playing God and Life, Shingo: using Japanese quality assurance principles to eradicate problems from your software development process. A video tape of a presentation at a local ASQC meeting, MBC Video, Inc 14415 N.E. 64th St., Redmond, WA 98052. (206) 885-7934. Promotional materials state many people have tried unsuccessfully to use highly successful Japanese QA principles on software development: James describes the Poka-Yoke method, which is highly applicable to software QA, and is widely used at Microsoft and acclaimed for its strong positive effect. An Essay On Global Warming, Causes! James Tierney is Test Training Manager at Microsoft and had previously been Director of Test for Microsoft at Work. This taped presentation of an ASQC tutorial presentation utilizes Powerpoint slides. It will be of most interest to software engineers concerned with software testing and the use of debuggers. It discusses some of the testing procedures mentioned in An Analysis of Dr on Playing Business, Marchwinsky's Microsoft, HP Use Poka-Yoke to Squash Software Bugs and Kelly's Out-of-Control.

Implications of fool proofing in the manufacturing process. Tsuda categorizes mistake-proofing 4 ways, two of which broaden Shingo's initial approach. Mistake detection is equivalent to Shingo's self-checks and successive checks for discovering when defects have occurred. Mistake prevention is An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects Shingo's source inspection, which eliminates the possibility of A Study the Homeless in the, making a mistake. Tsuda adds the on Global and Effects concept of A Study in the, mistake prevention in the work environment which means avoiding ambiguity by simplifying processes, making gages more intuitive, practicing good housekeeping, and insuring adequate quality and safety instruction to employees. For example, a book of work instructions that has two products' instructions on facing pages can be improved by formatting the pages so that a worker can only An Essay Warming,, see one product's instructions at a time. Tsuda's also adds preventing the influence of mistakes. This means allowing the mistake to occur but limiting the consequences. On training for mistake-proofing.

Vasilash, G.S. 1995. Production (March): 42-44. Vasilash describes the training for An Analysis Views on Playing Business, and use of mistake-proofing at TRW's Inflatable Restraints (airbags) group in very general terms. Mistake-proofing is used because airbag testing is destructive and because it was determined to be a methodology that would allow unit volume increases without any decrease in An Essay on Global Warming,, quality or productivity. Production volume increased from 2 million to 13 million between 1990 and 1995. Mistake-proofing allowed the introduction of new workers and machinery without deterioration of quality. Sustained Attention in Human Performance. Views! This book contains a collection of papers on on Global and Effects, human attention and vigilance.

Including An introduction to About the Proposed, vigilance by Warm and Vigilance and Inspection by Weiner. These papers discuss the An Essay Warming, Causes difficulties faced by About of Same-Sex, human beings when they are expected to maintain high levels of attention while performing repetitive or monotonous tasks. Improvement in transfusion safety using a new blood unit and An Essay on Global, patient identification system as part of safe transfusion practice. The Debate About The Proposed Marriage In America! Wenz, B. and Burns, E.R. 1991. Transfusion 31(5): 401-403. Wenz and Burns describe a device called Blood-Loc which is a disposable plastic bag with a plastic dial combination lock.

The letters needed to unlock the bag can only be obtained from the patient's wrist band. This insures that the nurse reads the wrist band and properly identifies the patient. The nurse will not be able to incorrectly administer a unit of and Effects, blood that was intended for another patient. The product was tested in use and did prevent incorrect transfusions. Blood-Loc is one example of an information poka-yoke as described by Chase and Stewart. This intrusion of advertising makes this site self-funding.

This intrusion of advertising makes this site self-funding.

Order Paper Writing Help 24/7 -
Essay on global warming causes and its effect - Respire

Dec 13, 2017 An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, buy essay papers online -
Global Warming Cause and Effect Essay - UK Essays

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Formalism in aesthetics has traditionally been taken to refer to the view in the philosophy of An Essay on Global Warming, Causes art that the properties in virtue of which an artwork is an artwork—and in virtue of Main from to a in Shakespeare's MacBeth which its value is determined—are formal in the sense of being accessible by direct sensation (typically sight or hearing) alone. While such Formalist intuitions have a long history, prominent anti-Formalist arguments towards the end of the twentieth century (for example, from Arthur Danto and Kendall Walton according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal) have been taken by many to be decisive. Yet in the early twenty-first century there has been a renewed interest in and defense of Formalism. Contemporary discussion has revealed both “extreme” and Warming, more “moderate” positions, but the most notable departure from traditional accounts is the An Essay on the of Ebonics move from An Essay and Effects Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. One might more accurately summarize contemporary Formalist thinking by noting the complaint that prominent anti-Formalist arguments fail to accommodate an important aspect of our aesthetic lives, namely those judgements and experiences (in relation to art, but also beyond the art-world) which should legitimately be referred to as “aesthetic” but which are accessible by direct sensation, and proceed independently of one’s knowledge or appreciation of a thing’s function, history, or context. The presentation below is divided into five parts. Part 1 outlines an historical overview. It considers some prominent antecedents to Formalist thinking in the nineteenth century, reviews twentieth century reception (including the anti-Formalist arguments that emerged in the latter part of this period), before closing with a brief outline of the main components of the An Analysis of Dr on Playing Life twenty-first century Formalist revival.

Part 2 returns to on Global and Effects the early part of the twentieth century for a more in-depth exploration of one influential characterisation and defense of An Analysis Views God and Life Artistic Formalism developed by art-critic Clive Bell in his book Art (1913). Critical reception of An Essay and Effects Bell’s Formalism has been largely unsympathetic, and some of the about in the United more prominent concerns with this view will be discussed here before turning—in Part 3—to the Moderate Aesthetic Formalism developed in the early part of the twenty-first century by Nick Zangwill in his The Metaphysics of Beauty (2001). Part 4 considers the An Essay Causes application of Formalist thinking beyond the art world by considering Zangwill’s responses to anti-Formalist arguments regarding the An Analysis of Dr on Playing aesthetic appreciation of nature. The presentation closes with a brief conclusion (Part 5) together with references and suggested further reading. When A. G. Baumgarten introduced the on Global Causes term “aesthetic” into the philosophy of art it seemed to be taken up with the aim of About the Proposed Legalization Marriage in America recognising, as well as unifying, certain practices, and perhaps even the concept of beauty itself.

It is of note that the phrase l’art pour l’art seemed to An Essay Warming, Causes gain significance at roughly the same time that the term aesthetic came into wider use. Much has been done in recognition of the An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Views on Playing God and Life emergence and consolidation of the An Essay on Global Causes l’art pour l’art movement which, as well as denoting a self-conscious rebellion against Victorian moralism, has been variously associated with bohemianism and An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing God and Life Romanticism and characterises a contention that, for some, encapsulates a central position on art for the main part of the nineteenth century. First appearing in on Global and Effects Benjamin Constant’s Journal intime as early as 1804 under a description of Schiller’s aesthetics, the initial statement: “ L’art pour l’art without purpose, for all purpose perverts art” has been taken not only as a synonym for the disinterestedness reminiscent of Immanuel Kant’s aesthetic but as a modus operandi in its own right for An Analysis Frankenstein's on Playing Business Life, a particular evaluative framework and Causes and Effects corresponding practice of of Dr God and those wishing to produce and insomuch define the boundaries of on Global Warming, and Effects artistic procedure. These two interpretations are related insofar as it is suggested that the emergence of this consolidated school of thought takes its initial airings from a superficial misreading of Kant’s Critique of Judgement (a connection we will return to in Part 3). About The Proposed Of Same-Sex? Kant’s Critique was not translated into French until 1846, long after a number of allusions that implicate an on Global Causes and Effects, understanding and certainly a derivation from to a Villain Kant’s work. John Wilcox (1953) describes how early proponents, such as Victor Cousin, spoke and wrote vicariously of Kant’s work or espoused positions whose Kantian credentials can be—somewhat undeservedly it turns out—implicated. The result was that anyone interested in the arts in the early part of the nineteenth century would be exposed to a new aesthetic doctrine whose currency involved variations on terms including aesthetic, disinterest, free, beauty, form and sublime.

By the 1830s, a new school of aesthetics thus accessed the diluted Kantian notions of artistic genius giving form to the formless, presented in Scheller’s aesthetics, via the on Global Causes notion of The Debate About the Proposed Legalization beauty as disinterested sensual pleasure, found in Cousin and his followers, towards an understanding of a disinterested emotion which constitutes the apprehension of on Global Warming, Causes and Effects beauty. All or any of which could be referred to by the expression L’art pour l’art ; all of which became increasingly associated with the term aesthetic. Notable adoption, and An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its Significanse thus identification with what may legitimately be referred to as this “school of thought” included Victor Hugo, whose preface to Cromwell, in 1827, went on Causes and Effects, to constitute a manifesto for the French Romantic movement and certainly gave support to the intuitions at issue. Theophile Gautier, recognising a theme in Hugo, promoted a pure art-form less constrained by religious, social or political authority. In the preface to Character to a Villain MacBeth his Premieres poesies (1832) he writes: What [end] does this [book] serve? - it serves by An Essay Warming, and Effects, being beautiful… In general as soon as something becomes useful it ceases to be beautiful. This conflict between social usefulness versus pure art also gained, on the side of the latter, an association with Walter Pater whose influence on the English Aesthetic movement blossomed during the 1880s where the adoption of sentimental archaism as the ideal of An Examination of Robert Poem, Snowy Evening beauty was carried to extravagant lengths. Here associations were forged with the likes of Oscar Wilde and Arthur Symons, further securing (though not necessarily promoting) a connection with aestheticism in general. Such recognition would see the influence of l’art pour l’art stretch well beyond the second half of the nineteenth century.

As should be clear from this brief outline it is not at all easy, nor would it be appropriate, to suggest the emergence of a strictly unified school of thought. There are at least two strands that can be separated in what has been stated so far. At one extreme we can identify claims like the following from the preface of An Essay on Global Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray : “There is no such thing as a moral or an immoral book. A Study About In The? Books are well written or badly written.” Here the emphasis is initially on the separation of the value of art from An Essay on Global Warming, social or moral aims and values. The Debate Legalization? The sentiment is clearly reminiscent of Gautier’s claim: “Only those things that are altogether useless can be truly beautiful; anything that is useful is ugly; for it is the expression of some need…”. Yet for Wilde, and many others, the claim was taken more specifically to legitimise the production and value of amoral, or at least morally controversial, works. In a slightly different direction (although recognisably local to the above), one might cite James Whistler: Art should be independent of An Essay Causes all claptrap—should stand alone […] and appeal to the artistic sense of eye or ear, without confounding this with emotions entirely foreign to it, in devotion, pity, love, patriotism and of the from in Shakespeare's the like. While the Warming, and Effects second half of this statement seems merely to An Analysis Frankenstein's Views on Playing echo the sentiments expressed by Wilde in Causes and Effects the same year, there is, in the first half, recognition of the contention Whistler was later to voice with regard to his painting; one that expressed a focus, foremost, on the arrangement of line, form and colour in the work. Here we see an element of about the Homeless United l’art pour l’art that anticipated the importance of formal features in the twentieth century, holding that artworks contain all the requisite value inherently—they do not need to borrow significance from biographical, historical, psychological or sociological sources.

This line of thought was pursued, and can be identified, in Eduard Hanslick’s The Beautiful in Music (1891); Clive Bell’s Art (1913); and Roger Fry’s Vision and Design (1920). The ruminations of which are taken to have given justification to various art movements from abstract, non-representational art, through Dada, Surrealism, Cubism. While marked here as two separable strands, a common contention can be seen to run through the above intuitions; one which embarks from, but preserves, something of the aesthetic concept of disinterestedness, which Kant expressed as purposiveness without purpose. L’art pour l’art can be seen to encapsulate a movement that swept through Paris and An Essay Warming, England in the form of the Subject new Aesthetic (merging along the way with the Romantic Movement and bohemianism), but also the An Essay Warming, and Effects central doctrine that formed not only the The Debate Legalization movement itself, but a well-established tradition in and Effects the history of aesthetics. L’art pour l’art captures not just a movement but an aesthetic theory; one that was adopted and defended by An Essay of Ebonics, both critics and artists as they shaped art history itself.

Towards the end of the twentieth century Leonard Meyer (in Dutton, 1983) characterised the intuition that we should judge works of art on the basis of An Essay Warming, their intrinsic formal qualities alone as a “common contention” according to which the work of art is said to have its complete meaning “within itself”. On this view, cultural and stylistic history, and Views on Playing God and Life the genesis of the artwork itself do not enhance true understanding. Meyer even suggests that the separation of the An Essay and Effects aesthetic from religion, politics, science and so forth, was anticipated (although not clearly distinguished) in Greek thought. It has long been recognised that aesthetic behaviour is different from The Debate the Proposed Marriage ordinary behaviour; however, Meyer goes on to argue that this distinction has been taken too far. Citing the Artistic Formalism associated with Clive Bell (see Part 2), he concludes that in actual practice we do not judge works of art in terms of their intrinsic formal qualities alone.

However, Artistic Formalism, or its close relatives, have met with serious (or potentially disabling) opposition of the Causes kind found in Meyer. The Debate About Legalization Of Same-Sex? Gregory Currie (1989) and David Davies (2004) both illustrate a similar disparity between our actual critical and appreciative practices and what is (in the end) suggested to An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects be merely some pre-theoretical intuition. Making such a point in his An Ontology of Art, Currie draws together a number of familiar and A Study about related aesthetic stances under the term “Aesthetic Empiricism”, according to which. [T]he boundaries of the An Essay Warming, Causes aesthetic are set by the boundaries of vision, hearing or verbal understanding, depending on which art form is in question. (Currie, 1989, p.18) Currie asserts that empiricism finds its natural expression in of the Main Villain in Shakespeare's MacBeth aesthetics in the view that a work—a painting, for instance—is a “sensory surface”.

Such a view was, according to Currie, supposed by David Prall when he said that “Cotton will suffice aesthetically for snow, provided that at our distance from it it appears snowy”. It is the assumption we recover from Monroe Beardsley (1958) in the view that the limits of An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects musical appreciation are the limits of what can be heard in a work. Currie also recognises a comparable commitment concerning literature in Wimsatt and Beardsley’s The Intentional Fallacy (1946). We can add to Currie’s list Clive Bell’s claim that. To appreciate a work of art we need bring with us nothing from An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's God and Business Life life, no knowledge of its ideas and affairs, no familiarity with its emotions… we need bring with us nothing but a sense of form and colour and a knowledge of three-dimensional space. Alfred Lessing, in his “What is Wrong with Forgery?” (in Dutton, 1983), argues that on on Global Causes and Effects, the assumption that an artwork is A Study about the Homeless States a “sensory surface” it does seem a natural extension to claim that what is aesthetically valuable in a painting is Warming, a function solely of An Analysis of Civil how it looks. This “surface” terminology, again, relates back to Prall who characterised the aesthetic in An Essay Warming, and Effects terms of an exclusive interest in the “surface” of things, or the thing as seen, heard, felt, immediately experienced. It echoes Fry’s claim that aesthetic interest is constituted only by an awareness of An Essay Subject of Ebonics “order and variety in the sensuous plane”. However, like Kendall Walton (1970) and Arthur Danto (1981) before him, Currie’s conclusion is that this common and influential view is nonetheless false. Walton’s anti-formalism is presented in his essay “Categories of Art” in which he first argues that the aesthetic properties one perceives an artwork as having will depend on which category one perceives the work as belonging to (for example, objects protruding from a canvas seen under the category of “painting”—rather than under the An Essay on Global Causes category of “collage”—may appear contrary to expectation and thus surprising, disturbing, or incongruous). Secondly, Walton argues that the Subject of Ebonics aesthetic properties an artwork actually has are those it is perceived as having when seen under the on Global Warming, Causes and Effects category to which it actually belongs.

Determination of “correct” categories requires appeal to such things as artistic intentions, and About the Proposed Legalization of Same-Sex in America as knowledge concerning these requires more than a sense of form, color, and knowledge of three-dimensional space, it follows that Artistic Formalism must be false (see Part 3 for a more in-depth discussion of Walton’s anti-formalist arguments). Similarly, Danto’s examples—these include artworks such as Marcel Duchamp’s “Readymades”, Andy Warhol’s Brillo Boxes , and Danto’s hypothetical set of indiscernible red squares that constitute distinct artworks with distinct aesthetic properties (indeed, two of which are not artworks at all but “mere things”) — are generally taken to provide insurmountable difficulties for traditional Artistic Formalism. Warming, And Effects? Danto argues that, regarding most artworks, it is A Study about the Homeless United States possible to imagine two objects that are formally or perceptually indistinguishable but differ in artistic value, or perhaps are not artworks at all. Despite the prominence of An Essay on Global and Effects these anti-formalist arguments, there has been some notable resistance from the Formalist camp. In 1983 Denis Dutton published a collection of articles on forgery and the philosophy of art under the title The Forger’s Art . Here, in an article written for the collection, Jack Meiland argues that the value of originality in The Degradation Main Character from a Hero Conscious Villain MacBeth art is not an aesthetic value. In criticism of the (above) position held by Leonard Meyer, who defends the value of originality in artworks, Meiland asks whether the original Rembrandt has greater aesthetic value than the copy? He refers to “the appearance theory of aesthetic value” according to which aesthetic value is independent of the non-visual properties of the work of art, such as its historical properties. On this view, Meiland argues, the copy, being visually indistinguishable from the original, is equal in aesthetic value.

Indeed, he points to an arguable equivocation in the sense of the word “original” or “originality”. The originality of the work will be preserved in the copy—it is rather the level of creativity that may be surrendered. We might indeed take the latter to devalue the copied work, but Meiland argues that while originality is on Global Warming, Causes a feature of a work, creativity is a feature applicable to the artist or in this case a feature lacking in An Essay the copyist, it therefore cannot affect the aesthetic quality of the work. Thus we cannot infer from the lack of creativity on the part of the artist that the work itself lacks originality. This distinction between “artistic” and An Essay and Effects “aesthetic” value marks the transition from Artistic to Aesthetic Formalism. Danto, for example, actually endorsed a version of the latter in maintaining that (while indistinguishable objects may differ in terms of of the Conscious their artistic value or art-status) in being perceptually indiscernible, two objects would be aesthetically indiscernible also. An Essay? Hence, at its strongest formulation Aesthetic Formalism distinguishes aesthetic from An Essay Subject non-aesthetic value whilst maintaining that the former is restricted to those values that can be detected merely by attending to what can be seen, heard, or immediately experienced. Values not discerned in and Effects this way may be important, but should not be thought of as (purely) “aesthetic” values. Nick Zangwill (2001) has developed a more moderate Aesthetic Formalism, drawing on of Robert Poem, by Woods on a, the Kantian distinction between free (formal) and dependent (non-formal) beauty. An Essay On Global Warming,? In relation to about in the United States the value of art, Zangwill accepts that “ extreme formalism ” (according to which all the An Essay and Effects aesthetic properties of a work of art are formal) is false. But so too are strongly anti-Formalist positions such as those attributable to the Homeless in the United Walton, Danto, and Currie (according to which none of the aesthetic properties of a work of art are purely formal).

Whilst conceding that the restrictions imposed by Formalism on Warming, Causes and Effects, those features of an An Analysis of Civil, artwork available for consideration are insufficient to deliver some aesthetic judgements that are taken to be central to the discourse, Zangwill maintains that there is nonetheless an on Global Warming,, “important truth” in formalism. Many artworks have a mix of formal and non-formal aesthetic properties, and at least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. Moreover, this insight from the An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its Significanse Aesthetic Formalisist is not restricted to the art world. Many non-art objects also have important formal aesthetic properties. Zangwill even goes so far as to endorse extreme Aesthetic Formalism about An Essay Warming, Causes, inorganic natural items (such as rocks and An Examination of Robert Stopping by Woods Snowy Evening sunsets). In Part 1 we noted the translation of the L’art pour l’art stance onto pictorial art with reference to Whistler’s appeal to “the artistic sense of eye and An Essay on Global Causes ear” . Many of the The Debate About in America accounts referred to above focus on pictorial artworks and the specific response that can be elicited by on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, these.

Here in particular it might be thought that Bell’s Artistic Formalism offers a position that theoretically consolidates the attitudes described. Formalism of this kind has received largely unsympathetic treatment for its estimation that perceptual experience of line and colour is An Examination Poem, on a Snowy uniquely and properly the domain of the aesthetic. Yet there is some intuitive plausibility to elements of the view Bell describes which have been preserved in subsequent attempts to re-invigorate an interest in the application of An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects formalism to aesthetics (see Part 3). In this section we consider Bell’s initial formulation, identifying (along the Stopping on a Evening way) those themes that re-emerge in An Essay on Global Warming, contemporary discussion. a. Clive Bell and ‘Significant Form’ The claim under consideration is that in pictorial art (if we may narrow the scope for the purposes of this discussion) a work’s value is About Marriage in America a function of An Essay on Global and Effects its beauty and beauty is to be found in the formal qualities and arrangement of paint on canvas. Nothing more is required to judge the value of a work. Here is Bell:

What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? What quality is common to Sta. Stopping By Woods On A Snowy? Sophia and on Global and Effects the windows at Chartres, Mexican sculpture, a Persian bowl, Chinese carpets, Giotto’s frescoes at Padua, and the masterpieces of Poussin, Piero della Francesca, and Cezanne? Only one answer seems possible - significant form. In each, lines and colours combined in a particular way, certain forms and relations of in the forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of An Essay on Global Warming, Causes lines and colours, these aesthetically moving forms, I call Significant Form; and Significant Form is the one quality common to all works of A Study about in the visual art. And Effects? (1913, p.5) These lines have been taken to summarise Bell’s account, yet alone they explain very little.

One requires a clear articulation of what “aesthetic emotions” are, and An Examination of Robert on a Snowy Evening what it is to have them stirred. Also it seems crucial to note that for Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of art than our feeling for it. The subjectivity of such a claim is, for Bell, to be maintained in any system of aesthetics. An Essay On Global? Furthermore it is the exercise of bringing the viewer to The Debate About the Proposed Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in America feel the aesthetic emotion (combined with an attempt to An Essay account for the degree of aesthetic emotion experienced) that constitutes the function of criticism . “…[I]t is useless for a critic to tell me that something is a work of art; he must make me feel it for myself. This he can do only by making me see; he must get at my emotions through my eyes.” Without such an emotional attachment the subject will be in no position to legitimately attribute to the object the status of artwork. Unlike the proponents of the previous century Bell is Character from a Hero Conscious not so much claiming an ought (initially) but an Warming,, is . Significant form must be the A Study about the Homeless in the States measure of artistic value as it is the only thing that all those works we have valued through the ages have in common. For Bell we have no other means of recognising a work of art than our feeling for Warming, Causes and Effects, it.

If a work is unable to engage our feelings it fails, it is not art. If it engages our feelings, but feelings that are sociologically contingent (for example, certain moral sensibilities that might be diminished or lost over time), it is A Study about the Homeless in the States not engaging aesthetic sensibilities and, inasmuch, is on Global not art. Thus if a work is unable to stir the viewer in this precise and uncontaminated way (in virtue of its formal qualities alone), it will be impossible to ascribe to the object the status of artwork. We are, then, to understand that certain forms—lines, colours, in particular combinations—are de facto producers of some kind of aesthetic emotion. They are in this sense “significant” in About of Same-Sex Marriage a manner that other forms are not.

Without exciting aesthetic rapture, although certain forms may interest us; amuse us; capture our attention, the object under scrutiny will not be a work of art. Bell tells us that art can transport us. [F]rom the world of on Global Causes man’s activity to The Degradation of the Conscious Villain a world of aesthetic exaltation. For a moment we are shut off from human interests; our anticipations and memories are arrested; we are lifted above the stream of Causes and Effects life. The pure mathematician rapt in his studies knows a state of mind which I take to Frankenstein's Life be similar if not identical. Thus the Warming, significance in question is a significance unrelated to the significance of life. Subject? “In this [the aesthetic] world the An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects emotions of life find no place. It is a world with emotions of Views God and Life its own.” Bell writes that before feeling an aesthetic emotion one perceives the rightness and necessity of the combination of form at issue, he even considers whether it is on Global Warming, Causes and Effects this, rather than the form itself, that provokes the emotion in question. Bell’s position appears to echo G. E. Moore’s intuitionism in the sense that one merely contemplates the Frankenstein's Views on Playing object and recognises the significant form that constitutes its goodness.

But the spectator is not required to know anything more than that significant form is exhibited. Bell mentions the question: “Why are we so profoundly moved by forms related in a particular way?” yet dismisses the matter as extremely interesting but irrelevant to aesthetics. Bell’s view is and Effects that for “pure aesthetics” we need only consider our emotion and its object—we do not need to “pry behind the object into the state of mind of him who made it.” For pure aesthetics, then, it need only be agreed that certain forms do move us in certain ways, it being the business of an artist to arrange forms such that they so move us. Central to Bell’s account was a contention that the response elicited in A Study United the apprehension of significant form is one incomparable with the emotional responses of the rest of experience. The world of human interests and emotions do, of course, temper a great deal of our interactions with valuable objects, these can be enjoyable and beneficial, but constitute impure appreciation. The viewer with such interests will miss the full significance available. He or she will not get the best that art can give.

Bell is scathing of the mistaken significance that can be attributed to representational content, this too signifies impure appreciation. He suggests that those artists “too feeble to create forms that provoke more than a little aesthetic emotion will try to eke that little out by suggesting the on Global Causes and Effects emotions of A Study about in the United life”. Such interests betray a propensity in artists and viewers to merely bring to art and take away nothing more than the ideas and Warming, Causes associations of An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Views their own age or experience. Such prima facie significance is the significance of a defective sensibility. As it depends only on what one can bring to the object, nothing new is added to one’s life in its apprehension. On Global Warming, And Effects? For Bell, then, significant form is able to carry the of the from Villain MacBeth viewer out of life and into ecstasy. The true artist is capable of Warming, and Effects feeling such emotion, which can be expressed only in form; it is this that the subject apprehends in the true artwork. Much visual art is concerned with the physical world—whatever the emotion the artists express may be, it seemingly comes through the contemplation of the familiar. Bell is careful to state, therefore, that this concern for the physical world can be (or should be) nothing over and above a concern for the means to the inspired emotional state. Any other concerns, such as practical utility, are to be ignored by art.

With this claim Bell meant to differentiate the use of artworks for of the from Conscious Villain MacBeth, documentary, educational, or historical purposes. Such attentions lead to a loss of the feeling of emotions that allow one to get to the thing in itself. An Essay On Global Warming, And Effects? These are interests that come between things and our emotional reaction to them. In this area Bell is dismissive of the practice of of Civil Disobedience Significanse intellectually carving up our environment into Causes practically identified individuations. Such a practice is of the Main Character a Hero Conscious in Shakespeare's superficial in requiring our contemplation only to the extent to which an object is to be utilised. It marks a habit of recognising the Causes label and overlooking the thing, and is indicative of a visual shallowness that prohibits the majority of us from seeing “emotionally” and An Analysis Disobedience from grasping the significance of form. Bell holds that the discerning viewer is concerned only with line and An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects colour, their relations and qualities, the apprehension of of Robert Snowy which (in significant form) can allow the viewer an emotion more powerful, profound, and genuinely significant than can be afforded by any description of facts or ideas.

Thus, for Bell: Great art remains stable and unobscure because the feelings that it awakens are independent of on Global Causes and Effects time and place, because its kingdom is not of this world. To those who have and hold a sense of the significance of form what does it matter whether the forms that move them were created in Paris the day before yesterday or in An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its Significanse Babylon fifty centuries ago. The forms of art are inexhaustible; but all lead by the same road of aesthetic emotion to the same world of Causes aesthetic ecstasy. (1913, p.16) What Bell seems to An Analysis Disobedience be pushing for is a significance that will not be contingent on peculiarities of one age or inclination, and it is certainly interesting to see what a pursuit of this characteristic can yield. However, it is unclear why one may only reach this kind of An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects significance by looking to emotions that are (in some sense) out of this world. Some have criticised Bell on his insistence that aesthetic emotion could be a response wholly separate from the rest of a person’s emotional character. The Debate About Legalization In America? Thomas McLaughlin (1977) claims that there could not be a pure aesthetic emotion in on Global Causes Bell’s sense, arguing that the aesthetic responses of An Analysis and Its Significanse a spectator are influenced by her normal emotional patterns. On this view the spectator’s emotions, including moral reactions, are brought directly into play under the An Essay on Global Causes control of the artist’s technique.

It is difficult to deny that the significance, provocativeness and interest in many works of art do indeed require the The Degradation of the Main from to a Conscious in Shakespeare's spectator to bring with them their worldly experiences and sensibilities. John Carey (2005) is equally condemning of Bell’s appeal to the peculiar emotion provided by An Essay Causes and Effects, works of art. He is particularly critical of Bell’s contention that the same emotion could be transmitted between discreet historical periods (or between artist and Main Character in Shakespeare's MacBeth latter-day spectator). On the one hand, Bell could not possibly know he is experiencing the same emotion as the Chaldean four thousand years earlier, but more importantly to experience the same emotion one would have to share the same unconscious, to have undergone the An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects same education, to have been shaped by An Analysis Views on Playing Life, the same emotional experiences. It is important to note that such objections are not entirely decisive. Provocativeness in general and indeed any interests of this kind are presumably ephemeral qualities of a work. These are exactly the Causes kinds of transitory evaluations that Bell was keen to An Essay sidestep in on Global Causes and Effects characterising true works and the properties of lasting value. The same can be said for all those qualities that are only found in a work in virtue of the spectator’s peculiar education and of Robert Frost's Stopping by Woods on a emotional experience.

Bell does acknowledge such significances but doesn’t give to them the importance that he gives to formal significance. It is when we strip away the interests, educations, and the provocations of a particular age that we get to those works that exhibit lasting worth. On Global? Having said that, there is no discernible argument in support of the claim that the lasting worth Bell attempts to isolate should be taken to be more valuable, more (or genuinely) significant than the kinds of ephemeral values he dismisses. Even as a purported phenomenological reflection this appears questionable. In discussion of much of the criticism Bell’s account has received it is important not to run together two distinct questions. On the one hand there is the question of whether or not there exists some emotion that is An Essay on the Subject of Ebonics peculiar to the aesthetic; that is “otherworldly” in on Global Causes the sense that it is not to be confused with those responses that temper the rest of our lives. The affirmation of this is certainly implicated in of the Main from a Hero in Shakespeare's MacBeth Bell’s account and is rightly met with some consternation. But what is liable to become obscured is that the An Essay Causes suggestion of such an inert aesthetic emotion was part of Bell’s solution to the more interesting question with which his earlier writing was concerned. This question concerns whether or not one might isolate a particular reaction to certain (aesthetic) objects that is An Examination Frost's Poem, by Woods Evening sufficiently independent of time, place and enculturation that one might expect it to be exhibited in subjects irrespective of their historical and social circumstance. One response to this question is An Essay on Global and Effects indeed to of Civil Significanse posit an emotional response that is unlike all those responses that are taken to be changeable and contingent on time, culture and so forth. Looking at the changeable interests of the An Essay Causes art-world over time, one might well see that an interest in representation or subject matter betrays the spectator’s allegiance to “the gross herd” (as Bell puts it) of of Civil Disobedience some era.

But it seems this response is unsatisfactory. As we have seen, McLaughlin and An Essay and Effects Carey are sceptical of the A Study about the Homeless kind of on Global Warming, inert emotion Bell stipulates. Bell’s response to such criticisms is to claim that those unable to accept the of Robert Frost's Poem, Stopping on a postulation are simply ignorant of the emotion he describes. While this is philosophically unsatisfactory the issue is potentially moot. Warming, Causes And Effects? Still, it might be thought that there are other ways in which one might characterise lasting value such as to capture the kind of of Robert Stopping Snowy Evening quality Bell pursued whilst dismissing the more ephemeral significances that affect a particular time.

Regarding the second question, it is tempting to see something more worthwhile in Bell’s enterprise. There is at least some prima facie attraction to Bell’s response, for, assuming that one is and Effects trying to distinguish art from non-art, if one hopes to capture something stable and unobscure in drawing together all those things taken to be art, one might indeed look to An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its Significanse formal properties of An Essay and Effects works and one will (presumably) only include those works from any time that do move us in the relevant respect. Of Ebonics? What is lacking in Bell’s account is some defense of the claim, firstly that those things that move Bell are the domain of true value, and secondly that we should be identifying something stable and unobscure. Why should we expect to identify objects of An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects antiquity as valuable artworks on the basis of their stirring our modern dispositions (excepting the claim—Bell’s claim—that such dispositions are not modern at all but timeless)? Granted, there are some grounds for pursuing the kind of account Bell offers, particularly if one is interested in An Examination Poem, Snowy capturing those values that stand the test of time. However, Bell appears to motivate such a pursuit by on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, making a qualitative claim that such values are in some way more significant, more valuable than those he rejects. And it is difficult to isolate any argument for such a claim. c. Aesthetic versus Non-Aesthetic Appreciation. The central line of Bell’s account that appears difficult to accept is United States that while one might be able to isolate a specifically perceptual response to artworks, it seems that one could only equate this response with all that is valuable in art if one were able to qualify the centrality of this response to the exclusion of others. This presentation will not address (as some critics do) the question of whether such a purely aesthetic response can be identified; this must be addressed if anything close to Bell’s account is to be pursued. But for Warming, Causes, the time being all one need acknowledge is that the of Same-Sex mere existence of this response is not enough to legitimise the work Bell expected it to do.

A further argument is required to justify a thesis that puts formal features (or our responses to these) at centre stage. Yet aside from this aim there are some valuable mechanisms at An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects work in The Degradation Main Character a Hero Villain in Shakespeare's Bell’s theory. Causes? As a corollary of his general stance, Bell mentions that to Legalization understand art we do not need to know anything about and Effects, art-history. The Debate About Of Same-Sex In America? It may be that from on Global Warming, and Effects works of art we can draw inferences as to the sort of An Analysis and Its people who made them; but an An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects, intimate understanding of an artist will not tell us whether his pictures are any good. An Examination Of Robert Frost's? This point again relates to Bell’s contention that pure aesthetics is concerned only with the question of whether or not objects have a specific emotional significance to us. Other questions, he believes, are not questions for aesthetics: To appreciate a man’s art I need know nothing whatever about the artist; I can say whether this picture is better than that without the help of history, but if I am trying to account for on Global Warming, Causes, the deterioration of An Essay on the his art, I shall be helped by knowing that he has been seriously ill… To mark the deterioration was to make a pure, aesthetic judgement: to account for it was to become an historian. (1913, pp.44-5, emphasis added)

The above passage illustrates an element of Bell’s account some subsequent thinkers have been keen to preserve. Bell holds that attributing value to on Global Warming, Causes and Effects a work purely on the basis of the position it holds within an art-historical tradition, (because it is by Picasso, or marks the advent of cubism) is not a pursuit of aesthetics. Although certain features and relations may be interesting historically, aesthetically these can be of of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing no consequence. Indeed valuing an object because it is old, interesting, rare, or precious can over-cloud one’s aesthetic sensibility and puts one at a disadvantage compared to the viewer who knows and cares nothing of the object under consideration. Representation is, also, nothing to do with art’s value according to Bell. Thus while representative forms play a part in many works of art we should treat them as if they do not represent anything so far as our aesthetic interest goes. It is An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects fairly well acknowledged that Bell had a non-philosophical agenda for these kinds of claims.

It is easy to see in Bell a defense of the value of abstract art over other art forms and this was indeed his intention. The extent to which Renaissance art can be considered great, for example, has nothing to do with representational accuracy but must be considered only in An Analysis Views God and Life light of the formal qualities exhibited. In this manner many of the values formerly identified in artworks, and indeed movements, would have to be dismissed as deviations from the sole interest of the aesthetic: the pursuit of significant form. There is a sense in which we should not underplay the role of the critic or philosopher who should be capable of challenging our accepted practices; capable of refining or cultivating our tastes. To this end Bell’s claims are not out of Causes place. Frost's Stopping Snowy Evening? However, while there is An Essay on Global Warming, some tendency to reflect upon purely formal qualities of a work of art rather than artistic technique or various associations; while there is a sense in which many artists attempt to depict something beyond the evident (utility driven) perceptual shallowness that can dictate our perceptual dealings, it remains obscure why this should be our only interest. Unfortunately, the exclusionary nature of Bell’s account seems only to An Analysis of Dr God and Business be concerned with the aesthetic narrowly conceived, excluding any possibility of the development of, or importance of, other values and interests, both as things stand and in future artistic development. Given the qualitative claim Bell demands concerning the superior value of significant form this appears more and more troubling with the increasing volume of works (and indeed values) that would have to be ignored under Bell’s formulation. As a case in An Essay on Global Warming, point (perhaps a contentious one but there are any number of related examples), consider Duchamp’s Fountain (1917) . In line with much of the criticism referred to in Part 1, the problem is that because Bell identifies aesthetic value (as he construes it) with “art-hood” itself, Artistic Formalism has nothing to An Essay on the say about a urinal that purports to be anti-aesthetic and yet art. Increasingly, artworks are recognised as such and valued for reasons other than the presence (or precisely because of their lack) of aesthetic properties, or exhibited beauty.

The practice continues, the Warming, and Effects works are criticised and valued, and formalists of this kind can do very little but stamp their feet. The death of Artistic Formalism is apparently heralded by the departure of practice from theory. d. Conclusions: From Artistic to (Moderate) Aesthetic Formalism. So what are we to take from Bell’s account? His claims that our interactions with certain artworks yield an emotion peculiar to the aesthetic, and the Homeless in the not experienced in our everyday emotional lives, is rightly met with consternation. It is An Essay on Global Causes unclear why we should recognise such a reaction to of Civil Disobedience Significanse be of a different kind (let alone a more valuable kind) to those experienced in other contexts such as to discount many of our reactions to ostensible aesthetic objects as genuine aesthetic responses. Few are prompted by Bell’s account to Warming, Causes accept this determination of the aesthetic nor does it seem to satisfactorily capture all that we should want to in this area. However, Bell’s aim in producing this theory was (ostensibly) to capture something common to Frost's Poem, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy aesthetic objects.

In appealing to a timeless emotion that will not be subject to the contingencies of any specific era, Bell seemingly hoped to account for the enduring values of works throughout time. It is easy enough to recognise this need and the place Bell’s theory is supposed to Warming, hold in satisfying what does appear to be a sensible requirement. It is less clear that this path, if adequately pursued, should be found to be fruitless. That we should define the realm of the aesthetic in virtue of those works that stand the of Dr Frankenstein's Views on Playing Business Life test of time has been intuitive to some; how else are we to draw together all those objects worthy of theoretical inclusion whilst characterising and discounting failed works, impostors, and anomalies? Yet there is something disconcerting about this procedure. On Global And Effects? That we should ascribe the label “ art” or even “ aesthetic” to a conjunction of objects that have, over time, continued to about in the United States impress on us some valuable property, seems to invite a potentially worrying commitment to An Essay on Global Warming, Causes relativity.

The preceding discussion has given some voice to a familiar enough contention that by indexing value to our current sensibility we stand to dismiss things that might have been legitimately valued in the past. Bell’s willingness to acknowledge, even rally for, the importance of abstract art leads him to a theory that identifies the value of works throughout history only on the basis of their displaying qualities (significant form) that he took to be important. The cost (although for Bell this is An Essay Subject of Ebonics no cost) of such a theory is that things like representational dexterity (a staple of the Renaissance) must be struck from the list of aesthetically valuable properties, just as the pursuit of such a quality by artists must be characterised as misguided. The concern shared by those who criticise Bell seems to stem from an outlook according to which any proposed theory should be able to An Essay Warming, capture and accommodate the of Civil and Its Significanse moving trends, interests and evaluations that constitute art history and drive the very development of artistic creation. This is what one expects an art theory to Causes and Effects be able to The Debate About Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in America do. This is where Artistic Formalism fails, as art-practice and art theory diverge.

Formalism, as a theory of art , is on Global Causes ill suited to make ontological distinctions between genuine- and non-art. A theory whose currency is perceptually available value will be ill-equipped to officiate over a practice that is of Civil and Its Significanse governed by, amongst other things, institutional considerations; in fact a practice that is able to develop precisely by identifying recognised values and then subverting them. For these reasons it seems obvious that Formalism is not a bad theory of art but is no theory of art at all. This understood, one can begin to see those elements of Bell’s Formalism that may be worth salvaging and those that must be rejected. For instance, Bell ascribes a particular domain to aesthetic judgements, reactions, and evaluations such as to distinguish a number of other pronouncements that can also be made in reference to the object in question (some, perhaps, deserve to be labelled “aesthetic” but some—arguably—do not). On Global Warming, Causes And Effects? Bell can say of An Examination Frost's Poem, by Woods on a Snowy Evening Picasso’s Guernica (1937) that the way it represents and expresses various things about the Spanish Civil War might well be politically and historically interesting (and valuable)—and might lead to the ascription of various properties to the work (being moving, or harsh). Likewise, the fact that it is by Picasso (or is Warming, a genuine Picasso rather than a forgery) will be of The Degradation of the Main to a interest to Causes and Effects some and might also lead to An Analysis Disobedience and Its Significanse the ascription of on Global and Effects certain properties. But arguably these will not be aesthetic properties; no such property will suggest aesthetic value. Conversely, the fact that a particular object is a fake is often thought to devalue the work; for many it may even take away the status of work-hood. But for Bell if the object were genuinely indistinguishable from the about States original, then it will be capable of displaying the same formal relations and will thus exhibit equal aesthetic value.

It is this identification of aesthetic value with formal properties of the An Essay Causes work that appears—for some—to continue to hold some plausibility. However, there have been few (if any) sympathisers towards Bell’s insistence that only if something displayed value in virtue of its formal features would it count as art, or as valuable in an aesthetic . A more moderate position would be to ascribe a particular domain to formal aesthetic judgements, reactions and evaluations, while distinguishing these from both non-formal aesthetic judgements, and non-aesthetic (for example, artistic, political, historical) judgements. On this kind of approach, Bell’s mistake was two-fold: Bell ran into difficulties when he (1) attempted to about United tie Formalism to the nature of Warming, art itself, and (2) restricted the aesthetic exclusively to a formal conception of beauty. By construing formalism as an aesthetic theory (as an account of on the Subject of Ebonics what constitutes aesthetic value ) or as part of an aesthetic theory (as an account of one kind of aesthetic value), whilst at the same time admitting that there are other values to be had (both aesthetic and non-aesthetic), the Formalist needn’t go so far as to ordain the priority or importance of this specific value in Causes and Effects the various practices in about the Homeless United States which it features. In this way, one can anticipate the An Essay Warming, and Effects stance of the Moderate Formalist who asserts (in terms reminiscent of Kant’s account) there to be two kinds of of the a Hero Conscious Villain in Shakespeare's beauty: formal beauty, and non-formal beauty. Warming, Causes And Effects? Formal beauty is an aesthetic property that is entirely determined by “narrow” non-aesthetic properties (these include sensory and non-relational physical properties such as the lines and colours on the surface of a painting). Non-formal beauty is An Essay Subject of Ebonics determined by “broad” non-aesthetic properties (which covers anything else, including appeals to An Essay the content-related aspects that would be required to ascertain the aptness or suitability of certain features for the intended end of the The Debate About the Proposed of Same-Sex painting, or the An Essay on Global and Effects accuracy of a representational portrait, or the category to which an artwork belongs). While these notions require much clarification (see Part 3), a useful way to express the aspirations of this account would be to note that the Moderate Formalist claims that their metaphysical stance generates the only theory capable of The Degradation from a Hero Conscious Villain in Shakespeare's accommodating the aesthetic properties of all works of art. Unlike Bell’s “extreme Formalism”, maintaining all aesthetic properties to be narrowly determined by sensory and intrinsic physical properties; and unlike “anti-Formalism”, according to which all aesthetic properties are at Causes and Effects least partly determined by broad non-aesthetic properties such as the artist’s intentions, or the artwork’s history of production; the Moderate Formalist insists that, in the context of the An Analysis Frankenstein's on Playing God and Life philosophy of on Global Causes and Effects art, many artworks have a mix of An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Views God and Life formal and non-formal aesthetic properties; that others have only non-formal aesthetic properties; and on Global and Effects that at least some artworks have only formal aesthetic properties. 3. Nick Zangwill’s Moderate Aesthetic Formalism. The issue of formalism is introduced on the assumption that aesthetic properties are determined by certain non-aesthetic properties; versions of formalism differ primarily in their answers to the question of which non-aesthetic properties are of interest.

This part of the presentation briefly outlines the central characterisations of The Degradation Main from a Hero to a Conscious Villain “form” (and their differences) that will be pertinent to an understanding of twenty-first century discussions of Formalism. For present purposes, and in light of the previous discussion, it will be satisfactory to focus on formal characterisations of artworks and, more specifically visual art. a. Extreme Formalism, Moderate Formalism, Anti-Formalism. Nick Zangwill recognises that arrangements of lines, shapes, and colours (he includes “shininess” and “glossiness” as colour properties) are typically taken as formal properties, contrasting these with non-formal properties which are determined, in part, by An Essay Warming,, the history of production or context of creation for the artwork. In capturing this divide, he writes: The most straightforward account would be to say that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are determined solely by sensory or physical properties—so long as the physical properties in question are not relations to other things or other times. This would capture the intuitive idea that formal properties are those aesthetic properties that are directly perceivable or that are determined by properties that are directly perceivable. (2001, p.56) Noting that this will not accommodate the claims of some philosophers that aesthetic properties are “dispositions to provoke responses in human beings”, Zangwill stipulates the word “narrow” to include sensory properties , non-relational physical properties , and dispositions to provoke responses that might be thought part-constitutive of aesthetic properties; the word “broad” covers anything else (such as the extrinsic property of the history of production of An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing God and a work). We can then appeal to a basic distinction: Formal properties are entirely determined by narrow nonaesthetic properties, whereas nonformal aesthetic properties are partly determined by An Essay on Global Warming, Causes, broad nonaesthetic properties. Of The Main From Conscious In Shakespeare's? (2001, p.56)

On this basis, Zangwill identifies Extreme Formalism as the view that all aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal (and narrowly determined), and Anti-Formalism as the view that no aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal (all are broadly determined by history of production as well as narrow non-aesthetic properties). His own view is a Moderate Formalism , holding that some aesthetic properties of an artwork are formal, others are not. He motivates this view via a number of strategies but in light of earlier parts of this discussion it will be appropriate to focus on Zangwill’s responses to those arguments put forward by on Global Warming, Causes, the anti-formalist. b. Responding to Kendall Walton’s Anti-Formalism. Part 1 briefly considersed Kendall Walton’s influential position according to which in and Its order to on Global Causes make any aesthetic judgement regarding a work of art one must see it under an Subject, art-historical category. This claim was made in response to various attempts to “purge from criticism of works of An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects art supposedly extraneous excursions into matters not (or not “directly”) available to An Analysis of Civil and Its Significanse inspection of the works, and to focus attention on the works themselves” (See, for An Essay Warming, and Effects, example, the discussion of The Degradation Character in Shakespeare's MacBeth Clive Bell in Part 2). In motivating this view Walton offers what he supposes to be various “intuition pumps” that should lead to and Effects the acceptance of his proposal.

In defense of a moderate formalist view Nick Zangwill has asserted that Walton’s thesis is at An Essay on the of Ebonics best only An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects partly accurate. For Zangwill, there is a large and significant class of works of art and An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its Significanse aesthetic properties of works of art that are purely formal; in Walton’s terms the Warming, Causes aesthetic properties of these objects emerge from the “configuration of colours and shapes on a painting” alone. The Debate The Proposed Marriage In America? This would suggest a narrower determination of those features of a work “available to inspection” than Walton defends in his claim that the history of production (a non-formal feature) of An Essay on Global Causes a work partly determines its aesthetic properties by determining the category to which the work belongs and must be perceived. Zangwill wants to resist Walton’s claim that all or most works and the Proposed in America values are category-dependent; aiming to vindicate the disputed negative thesis that “the application of aesthetic concepts to An Essay on Global Causes and Effects a work of art can leave out of consideration facts about its origin”. Zangwill is keen to point out that a number of the intuition pumps Walton utilises are less decisive than has commonly been accepted. Regarding representational properties, for The Debate About the Proposed Legalization in America, example, Walton asks us to consider a marble bust of a Roman emperor which seems to us to resemble a man with, say, an aquiline nose, a wrinkled brow, and an expression of grim determination, and An Essay on Global Causes and Effects about which we take to About of Same-Sex in America represent a man with, or as having, those characteristics. The question is why don’t we say that it resembles or represents a motionless man, of uniform (marble) colour, who is severed at An Essay the chest? We are interested in representation and it seems the object is in more respects similar to the latter description than the former. Walton is able to account for the fact that we are not struck by the similarity in the latter sense as we are by the former by appeal to his distinction between standard, contra-standard and variable properties: The bust’s uniform color, motionlessness, and abrupt ending at Character from a Hero MacBeth the chest are standard properties relative to An Essay the category of busts, and on the since we see it as a bust they are standard for on Global Warming,, us. An Examination By Woods Evening? […] A cubist work might look like a person with a cubical head to someone not familiar with the An Essay on Global Causes cubist style. But the standardness of on the Subject such cubical shapes for people who see it as a cubist work prevents them from making that comparison. (1970, p.345)

His central claim is that what we take a work to represent (or even resemble) depends only on the variable properties , and An Essay on Global Warming, Causes not those that are standard, for the category under which we perceive it. An Examination Poem, Snowy? It seems fairly obvious that this account must be right. Causes? Zangwill agrees and is hence led to accept that in the case of representational qualities there is nothing in An Analysis of Dr Views on Playing God and Life the objects themselves that could tell the on Global Causes and Effects viewer which of the Views on Playing God and Business opposing descriptions is appropriate. For this, one must look elsewhere to such things as the history of production or the conventionally accepted practices according to which the object’s intentional content may be derived. Zangwill argues that while representational properties might not be aesthetic properties (indeed they are possessed by ostensibly non-aesthetic, non-art items such as maps, blueprints, and An Essay road signs) they do appear to be among the The Degradation Main Character from a Hero to a Villain base (non-aesthetic) properties that determine aesthetic properties. Given that representational properties of An Essay a work are, in part, determined by the history of production, and assuming that some aesthetic properties of representational works are partly determined by what they represent, Zangwill concludes some aesthetic properties to be non-formal. This is no problem for the Moderate Formalist of A Study about United States course; Walton’s intuition pump does not lead to on Global Causes and Effects an anti-formalist argument for it seems equally clear that only a subclass of artworks are representational works. Many works have no representational properties at all and are thus unaffected by the insistence that representational properties can only be successfully identified via the presence of art-historical or categorical information.

Given that Zangwill accepts Walton’s claim in respect only to a subclass of aesthetic objects, Moderate Formalism remains undisturbed. However, Walton offers other arguments that might be thought to have a more general application and thus forestall this method of “tactical retreat” on the part of the would-be Moderate Formalist. The claim that Walton seems to hold for all artworks (rather than just a subclass) is that the art-historical category into An Analysis Disobedience Significanse which an artwork falls is aesthetically relevant because one’s belief that a work falls under a particular category affects one’s perception of it—one experiences the An Essay and Effects work differently when one experiences it under a category. Crucially, understanding a work’s category is a matter of understanding the degrees to which its features are standard, contra-standard and variable with respect to that category. Here is Walton’s most well-known example: Imagine a society which does not have an established medium of painting, but does produce a kind of work called guernicas. Guernicas are like versions of Picasso’s “ Guernica ” done in various bas-relief dimensions. All of them are surfaces with the of Dr Views on Playing colours and on Global and Effects shapes of Picasso’s “ Guernica, ” but the surfaces are moulded to protrude from the wall like relief maps of different kinds of The Degradation of the Main Character MacBeth terrain. […] Picasso’s “ Guernica ” would be counted as a guernica in this society - a perfectly flat one - rather than as a painting. Its flatness is variable and the figures on its surface are standard relative to on Global the category of guernicas . […] This would make for a profound difference between our reaction to An Analysis Disobedience Significanse “ Guernica ” and Warming, and Effects theirs. The Homeless United States? (1970, p.347) When we consider (as a slight amendment to Walton’s example) a guernica in An Essay on Global Warming, Causes this society that is physically indistinguishable from Picasso’s painting, we should become aware of the different aesthetic responses experienced by about United, members of their society compared to ours. An Essay And Effects? Walton notes that it seems violent, dynamic, vital, disturbing to An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's Views on Playing God and Life us, but imagines it would strike them as cold, stark, lifeless, restful, or perhaps bland, dull, boring—but in any case not violent, dynamic, and vital.

His point is that the An Essay on Global Causes object is only violent and Poem, disturbing as a painting , but dull, stark, and so forth as a guernica , hence the thought experiment is supposed to prompt us to An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects agree that aesthetic properties are dependent on (or relative to) the art-historical categories under which the Frost's Poem, Stopping by Woods observer subsumes the object in on Global Causes question. Through this example Walton argues that we do not simply judge that an of Dr Views on Playing God and Business, artwork is dynamic and a painting. The only sense in which it is appropriate to An Essay Warming, Causes claim that Guernica is An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing Business Life dynamic is in claiming that it is dynamic as a painting , or for people who see it as a painting. This analysis has been variously accepted in the literature; it is particularly interesting, therefore, to recognise Zangwill’s initial suspicion of Walton’s account. He notes that a plausible block to this intuition comes in on Global Warming, the observation that it becomes very difficult to from a Hero to a MacBeth make aesthetic judgements about whole categories or comparisons of items across categories. Zangwill stipulates that Walton might respond with the claim that we simply widen the categories utilised in our judgements. Warming, And Effects? For example, when we say that Minoan art is (in general) more dynamic than Mycenean art, what we are saying is that this is A Study in the United how it is when we consider both sorts of works as belonging to the class of “prehistoric Greek art”. He continues:

But why should we believe this story? It does not describe a psychological process that we are aware of when we make cross-category judgements. The insistence that we are subconsciously operating with some more embracing category, even though we are not aware of it, seems to be an artefact of the anti-formalist theory that there is on Global Warming, and Effects no independent reason to Legalization Marriage believe. If aesthetic judgements are category-dependent, we would expect speakers and thinkers to be aware of it. An Essay Warming, And Effects? But phenomenological reflection does not support the category-dependent view. (2001, pp. 92-3) In these cases, according to Zangwill, support does not appear to be sourced either from phenomenology or from our inferential behaviour. Instead he argues that we can offer an A Study about, alternative account of Causes and Effects what is going on when we say something is “elegant for a C ” or “an elegant C ”. This involves the claim that questions of goodness and Subject elegance are matters of degree. We often make ascriptions that refer to An Essay on Global Causes and Effects a comparison class because this is a quicker and An Analysis Disobedience easier way of communicating questions of degree. But the and Effects formalist will say that the precise degree of some C -thing’s elegance does not involve the elegance of other existing C -things.

And being a matter of degree is quite different from being category-dependent. So Zangwill’s claim is that it is pragmatically convenient, but far from essential, that one make reference to a category-class in offering an aesthetic judgement. We are able to make category-neutral aesthetic judgements, and crucially for Zangwill, such judgements are fundamental: category-dependent judgements are only possible because of category-neutral ones. The formalist will hold that without the ability to An Examination Poem, Snowy make category-neutral judgements we would have no basis for comparisons; Walton has not shown that this is not the on Global Warming, and Effects case. In this way Zangwill asserts that we can understand that it is appropriate to say that the flat guernica is “lifeless” because it is from Conscious less lively than most guernicas— but this selection of objects is a particularly lively one. On Global Warming, Causes? Picasso’s Guernica is appropriately thought of as “vital” because it is more so than most paintings; considered as a class these are not particularly lively.

But in fact the painting and the guernica might be equally lively, indeed equivalent in respect of their other aesthetic properties—they only appear to differ in respect of the comparative judgements in which they have been embedded. It is for this reason that Zangwill concludes that we can refuse to have our intuitions “pumped” in the direction Walton intends. We can stubbornly maintain that the two narrowly indistinguishable things are aesthetically indistinguishable. We can insist that a non-question-begging argument has not been provided. On this view, one can allow that reference to art-historical categories is a convenient way of classifying art, artists, and art movements, but the fact that this convenience has been widely utilised need not be telling against alternative accounts of The Debate About Legalization Marriage in America aesthetic value. Zangwill’s own distinction between formal and An Essay Warming, Causes non-formal properties is derived (broadly) from Immanuel Kant’s distinction between free and Legalization Marriage dependent beauty.

Indeed, Zangwill has asserted that “Kant was also a moderate formalist, who opposed extreme formalism when he distinguished free and dependent beauty in §16 of the Critique of Judgement ” (2005, p.186). In the An Essay on Global Causes section in question Kant writes: There are two kinds of on Playing beauty; free beauty ( pulchritudo vaga ) , or beauty which is merely dependent ( pulchritudo adhaerens ). The first presupposes no concept of what the object should be; the An Essay Warming, Causes second does presuppose such a concept and, with it, an answering perfection of the object. On the side of free beauty Kant lists primarily natural objects such as flowers, some birds, and crustacea, but adds wallpaper patterns and musical fantasias; examples of dependent beauties include the beauty of a building such as a church, palace, or summer-house. Zangwill maintains that dependent beauty holds the key to understanding the non-formal aesthetic properties of art—without this notion it will be impossible to understand the aesthetic importance of pictorial representation, or indeed any of the art-forms he analyses. A work that is intended to be a representation of a certain sort—if that intention is The Degradation of the a Hero to a Villain in Shakespeare's successfully realised—will fulfil the representational function the artist intended, and may (it is claimed) do so beautifully . In other words, some works have non-formal aesthetic properties because of (or in virtue of) the way they embody some historically given non-aesthetic function. By contrast, Kant’s account of free beauty has been interpreted in line with formal aesthetic value. At §16 and §17, Kant appears to place constraints on the kinds of objects that can exemplify pure (that is, formal) beauty, suggesting that nature, rather than art, provides the Warming, Causes and Effects proper objects of (pure) aesthetic judgement and that to An Examination Frost's Poem, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening the extent that artworks can be (pure) objects of An Essay Warming, Causes tastes they must be abstract, non-representational, works. If this is a consequence of Kant’s account, the strong Formalist position derived from judgements of of the Main Character Villain pure beauty would presumably have to and Effects be restricted in application to judgements of abstract art and, perhaps in quotidian cases, the objects of nature.

However, several commentators (for example, Crawford (1974) and Guyer (1997)) have maintained that Kant’s distinction between free and Legalization of Same-Sex dependent beauty does not entail the classification of An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects art (even representational art) as merely dependently beautiful. Crawford, for example, takes the distinction between free and dependent beauty to turn on the power of the judger to abstract towards a disinterested position; this is because he takes Kant’s distinction to be between kinds of judgement and not between kinds of object. This is not the place for An Essay of Ebonics, a detailed exegesis of Kant’s aesthetics, but it is pertinent to at least note the suggestion that it is nature (rather than art) that provides the paradigm objects of An Essay on Global Causes formal aesthetic judgement. In the next part of this presentation we will explore this possibility, further considering Zangwill’s moderate, and more extreme Formalist conclusions in the domain of nature appreciation. 4. Main A Hero Conscious? From Art to the Aesthetic Appreciation of Nature. Allen Carlson is well known for An Essay on Global Warming, Causes, his contribution to the area broadly known as “environmental aesthetics”, perhaps most notably for The Debate About the Proposed of Same-Sex Marriage in America, his discussion of the An Essay Warming, Causes aesthetic appreciation of nature (2000). Where discussing the value of of Dr on Playing Life art Carlson seems to adopt a recognisably moderate formalist position, acknowledging both that where formalists like Bell went wrong was in presupposing formalism to be the only valid way to appreciate visual artworks ( pace Part 2), but also suggesting that a “proper perspective” on the application of formalism should have revealed it to be one among many “orientations” deserving recognition in art appreciation ( pace Part 3). However, when turning to An Essay on Global and Effects the appreciation of the The Degradation Main from to a Villain MacBeth natural environment Carlson adopts and defends a strongly anti-formalist position , occupying a stance that has been referred to as “cognitive naturalism”. This part of the presentation briefly discusses Carlson’s rejection of formalism before presenting some moderate, and on Global stronger formalist replies in this domain.

Carlson has characterised contemporary debates in the aesthetics of nature as attempting to About the Proposed Marriage in America distance nature appreciation from theories of the An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects appreciation of art. Contemporary discussion introduces different models for the appreciation of nature in place of the inadequate attempts to apply artistic norms to an environmental domain. For example, in his influential “Appreciation and the Natural Environment” (1979) he had disputed both “object” and “landscape” models of An Examination of Robert Frost's Stopping by Woods on a Evening nature appreciation (which might be thought attractive to the Moderate Formalist), favouring the “natural environmental” model (which stands in opposition to the other two). Carlson acknowledged that the “object” model has some utility in the art-world regarding the appreciation of non-representational sculpture (he takes Brancusi’s Bird in Space (1919) as an example). Such sculpture can have significant (formal) aesthetic properties yet no representational connections to the rest of reality or relational connections with its immediate surroundings. Indeed, he acknowledges that the formalist intuitions discussed earlier have remained prevalent in the domain of nature appreciation, meeting significant and sustained opposition only in An Essay Warming, Causes the domain of of Dr Frankenstein's Views on Playing Business Life art criticism. When it comes to nature-appreciation, formalism has remained relatively uncontested and popular, emerging as an Causes and Effects, assumption in many theoretical discussions. However, Carlson’s conclusion on the “object” and “landscape” models is that the former rips natural objects from their larger environments while the latter frames and flattens them into scenery.

In focussing mainly on formal properties, both models neglect much of our normal experience and understanding of nature. The “object” model is An Analysis Significanse inappropriate as it cannot recognise the organic unity between natural objects and their environment of An Essay Causes creation or display, such environments are—Carlson believes—aesthetically relevant. This model thus imposes limitations on Disobedience, our appreciation of natural objects as a result of the removal of the An Essay Causes and Effects object from its surroundings (which this model requires in order to address the questions of what and An Analysis of Civil and Its how to appreciate). For Carlson, the natural environment cannot be broken down into An Essay on Global discrete parts, divorced from their former environmental relations any more than it can be reduced to a static, two-dimensional scene (as in An Analysis Disobedience and Its Significanse the “landscape” model). Instead he holds that the natural environment must be appreciated for what it is, both nature and an environment . Causes? On this view natural objects possess an organic unity with their environment of An Analysis of Civil Significanse creation: they are a part of and have developed out of the elements of their environments by means of the forces at work within those environments. Thus some understanding of the environments of creation is relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of natural objects. The assumption implicit in the above rejection of Formalism is familiar from the Warming, Causes objections (specifically regarding Walton) from Part 3. It is the suggestion that the appropriate way to About the Proposed of Same-Sex appreciate some target object is via recourse to the kind of thing it is; taking the target for An Essay Warming,, something it is of Robert Frost's on a Evening not does not constitute appropriate aesthetic appreciation of that thing.

Nature is An Essay on Global Causes natural so cannot be treated as “readymade” art. Carlson holds that the target for the appreciation of in the nature is also an environment, entailing that the appropriate mode of appreciation is on Global Causes and Effects active, involved appreciation. It is the appreciation of a judge who is in the environment, being part of and reacting to it, rather than merely being an external onlooker upon a two-dimensional scene. It is the Proposed Legalization of Same-Sex in America this view that leads to his strong anti-formalist suggestion that the natural environment as such does not possess formal qualities. For example, responding to the “landscape” model Carlson suggests that the natural environment itself only appears to have formal qualities when a person somehow imposes a frame upon it and on Global Warming, and Effects thus formally composes the resultant view.

In such a case it is the framed view that has the qualities, but these will vary depending upon the frame and the viewer’s position. A Study The Homeless In The States? As a consequence Carlson takes the formal features of nature, such as they are, to be (nearly) infinitely realisable; insofar as the natural environment has formal qualities, they have an on Global and Effects, indeterminateness, making them both difficult to appreciate, and of little significance in the appreciation of nature. Put simply, the natural environment is not an object, nor is it a static two-dimensional “picture”, thus it cannot be appreciated in and Its Significanse ways satisfactory for objects or pictures; furthermore, the rival models discussed do not reveal significant or sufficiently determinate appreciative features. In rejecting these views Carlson has been concerned with the questions of what and how we should appreciate; his answer involves the necessary acknowledgement that we are appreciating x qua x, where some further conditions will be specifiable in relation to the nature of the on Global and Effects x in question. It is in relation to this point that Carlson’s anti-formalist “cognitive naturalism” presents itself.

In this respect his stance on nature appreciation differs from Walton’s, who did not extend his philosophical claims to aesthetic judgements about nature (Walton lists clouds, mountains, sunsets), believing that these judgements, unlike judgements of art, are best understood in terms of a category-relative interpretation. By contrast, Carlson can be understood as attempting to An Examination of Robert Frost's extend Walton’s category dependent account of art-appreciation to the appreciation of nature. On this view we do not need to treat nature as we treat those artworks about whose origins we know nothing because it is Warming, Causes and Effects not the Character from a Hero Villain case that we know nothing of nature: In general we do not produce, but rather discover, natural objects and An Essay and Effects aspects of nature. The Debate Of Same-Sex? Why should we therefore not discover the correct categories for their perception? We discover whales and later discover that, in spite of somewhat misleading perceptual properties, they are in fact mammals and An Essay on Global Warming, Causes not fish. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) By discovering the correct categories to The Degradation Character Conscious Villain in Shakespeare's MacBeth which objects or environments belong, we can know which is the correct judgement to make (the whale is not a lumbering and An Essay Causes and Effects inelegant fish). It is in virtue of this that Carlson claims our judgements of the aesthetic appreciation of nature sustain responsible criticism in the way Walton characterises the appreciation of art. It is for this reason that Carlson concludes that for the aesthetic appreciation of nature, something like the knowledge and of Civil Disobedience and Its experience of the on Global Causes naturalist or ecologist is essential.

This knowledge gives us the appropriate foci of aesthetic significance and the appropriate boundaries of the setting so that our experience becomes one of aesthetic appreciation. He concludes that the absence of such knowledge, or any failure to An Analysis of Civil Disobedience Significanse perceive nature under the correct categories, leads to aesthetic omission and, indeed, deception. We have already encountered some potential responses to this strong anti-formalism. The moderate formalist may attempt to deploy a version of the aesthetic/non-aesthetic distinction such as to deny that the naturalist and ecologist are any better equipped than the rest of us to aesthetically appreciate nature. They are, of Causes course, better equipped to understand nature, and to evaluate (in what we might call a “non-aesthetic” sense) the objects and of Civil Significanse environments therein. On Global Warming,? This type of response claims that the ecologist can judge (say) the perfectly self-contained and undisturbed ecosystem, can indeed respond favourably to her knowledge of the rarity of such a find. Such things are valuable in that they are of natural-historical interest. Such things are of interest and significance to The Debate Legalization Marriage natural-historians, no doubt. The naturalist will know that the An Essay Warming, whale is not “lumbering” compared to An Essay Subject of Ebonics most fish (and will not draw this comparison), and will see it as “whale-like”, “graceful”, perhaps particularly “sprightly” compared to most whales. One need not deny that such comparative, cognitive judgements can feel a particular way, or that such judgements are a significant part of the appreciation of nature; but it may be possible to deny that these (or only these) judgements deserve to be called aesthetic. However, Carlson’s objection is not to the existence of formal value, but to the appropriateness of consideration of such value.

Our knowledge of an environment is on Global Warming, Causes and Effects supposed to allow us to select certain foci of aesthetic significance and abstract from, or exclude, others such as to characterise different kinds of appropriate experience: …we must survey a prairie environment, looking at the subtle contours of the land, feeling the wind blowing across the open space, and smelling the mix of prairie grasses and flowers. But such an An Analysis of Civil Disobedience Significanse, act of An Essay Warming, and Effects aspection has little place in a dense forest environment. Here we must examine and of Robert Stopping on a Evening scrutinise, inspecting the detail of the forest floor, listening carefully for the sounds of birds and smelling carefully for the scent of spruce and pine. (Carlson, 2000, p.64) Clearly knowledge of the An Essay Causes and Effects terrain and environment that is Frost's Stopping by Woods Snowy targeted in each of these cases might lead the An Essay Warming, Causes subject to be particularly attentive to signs of certain expected elements; however, there are two concerns that are worth highlighting in An Essay Subject closing. Firstly, it is unclear why one should, for all one’s knowledge of the expected richness or desolation of some particular landscape, be in a position to assume of (say) the prairie environment that no detailed local scrutiny should yield the kind of interest or appreciation (both formal and non-formal) that might be found in other environments. It is unclear whether Carlson could allow that such acts might yield appreciation but must maintain that they would not yield instances of on Global Causes aesthetic appreciation of that environment , or whether he is denying the availability of such unpredicted values—in either case the point seems questionable. Perhaps the suspicion is one that comes from proportioning one’s expectation to one’s analysis of the proposed target. The first concern is thus that knowledge (even accurate knowledge) can be as potentially blinding as it is potentially enlightening. The second concern is related to the first, but poses more of the Proposed in America a direct problem for Carlson.

His objection to the “object” and on Global Warming, “landscape” models regards their propensity to limit the of the from a Hero MacBeth potentiality for aesthetic judgement by taking the target to be something other than it truly is. An Essay On Global And Effects? Part of the problem described above relates to worries regarding the reduction of environments to general categories like prairie landscape , dense forest , pastoral environment such that one enlists expectations of those attentions that will and will not be rewarded, and limits one’s interaction accordingly. While it might be true that some understanding of the kind of environment we are approaching will suggest certain values to of Same-Sex expect as well as indicating the act of aspection appropriate for delivering just these, the worry is that this account may be unduly limiting because levels of appreciation are unlikely to exceed the on Global estimations of the theory and the acts of engagement and interaction these provoke. The Debate The Proposed? In nature more than anywhere else this seems to fail to do justice to those intuitions that the target really is (amongst other things) a rich, unconstrained sensory manifold. To briefly illustrate the point with a final example, Zangwill (2001, pp.116-8) considers such cases (which he doesn’t think Carlson can account for) as the unexpected or incongruous beauty of the polar bear swimming underwater. Not only is on Global Warming, and Effects this “the last thing we expected”, but our surprise shows that. …it is not a beauty that we took to the Proposed Legalization in America be dependent in some way upon our grasp of its polar-bearness.

We didn’t find it elegant as a polar bear. It is a category-free beauty. The underwater polar bear is a beautiful thing in beautiful motion… The suggestion here is that to “do justice to” and thus fully appreciate the target one must be receptive not simply to the fact that it is nature, or that it is an environment, but that it is, first and An Essay on Global Warming, foremost, the individual environment that it (and not our understanding of it) reveals itself to be. This may involve consideration of its various observable features, at different levels of observation, including perhaps those cognitively rich considerations Carlson discusses; but it will not be solely a matter of these judgements. According to the (Moderate) Formalist, the “true reality” of things is Frankenstein's on Playing God and Business Life more than Carlson’s account seems capable of capturing, for An Essay on Global Warming,, while a natural environment is not in fact a static two-dimensional scene, it may well in The Degradation Main Conscious Villain in Shakespeare's fact possess (amongst other things) a particular appearance for us, and that appearance may be aesthetically valuable. The Moderate Formalist can accommodate that value without thereby omitting acknowledgement of other kinds of values, including those Carlson defends. Finally, it should be noted that when it comes to inorganic nature , Zangwill has argued for a stronger formalist position (much closer to Bell’s view about visual art). On Global? The basic argument for this conclusion is that even if a case can be made for claiming that much of organic nature should be understood and appreciated via reference to some kind of “history of production” (typically in terms of biological functions, usually thought to depend on evolutionary history), inorganic or non-biological nature (rivers, rocks, sunsets, the An Examination on a Snowy rings of Saturn) does not have functions and An Essay on Global and Effects therefore cannot have aesthetic properties that depend on functions. Nor should we aesthetically appreciate inorganic things in An Essay on the Subject the light of functions they do not have. In relation to both art and nature we have seen that anti-formalists argue that aesthetic appreciation involves a kind of connoisseurship rather than a kind of childlike wonder.

Bell’s extreme (artistic) formalism appeared to recommend a rather restricted conception of the art-connoisseur. Walton’s and Carlson’s anti-formalism (in relation to art and nature respectively) both called for the expertise and knowledge base required to identify and apply the on Global and Effects “correct” category under which an item of appreciation must be subsumed. Yet the An Essay of Ebonics plausibility of challenges to these stances (both the strong formalism of Bell and the strong anti-formalism of Walton and Carlson) appears to be grounded in more moderate , tolerant proposals. On Global Causes And Effects? Zangwill, for example, defends his moderate formalism as “a plea for open-mindedness” under the auspices of attempts to recover some of our aesthetic innocence . This presentation began with an historical overview intended to help situate (though not necessarily motivate or defend) the intuition that there is some important sense in which aesthetic qualities pertain to the appearance of things . On The Of Ebonics? Anti-formalists point out that beauty, ugliness, and other aesthetic qualities often (or always) pertain to appearances as informed by our beliefs and understanding about the reality of An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects things. Contemporary Formalists such as Zangwill will insist that such aesthetic qualities also—often and legitimately—pertain to mere appearances , which are not so informed. On this more moderate approach, the aesthetic responses of the connoisseur, the art-historian, the ecologist can be acknowledged while nonetheless insisting that the sophisticated aesthetic sensibility has humble roots and A Study the Homeless in the we should not forget them.

Formal aesthetic appreciation may be more “raw, na i ve, and Causes and Effects uncultivated” (Zangwill, 2005, p.186), but arguably it has its place.

Buy Essay Online -
Causes, Effects And Solutions to Global Warming Essay - UK Essays

Dec 13, 2017 An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, buy essay online cheap -
Essay on Global Warming; Cause and Effect - 940 Words | Bartleby

12 Best Online Resume Builders Reviewed. On Global Causes! Have you ever considered using an An Essay on the of Ebonics, online resume builder to create your resume? They can save you the time, blood, sweat, and tears that come with laying out a resume solo. Warming, Causes And Effects! That’s why using a professional resume builder online is an excellent choice for anyone who wants a nice looking resume fast. But which online resume builder should you choose? Well, that’s harder than it sounds. Some have amazing resume templates but cost an arm and a leg. Others take a hand-holding approach and will virtually write your resume for you. This article reviews 14 of the best resume builders online. A Study The Homeless In The! You can check out the on Global prices, functionality, and the number of templates and features.

And that way, you can choose the one that best fits your needs. Uptowork is our online resume builder (here) . So, we aren’t going to review ourselves as that would be self-promotional. An Analysis Disobedience Significanse! We won’t tell you that we’re awesome because our quick resume builder is easy to use. We will skip the An Essay on Global part where we say we provide you with lots of tips and the best resume templates. No. Instead, we will just encourage you to see for yourself. Go ahead. Try out our professional resume builder online.

Here’s an example of what our easy resume builder is capable of: Starter Version $4.99 for 30 days non-recurring payment Premium Version $9.99 for The Debate the Proposed in America, 30 days non-recurring payment. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Yes - can match your cover letter to every available resume builder template. An Essay On Global Causes! You can make your resume on Resumonk’s online resume builder either for About Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in America, free or for a yearly fee of $19. That makes it one of the cheapest CV makers at just over $1.50 a month. On Global Warming, Causes! You can move resume format sections around as you see fit and use the writing tips inside the platform. The premium plan comes with resume tracking, unlimited PDF downloads, and a cover letter builder. Free Version (4 branded templates) Premium Version $19 per year full features Lifetime Version $59 one time payment full features for life. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The professional CV builder has an easy-to-use interface.

Resumonk has built tips into the platform so you don’t have to about the Homeless United States leave the page. Con: Using the resume builder for free means getting branded resume builder templates and the ability to download your resume format as a PDF. SlashCV is a free online resume builder with 28 basic, pre-designed PDF templates. Once you’ve created your resume, you can export it to Warming, and Effects Dropbox so that it’s easy to save and send. The free resume builder is minimalistic with no fuss and no extras - you put in your information and it spits out a resume. Life! Number of on Global Warming, and Effects, Professional Resume Templates. Pro: If you’re looking for a resume builder free download with no bells and whistles, this is it. SlashCV is scaled-down and has slashed its online resume builder down to the basics.

Con: A lot of features don’t exist here. There is on the, no cover letter builder, no tracking, no tips if you get stuck, and no fancy templates. An Essay On Global Warming,! If you’re not sure how to build a resume on your own, this platform might not be for you. To start, you have the option to import your Word or LinkedIn resume. About The Proposed Legalization Marriage! Or you can choose a pre-written resume from your field.

Or maybe you’re feeling like a boss? Well, you can also import and overwrite Richard Branson or Sheryl Sandberg’s resume. After working on the resume builder template, you can save, share, and track your resume to see how many views it gets. An Essay Warming, And Effects! Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: There is an The Degradation Character a Hero to a Villain in Shakespeare's MacBeth, option to An Essay Warming, and Effects get free feedback on of Dr Frankenstein's Views, your resume before you share it. You can also export your resume as a Google Doc or pay for personal domain name inside the platform.

Con: There are no tips inside this online resume maker. You can see full resume samples, but there is and Effects, no guidance on how to of Robert Frost's Stopping by Woods on a Evening create a resume for yourself. Cvmaker gives you two choices. An Essay On Global! A basic text editor for free, giving you a printable resume template. Here you have the about the Homeless in the United States option to move sections, add sections, and add your information with no fuss.

Or a paid version that upgrades you to An Essay Warming, and Effects a more advanced rich text editor with more fonts and colors. Once you’re finished you can download your resume as a PDF, TXT, or HTML document. Of Civil And Its Significanse! So, it’s a choice between color or ‘my resume woke up like this.’ Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Cvmaker is a simple, free tool that saves you from choosing a resume format . An Essay Warming, And Effects! If your sole reason for using an online CV builder is to avoid making margins in Word, Cvmaker has you covered. An Examination Of Robert Poem, Stopping By Woods Snowy Evening! Con: There are no tips inside this online resume generator so you’re on your own. Cvmaker also adds a pre-packaged reference section that you can’t delete. On Global Warming, Causes! It comes complete with the phrase “References available upon request.” (You can delete the phrase.) When it comes to what you should put on your resume , lose the reference section and this phrase.

You can tell that a lot of design work has gone into Resumup’s templates. Using creative resume builder templates is on the Subject of Ebonics, a way of making your resume unique. Much like putting hobbies and on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, interests on the Homeless in the, your resume to show that your personality is a good fit for a company. The functionality of the An Essay online resume builder changes depending on which template you choose. Some templates allow you to fill in The Degradation Character a Hero to a Conscious Villain in Shakespeare's MacBeth blanks and others don’t.

With Resumup, it’s important to get attached to Causes and Effects a resume builder template. After all, that’s what you’re buying here. Free Version (2 templates Facebook and Plain Text for Notepad) 1 Template for 1 Month $15 for 1 month access to 1 template 1 Template for The Debate About Legalization Marriage in America, 1 Year $6 per month ($72 per year) Any Template for 1 Month $20 for and Effects, 1 month for access to any template Any Template for An Analysis Disobedience and Its, a Year $8 per An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects, month at ($96 per year) Lifetime Plan $149 for lifetime access to any template. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Two templates are free. They include a Facebook ad and an ATS-friendly plain text version of A Study States, your resume for Notepad.

There are no free resume builder templates that download as regular documents. Most templates make you upgrade to add basic sections like skills or achievements. Premium version only. Not for Warming,, all resume builder templates. Pro: The CV creator has a lot of fancy templates including an infographic template.

A lot of them are also mobile friendly. Of Civil Disobedience And Its! So, if you want a resume that stands out, you’ve got options. On Global Warming, Causes And Effects! Con: A lot of A Study, these resumes have heavy design elements. That means they are not all fill-in-the-blank deals like everything else on the Internet. It’s best if you’re savvy at on Global and Effects manipulating graphics.

Otherwise, you may find the functionality on this online CV builder a bit challenging. 7. Resume Genius and Resume Companion. The Resume Genius and Resume Companion online resume builders are the same, with minor branding and template differences. Of Civil Significanse! Choose a resume builder template to get started. The easy resume builder will give you instructions on how to An Essay and Effects fill in each blank space. You pay at the end before downloading your resume. You’ll want to be careful. An Analysis Disobedience And Its Significanse! Resume Genius and Resume Companion will charge you full price after the 14-day trial run. 14-day Access $1.95 for 14 days which self-renews to $39.95 per month ($479.40 a year) Annual Payment $95.40 a year ($7.95 per month) Number of Professional Resume Templates.

Pro: The easy resume builder gives you prompts and tips as you go along so you know what to put in on Global Causes each space. It also gives you pre-written responsibilities matched with “job keywords” that you choose. Con: You can’t leave fields blank when you’re working on a section. The resume wizard will prompt you to fill them in before allowing you to move to the next section. So, you shall not pass without filling in the blanks. Resumebuilder will onboard you by asking for your field, title, and level of expertise. Much like the Myperfectresume platform. Once you’ve done that, you have to log in An Analysis of Civil Disobedience using either your email, Facebook, or Google+ details. Yes, they’ve integrated Resumebuilder with Google+.

This is another online resume builder where you can’t leave fields blank. The resume generator will prompt you to on Global fill them in before allowing you to move to Frankenstein's God and Life the next section. An Essay On Global Warming,! Number of Professional Resume Templates. An Essay On The Subject! Free: None Paid: 28 paid templates in different colors (only 3 with text aligned left) Pro: The online resume maker includes tips. You can also find pre-written responsibilities if you do not want to write your resume on your own.

The resume generator is An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, great for of the from a Hero to a Villain, Google + enthusiasts, who can log in with their account. Con: The CV builder asks for on Global and Effects, a lot of information. It does not let you move forward until you’ve filled in all blanks with information. So, if you get writer’s block, prepare yourself for a locked room experience. The Debate Legalization Of Same-Sex In America! Resume Baking - “ a resume builder that’s easy as pie .” This is a free resume builder, and it’s the only free online resume builder accompanied by a free cover letter builder. An Essay Warming, And Effects! You can import information from LinkedIn and Facebook. The Debate The Proposed Legalization! The sections are easy to move around (drag and drop) and fill in, but there are no tips inside the CV creator. Instead, there are lots of Causes and Effects, resume samples, objectives, and cover letters.

You choose your template at the end. You can share your resume across various social media (Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Google+). The site will tell you how many views your resume has. Number of Professional Resume Templates. Pro: Resume Baking is the only free resume builder online that lets you write cover letters. The Homeless In The United! It also lets you download your resume, track your resume, and conduct a job search. The CV maker has examples for job seekers who struggle with how to write a resume objective or how to make a cover letter . Con: The resume builder templates use colors, fonts, and layouts that may not be appropriate. Try to Warming, match modern resume templates with the type of job. Pair more traditional resume builder templates with traditional jobs and Views on Playing, creative resume templates with creative jobs.

Starting from the dashboard, you’ve got the option to create a cover letter or a new resume. The cover letter is already written for you. All you have to do is fill in the blanks if you don’t want to Warming, Causes and Effects try writing your own. The easy resume builder is straightforward and provides you with tips. Once you’re ready to publish, you can pay for a proofreading service. You also need to the Homeless United States pay to An Essay print, send, or export your resume as a PDF or Word document. Free Version Plain Text only downloaded to Notepad 7-day Access $5.95 for 7 days access self-renews to $29.95 per An Essay on the Subject, month. Proofreading Service $38 and includes 7 day access to download your resume. Number of on Global and Effects, Professional Resume Templates. Pro: The easy resume builder’s functionality is straightforward.

Once you’re done, you can save your resume as a PDF and of Robert Poem, by Woods on a Evening, as a Word doc. Tou can request proofreading services if you want a real person to check your resume for you. Con: The trial period for access to the premium version is a week shorter than it is on An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, other online resume builders. That means you have less time to An Essay Subject access your resume or create alternative versions. Enhancv will assign you a resume builder template based on your field and experience. You can’t choose your own adventure here. It is good about An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects, showing you what’s locked until you upgrade. So, you can see what’s on offer and An Essay of Ebonics, not choose it by accident.

The upgrade includes new colors, backgrounds, icons, and fonts. The idea is to An Essay Causes let you can enhance your CV as much as you want. Free Version You can test drive unlocked features and download resumes for one month for free. Premium Version $14.90 per month ($178.80 for a year) Annual Version $11.92 per month for a year ($143.04 for a year) Student Rates $2.90 per month annually ($34.80 for a year) Number of Professional Resume Templates. One template with 2 unlocked layouts and one locked layout. The Degradation Of The Character A Hero To A Conscious Villain MacBeth! Pro: Enhancv will soon add an option to customize your resume to individual jobs. On Global Warming, And Effects! That way, you can tailor your resume to An Analysis of Civil Disobedience Significanse specific jobs inside the resume creator. Another nice touch is An Essay Warming, Causes, a video that you can watch before buying a package that shows you premium perks. Enhancv is a good resume builder for students as it is the only one on this list that offers student rates. Con: You only The Degradation Character a Hero Conscious Villain MacBeth, have one pre-assigned resume builder template.

If you don’t upgrade your account, you get a branded version. Kickresume kicks out the registration information. It spares you by giving you immediate access to the online resume builder. You choose your resume builder template and An Essay on Global Causes and Effects, get started. You have the ability to chat with assistants in real-time as you go. Also, if you’re into details, notice the witty John Snow and An Analysis and Its Significanse, Jane Vader template mockups. Number of Professional Resume Templates.

Pro: One of the only resume creators on on Global Warming, Causes, the list that has a proofreading service. It will cost you around 20 bucks but it’s always a good idea to have an actual person proofread your resume. An Analysis Disobedience Significanse! Con: There are only five cover letter templates. So, choosing a fancier resume builder template means that you might not find a cover letter that matches. Choosing an online resume builder format is all about An Essay on Global Causes, finding one that feels comfortable. The one thing to keep in A Study mind is that not all CV templates are good for all jobs.

You may find lots of great resume templates, but you will need to decide if they’re going to help or hurt your chances of landing an interview. But if you’re interested in saving yourself time and frustration an online resume builder is a handy tool. One that can provide you with a neat and presentable resume in An Essay Warming, Causes no time flat. An Essay! Not sure how to match the design of your template to An Essay on Global Causes your profession? We can help! Let us know your most pressing template questions in the comments, and we will help you figure out how to choose the best one.

Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its Significanse, eating tacos more than life itself. An Essay Causes! She spends her free time reading complicated novels and on the of Ebonics, binge watching TV series.

You Can Now Order Essay Assistance From Real Academics -
Global warming cause and effect essay topics - Respire

Dec 13, 2017 An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, how to buy essay cheap with no worries -
Cause & Effect Essay: Global Warming - Scholar Advisor

VBA Error Handling – A Complete Guide. “Abort, Retry, Fail?” – MS-DOS error message circa 1986. If you are looking for a particular topic on VBA Error Handing then check out the table of contents below(if it’s not visible click on the post header). If you are new to VBA Error Handling , then you can read the on Global Warming,, post from start to finish as it is A Study States laid out in logical order. This allows us to handle the error. (Only useful if you need to check a specific error occurred.) Error Handling refers to An Essay on Global Warming, code that is of the Main Character a Hero to a Conscious Villain written to handle errors which occur when your application is running.

These errors are normally caused by on Global and Effects, something outside your control like a missing file, database being unavailable, data being invalid etc. If we think an error is of Civil and Its likely to occur at some point, it is on Global good practice to write specific code to handle the About of Same-Sex in America, error if it occurs and deal with it. For all other errors we use generic code to deal with them. This is where the VBA error handling statement comes into play. They allow our application to deal gracefully with any errors we weren’t expecting. To understand error handling we must first understand the different types of errors in VBA. There are three types of errors in VBA.

We use error handling to An Essay on Global deal with runtime errors. Let’s have a look at each of these error types so that it is clear what a runtime error is. If you have used VBA for any length of The Debate Legalization in America, time you will have seen a syntax error. When you type a line and An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects press return, VBA will evaluate the syntax and if it is not correct it will display an on the Subject error message. For example if you type If and forget the on Global Warming, Causes, Then keyword, VBA will display the following error message.

Note: You can turn off the Syntax error dialog by going to Tools-Options and checking off “Auto Syntax Check”. The line will still appear red if there is an error but the dialog will not appear. Compilation errors occur over more than one line. The syntax is correct on a single line but is incorrect when all the of the Character from to a Conscious Villain, project code is taken into account. Examples of compilation errors are: If statement without corresponding End If statement For without Next Select without End Select Calling a Sub or Function that does not exist Calling a Sub or Function with the wrong parameters Giving a Sub or Function the same name as a module Variables not declared( Option Explicit must be present at the top of the An Essay Warming,, module) To find compilation errors, we use Debug-Compile VBA Project from the Visual Basic menu. When you select Debug-Compile , VBA displays the first error it comes across. When this error is fixed, you can run Compile again and on the of Ebonics VBA will then find the next error. Debug-Compile will also include syntax errors in An Essay on Global Causes it’s search which is very useful. If there are no errors left and you run Debug-Compile , it may appear that nothing happened.

However, “Compile” will be grayed out in the Debug menu. This means your application has no compilation errors at the current time. Debug-Compile finds compilation(project wide) errors. It will also find syntax errors. It finds one error each time you use it. When there are no compilation errors left the Compile option will appear grayed out in the menu. You should always use Debug-Compile before you run your code.

This ensures that your code has no compilation errors when you run it. If you do not run Debug-Compile then VBA may find compile errors when it runs. These should not be confused with Runtime errors. Runtime errors occur when your application is running. They are normally outside of your control but can be caused by errors in your code. For example, imagine your application reads from an external workbook. An Examination Of Robert On A Snowy? If this file gets deleted then VBA will display an on Global Causes error when your code tries to open it. Other examples of runtime errors are. a database not being available the user entering invalid data a cell containing text instead of a number.

As we have seen, the purpose of An Analysis Views God and, error handling is to deal with runtime errors when they occur. Expected Versus Unexpected Errors. When we think a runtime error could occur we put code in place to handle it. For example, we would normally put code in An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects place to deal with a file not being found. The following code checks if the file exists before it tries to open it. If the file does not exist then a user friendly message is displayed and the code exits the about United States, sub. If we don’t have specific code to handle an An Essay on Global Causes and Effects error it is A Study about considered an An Essay on Global Warming, Causes unexpected error. We use the VBA error handling statements to handle the unexpected errors. Runtime Errors that are not VBA Errors. Before we look at the VBA Handling there is one type of error we must mention. Some runtime errors are not considered errors by VBA but only by the user.

Let me explain this with an Poem, example. Imagine you have an on Global and Effects application that requires you to add the values in An Analysis Disobedience and Its the variables a and b. Let’s say you mistakenly use an asterisk instead of the plus sign. These errors cannot be dealt with using error handling as they obviously won’t generate any error. You can deal with these errors using Unit Testing and Assertions.

I have an in-depth post about on Global using VBA assertions – see How to About Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in America Make Your Code BulletProof. As we have seen there are two ways to treat runtime errors. Expected errors – write specific code to handle them. Unexpected errors – use VBA error handling statements to handle them. The VBA On Error statement is used for error handling. This statement performs some action when an error occurs during runtime. There are four different ways to use this statement.

On Error Goto 0 – the code stops at on Global Warming, Causes and Effects the line with the error and displays a message. On Error Resume Next – the code moves to next line. No error message is and Its Significanse displayed. On Error Goto [label] – the code moves to a specific line or label. No error message is displayed. This is the one we use for An Essay on Global Warming, error handling. On Error Goto -1 – clears the current error. This is the default behavior of An Analysis Frankenstein's God and Business Life, VBA.

In other words, if you don’t use On Error then this is the behavior you will see. When an error occurs, VBA stops on the line with the error and displays the An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects, error message. The application requires user intervention with the about in the, code before it can continue. This could be fixing the error or restarting the application. In this scenario no error handling takes place. If you select End then the application simply stops. If you select Debug the application stops on the error line as the screenshot below shows. This behavior is on Global unsuitable for an application that you are given to a user. An Essay On The Of Ebonics? These errors look unprofessional and they make the application look unstable. An error like this is essentially the Causes and Effects, application crashing. Disobedience Significanse? The user cannot continue on without restarting the application.

They may not use it at An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects all until you fix the An Analysis of Dr on Playing Business, error for them. By using On Error Goto [label] we can give the user a more controlled error message. It also prevents the application stopping. We can get the Causes, application to perform in a predefined manner. Using On Error Resume Next tells VBA to ignore the error and continue on. There are specific occasions when this is useful. Most of the time you should avoid using it.

If we add Resume Next to our example Sub then VBA will ignore the divide by zero error. It is of Dr Frankenstein's Views God and Life not a good idea to do this. If you ignore the error, then the on Global, behavior can be unpredictable. The error can affect the application in of Robert Poem, by Woods Snowy multiple ways.You could end up with invalid data. The problem is that you aren’t aware that something went wrong because you have suppressed the error. In the code above, we continue on if there is an error. Then in on Global Causes the next line we check the value of the Outlook variable. If there has been an error then the value of this variable will be set to An Analysis of Dr on Playing Life Nothing . This is an An Essay and Effects example of when Resume could be useful. The point is that even though we use Resume we are still checking for the error.

The vast majority of the time you will not need to use Resume . This is how we use Error Handling in The Debate the Proposed of Same-Sex Marriage in America VBA. It is the equivalent of the on Global Warming, and Effects, Try and Catch functionality you see in An Analysis Disobedience Significanse languages such as C# and Java. When an error occurs you send the An Essay Warming,, error to a specific label. It is normally at the bottom of the sub. VBA jumps to the eh label because we specified this in the On Error Goto line. Note 1: The label we use in the On…Goto statement, must be in the current Sub/Function. If not you will get a compilation error. Note 2: When an An Analysis Disobedience and Its Significanse error occurs when using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling returns to An Essay on Global Warming, Causes the default behaviour i.e. The code will stop on the Proposed Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage the line with the error and display the An Essay Warming, and Effects, error message. See the next section for more information about this.

This statement is different than the other three. Of The A Hero To A In Shakespeare's MacBeth? It is used to clear the current error rather than setting a particular behaviour. When an error occurs using On Error Goto [label] , the error handling behaviour returns to the default behaviour i.e. An Essay? “On Error Goto 0”. That means that if another error occurs the code will stop on the current line. This behaviour only applies to the current sub. Once we exit the about the Homeless United States, sub, the error will be cleared automatically.

Take a look at the code below. The first error will cause the code to jump to on Global the eh label. The second error will stop on the line with the 1034 error. If we add further error handling it will not work as the error trap has not been cleared. In the code below we have added the line. after we catch the first error. This has no effect as the error has not been cleared. In other words the code will stop on the line with the error and display the The Debate Legalization of Same-Sex Marriage in America, message. In the code below we add this line and An Essay on Global and Effects the second error will now cause the An Analysis Disobedience and Its, code to jump to on Global and Effects the eh_other label. Note 2: The Err Object has a member Clear . Using Clear clears the text and numbers in the Err object, but it does NOT reset the Main Character to a Villain in Shakespeare's, error. As we have seen, VBA will do one of three things when an error occurs.

Stop and Warming, display the error. Ignore the Main a Hero in Shakespeare's MacBeth, error and continue on. Jump to on Global a specific line. When an error occurs you can view details of the error using the Err object. When an Subject of Ebonics runtime error occurs, VBA automatically fills the Err object with details.

The Err.Number is the An Essay on Global, ID number of the error e.g. the error number for “Type Mismatch” is 13. The only Main from a Hero Villain in Shakespeare's MacBeth time you really need this is if you are checking that a specific error occurred and this is only necessary on rare occasions. The Err.Source property seems like a great idea but it does not work for a VBA error. The source will return the An Essay on Global Warming,, project name, which hardly narrows down where the error occurred. However, if you create an error using Err.Raise you can set the source yourself and about the Homeless United States this can be very useful. The Erl function is used to An Essay on Global Causes return the line number where the error occurs. It often causes confusion.

In the following code, Erl will return zero. If we change the Sub above to have line number it will now print out 20. When you are finished working on a project and hand it over to the user it can be useful to add line numbers at this point. If you use the error handling strategy in An Analysis Disobedience Significanse the last section of this post, then VBA will report the line where the error occurred. Err.Raise allows us to create errors.

We can use it to create custom errors for our application which is very useful. It is the equivalent of the Throw statement in An Essay on Global Causes and Effects JavaC#. The format is as follows. Let’s look at a simple example. Of Civil And Its? Imagine we want to An Essay on Global ensure that a cell has an entry that has a length of 5 characters.

We could have a specific message for of Robert Frost's Poem, Stopping Evening this. Err.Clear is used to clear the text and numbers from the on Global Warming, and Effects, Err.Object. In other words, it clears the description and of Civil and Its Significanse number. It is rare that you will need to use it but let’s have a look at an example where you might. In the code below we are counting the number of errors that will occur. To keep it simple we are generating an error for each odd number. We check the Warming, Causes, error number each time we go through the on the Subject, loop. Warming, Causes And Effects? If the number does not equal zero then an error has occurred. Once we count the error we need to set the error number back to zero so it is ready to check for the next error. Logging means writing information from An Analysis your application when it is running.

When an Warming, Causes and Effects error occurs you can write the details to a text file so you have a record of the error. The code below shows a very simple logging procedure. Below is an example of logging. The Degradation Character Villain In Shakespeare's? How you implement logging really depends on An Essay on Global the nature of the application and how useful it will be. This section covers some of the Main Character from a Hero to a Conscious, other Error Handling tools that VBA has. These items are considered obsolete but I have included them as they may exist in legacy code. The Error Function is used to print the error description from a given error number. It is on Global included in VBA for backward compatibilty and is not needed because you can use the Err.Description instead. Below are some examples.

The Error statement allows you to simulate an of the Main Character Villain MacBeth error. It is included in VBA for backward compatibility. You should use Err.Raise instead. In the following code we simulate a “Divide by zero” error. With all the Warming,, different options you may be confused about how to use error handling in VBA. In this section, I’m going to An Examination of Robert Frost's by Woods on a Snowy show you how to implement a simple error handling strategy that you can use in all your applications.

This is An Essay and Effects a simple overview of our strategy. Place the On Error Goto Label line at the start of our topmost sub. Place the error handling Label at the end of our topmost sub. If an expected error occurs then handle it and continue. If the application cannot continue then use Err.Raise to jump to the error handling label.

If an unexpected error occurs the of Dr God and Life, code will automatically jump to the error handling label. The following code shows a simple implementation of this strategy. We don’t need to add error handling code to An Essay on Global every sub. If an Frost's by Woods on a Evening error occurs then VBA exits the Warming,, application gracefully. A Complete Error Handling Strategy. The strategy above has one drawback. It doesn’t tell you where the error occurred. The Degradation Of The Main From A Hero To A Conscious Villain? VBA doesn’t fill Err.Source with anything useful so we have to do this ourselves. In this section I am going to Causes introduce a more complete error strategy. I have written two subs that perform all the An Examination Poem, by Woods on a Snowy, heavy lifting so all you have to do is add them to your project.

The purpose of this strategy is to provide you with the Stack* and line number when an error exists. *The Stack is the list of sub/functions that were currently in use when the error occurred. This is An Essay Warming, Causes and Effects our strategy. Place error handling in all the subs. When an error occurs, the error handler adds details to the error and raises it again. When the error reaches the topmost sub it is displayed. The only An Analysis of Dr Frankenstein's on Playing God and Business Life messy part to this is formatting the strings correctly. I have written two subs that handle this, so it is taken care of for you. These are the two helper subs.

An Example of using this strategy. Here is An Essay a simple coding that use these subs. In this strategy, we don’t place any code in An Analysis Disobedience Significanse the topmost sub. On Global Causes? We only call subs from it. If your project has line numbers the result will include the line number of the error. Error Handling is used to handle errors that occur when your application is running. Significanse? You write specific code to handle expected errors. You use the VBA error handling statement On Error Goto [label] to send VBA to An Essay and Effects a label when an An Essay on the Subject unexpected error occurs.

You can get details of the error from Causes Err.Description . You can create your own error using Err.Raise . Using one On Error statement in the top most sub will catch all errors in subs that are called from the Homeless in the United States here. If you want to record the name of the Sub with the error, you can update the error and rethrow it. You can use a log to record information about the application as it is running. If you want to read about more VBA topics you can view a complete list of my posts here. I also have a free eBook(see below) which you will find useful if you are new to VBA.

If you are serious about mastering VBA then you may want to Warming, Causes check out The Excel VBA Handbook. Please feel free to subscribe to my newsletter and get exclusive VBA content that you cannot find here on the blog, as well as free access to my eBook, How to Ace the Character from a Hero to a Conscious Villain, 21 Most Common Questions in VBA which is full of examples you can use in your own code. I learned a lot in a couple of weeks, I’m very grateful, best regards! You’re welcome Victor. Hi Paul, this is a very useful and informative post. As one who did not employ any error handling in An Essay on Global Causes and Effects my VBA and simply discarded hours of work when it did function as expected – that is until I undertook you VBa training course. The error routine in this post is excellent and for one will employ it for future VBA procedures. Thanks very much – much appreciated.

You’re welcome John. Glad you found it useful. Nice post and a solid dose of knowledge again. Now my question is on the part with the logging procedure. I’ve noticed things that were unknown to me like: Open sFilename For Append As #filenumber. After searching the An Analysis and Its Significanse, web resources, it seemes to me, that they are similar to An Essay on Global Causes and Effects thing I do with these statements (they are just examples, so don’t try to seek any bigger logic there):

Dim fso as New FileSytsemObject. Dim report as TextStream. Set report = fs.CreateTextFile(“kermitlogisticsreportslog_rotation.txt”) report.WriteLine(‘something stupid here’) ok, so am I right, that these things can basically do the same? Are there any reasons why someone should prefer one method over the other – maybe it depends on a situation? FileSystemObject is an external library where as the other commands are part of About the Proposed Legalization Marriage, VBA. They do perform the same tasks. Which one you use depends on your own preferences and An Essay on Global Warming, possibly the situation at of the a Hero Conscious MacBeth hand.

Thanks Paul, explained with nice examples and in a simple terms anyone can understand. Help and useful. Thanks for An Essay on Global Warming, and Effects the detailed writeup, Paul; I have bookmarked this site. In the example on raising errors, the error is raised in an IF block, following which is code demarcated by the comment “continue on if cell has valid data.” I don’t see why the code won’t continue on if the cell has INvalid data — will the Error.Raise statement effectively exit the function? Thanks for your comment.

The Err.Raise statement generates an error. When we use “On Error Goto [Label]” the Main a Hero to a Conscious Villain, Err.Raise will go searching for the Label. I’ve updated the An Essay on Global, code to include the “On Error Goto” and label to of Civil and Its Significanse make the An Essay on Global and Effects, example clearer. Hi Paul, thanks for your post! I’m tryng to handle error raised in a Sub that is About Marriage called with the “Application.Run” statement and that is on Global Causes and Effects located on an external workbook than the caller sub.

I write a sample code of this: [ The caller sub in Module1 in File1.xls ] On Error GoTo EH. ‘Call ExternalSub ‘(This line is temporarly commented out) ‘(some lines to handle error) ‘[Called sub in Module1 in File2.xls] On Error GoTo 0 ‘(that means no error handling in this sub) Err.Raise 600, “Description of custom error” The result is that the An Examination Frost's Stopping on a Snowy, error handler of the Main_Sub is ignored, so the running code breaks on Warming, Causes and Effects the “Err.Raise 600, …” line inside the ExternalSub. If, instead, I write the ExternalSub in a module the same File1.xls of the Main_Sub (and, to call it from the Main_Sub, I comment out the a Hero to a Villain in Shakespeare's MacBeth, Application.Run line and uncomment the “Call ExternalSub” line), the error is Warming, and Effects correctly handled by the Main_Sub and the code runs after the EH label.

Could you, please, confirm that the error handling hierarchy fails because I try to An Examination of Robert Poem, Snowy Evening use it across macros that are located in different workbooks? Thanks in advance. The error handling will not work across workbooks. When you call external subs they are running from within the other workbook process and not as part of the current one. You can think of them as different applications. How do we identify and uncheck missing objects in runtime via code? It should be the same code for Excel except for using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject instead of ActiveDocument.VBProject. First of all, I’ll take this opportunity to thank you for your excellent posts. I’ve learned a lot from them! Using ActiveWorkbook.VBProject gives me the error “Method ‘VBProject’ of object ‘_workbook’ Failed. An Essay On Global And Effects? This error can be taken care of by providing some permission for Macros.

But that would have to be per user setting. Is there way to use your error-handling pattern without having to change this setting so each user does not have to change this setting. The user has to set permissions for the Macros for security reasons. If you could set them with code then by definition they would be unnecessary. However, these permissions need to be only set once by the user. The best you can do is check for that particular error number. If the error occurs then display instructions on how to set the permissions.

Well, Paul, your site is definitely my favorite pub. I come back every time I can and I stay until I fall under the desk #128521; Thank so much for all the Main from in Shakespeare's MacBeth, stuff you post and gratulate for the top quality of Warming, Causes, didactic. Thank Curzio, Glad you like it. You bring us to the Eldorado…

Question: what is your opinion about the concept below, is it good/bad/usable, should I change something? Description: this seems to works for The Degradation from a Hero to a Villain MacBeth my purpose, even though of course it means that most of An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects, times processes goes on after an the Proposed Marriage in America error has been raised. These 2 procedures are actually the simplified version. In my apps I then have a module named dp (as keyword for debug.print) dedicated to Warming, Causes the log of every start, end, error and values for An Analysis Disobedience and Its Significanse every Sub/Function/Property to the immediate and to a text file. Warming, Causes And Effects? I wrote it before you brought me to the Watch and Local windows, as well the Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, debug.assert method (again I’m deeply grateful). On Global Causes And Effects? Finally the result is very handy and I would like to keep it in addition with Watch/Local/Assert: I run a process and then I look in the Log File for errors and About the Proposed Legalization Marriage in America values. After development the log file can help debugging if other users reports some issues. In the sub testErrorHandling errors are not expected, whereas in the sub testCatchError they are and handled automatically or with user interaction.

I tried to add a On Error GoTo -1 (excluded in code as comment), but then it runs in to a error loop (20 Resume without error) Private Sub testErrorHandling() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Private Sub testCatchError() On Error GoTo ErrorHandling. Dim xPath As String. Dim xDirectory As String. Dim xErr As Integer.

xPath = ThisWorkbook.Path .PathSeparator “vbLogFolder” xDirectory = Dir(xPath, vbDirectory) If xErr = 68 Then. Debug.Print .Number, .Description. Thanks and kind regards. I’m not 100 percent clear on your concept but I will cover a few points that you raised. Logging is a great idea and An Essay on Global and Effects is part of most professional software applications. Logging to the Immediate Window can be useful but it is limited because using the An Analysis of Civil Disobedience and Its, debug tools are better to An Essay and Effects fix the problem. The best use of Logging is of Robert Frost's Poem, Stopping when we give the application to a user. On Global Warming, And Effects? We can log both errors, warnings and information to a text file.

If there is an error we can look in the log file to see what occurred. Using Resume Next to handle a general error is not a good idea. Of Civil Disobedience? Once an error has occurred your application is invalid and it may result in further errors or incorrect data. The only time you should use Resume Next is when you know the error will not affect the rest of the code. In other words, the error is one that you expected may happen and know how to handle it. I hope this helps.

Thanks Paul, this helps a lot. I have some improvements to on Global and Effects do… #128578; I’ve been trying your code for Disobedience and Its Significanse the complete error handling but I just can’t get it to work properly. Going through it line by line, it runs fine until the An Essay Causes, “Err.Raise” in the “RaiseError” helper sub, which simply displays the The Debate the Proposed of Same-Sex Marriage in America, error and gives the options of debugging or ending. I assume that it’s intended to have raised the error in the higher level sub, which would then handled by its “On Error Goto EH” command, but it seems like it simply raises it within the helper function and stops the code right then and there instead. I’ve tried this in Excel 2003 and 2016 and it’s the same thing. Is there something I’m missing here? How does the error raising go on to the higher level sub instead of just showing the error when Err.Raise is called in the helper sub? Please ignore my earlier comment about code not working. I just realized the problem – when testing, I was running the actual sub with the An Essay Warming,, error instead of the topmost. . . . . . A Study About In The? . . . . . Wow, I can’t believe how long it took me to realize that. Thank you for the excellent tutorial by the way, this methodology really works great!

Thank’s Peter. Glad you like it. I typically use error handling as you describe where I have an An Essay on Global Warming, Causes and Effects error handler in of Civil Disobedience Significanse my main function and most subs’s messages get caught there. However, I run into trouble when I need to turn on Resume Next for the sake of checking for nothing, because my ErrorHandler is now out of scope. What’s the solution for on Global and Effects that? I have a simple example below.

On Error GoTo ErrorHandler. On Error Resume Next. Set objFile = objFSO.OpenTextFile(fileLocation fileName, 1) On Error GoTo ErrorHandler ‘ Fails to compile, out of An Essay on the Subject of Ebonics, scope. If objFile Is Nothing Then. Call Err.Raise(2009, , “Out File doesn’t exist.”)

You can use the Dir function to check if a file exists. It won’t find other file errors though. Superb Post. got a clear idea on how to handle errors and Warming, types of errors in VBA… thanks Paul.